The Princeton Guide to Evolution

Editor: Losos, Jonathan B.
Publication Year: 2013
Publisher: Princeton University Press

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-0-69-114977-6
Category: Science - Biology
Image Count: 237
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The Princeton Guide to Evolution is a comprehensive, concise, and authoritative reference to the major subjects and key concepts in evolutionary biology, from genes to mass extinctions.

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Table of Contents

  • Section I Introduction
  • What Is Evolution?
  • 1. What is evolution?
  • 2. Evolution: Pattern versus process
  • 3. Evolution: More than changes in the gene pool
  • 4. In the light of evolution
  • 5. Critiques and the evidence for evolution
  • 6. The pace of evolution
  • 7. Evolution, humans, and society
  • The History of Evolutionary Thought
  • 1. Species and the origins of diversity in the ancient world
  • 2. The eighteenth century and ideas of the transmutation of species
  • 3. The rise of natural history
  • 4. The development of geology in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
  • 5. Ideas of transmutation of species before Darwin
  • 6. Charles Darwin and On the Origin of Species (1809-1859)
  • 7. Post-Darwinian controversies and the “eclipse of Darwinism,” 1890-1920
  • 8. Heredity and evolution: Mendelism, Darwinism, and the “evolutionary synthesis”
  • 9. Evolutionary theory in the era of molecular biology
  • The Evidence for Evolution
  • 1. The fossil record
  • 2. Comparative biology
  • 3. Biogeography
  • 4. Evolution in action
  • 5. Evolution as fact and theory
  • From DNA to Phenotypes
  • 1. What is a gene?
  • 2. Descriptions of genetic variation
  • 3. A multiplicity of forms of inheritance
  • Section II Phylogenetics and the History of Life
  • Preface
  • Interpretation of Phylogenetic Trees
  • 1. Introduction to phylogenetic trees
  • 2. Misreading trees with species-poor lineages
  • 3. Reading trees correctly: Ancestral state reconstruction
  • 4. Understanding the process of evolution: We are all cousins
  • Phylogenetic Inference
  • 1. Logical and statistical inference
  • 2. The parsimony approach
  • 3. Likelihood-based approaches
  • 4. Distance-based approaches
  • 5. Computational aspects of tree estimation
  • 6. Statistical support for clades
  • 7. Bayesian inference
  • Molecular Clock Dating
  • 1. The molecular evolutionary clock
  • 2. Molecular clock dating
  • 3. Testing the molecular clock
  • 4. Statistical methods for divergence time estimation
  • 5. Maximum likelihood estimation of divergence times
  • 6. Bayesian estimation of divergence times
  • 7. Fossil calibrations
  • 8. Relaxed clocks and prior model of rate drift
  • 9. Perspectives
  • Historical Biogeography
  • 1. Early developments
  • 2. Cladistic biogeography
  • 3. Inferring ancestral areas
  • 4. A fresh look at old patterns
  • 5. Beyond the standoff
  • Phylogeography
  • 1. Direct interpretation of single-locus gene genealogies
  • 2. Comparative phylogeography
  • 3. Lineage sorting and the coalescent
  • 4. Multilocus gene genealogies
  • 5. Testing models of population history
  • Concepts in Character Macroevolution: Adaptation, Homology, and Evolvability
  • 1. Darwinism and character variation
  • 2. Evolutionary analysis of character homology
  • 3. Testing hypotheses of character adaptation
  • 4. Character evolvability
  • Using Phylogenies to Study Phenotypic Evolution: Comparative Methods and Tests of Adaptation
  • 1. Phylogeny and the comparative method
  • 2. Ancestral state reconstruction
  • 3. Model-based inferences of trait evolution
  • 4. Analysis of multiple traits: Correlated evolution and phylogenetic tests of adaptation
  • 5. Trait evolution and lineage diversification
  • 6. Accuracy and confidence in ancestral inferences
  • 7. Future directions for comparative methods
  • Taxonomy in a Phylogenetic Framework
  • 1. Taxonomy in historical context
  • 2. Incorporating an evolutionary perspective
  • 3. Species in a phylogenetic framework
  • 4. Concerns about and misunderstanding of phylogenetic nomenclature
  • 5. The future of phylogenetic nomenclature
  • The Fossil Record
  • 1. Fossilization and taphonomy
  • 2. The nature of the fossil record
  • 3. Marine diversity in the Phanerozoic
  • 4. The value of the fossil record
  • The Origin of Life
  • 1. Defining life in evolutionary terms
  • 2. Plausible sites for the origin of life
  • 3. Conditions required for life's origin
  • 4. Self-assembly of boundary membranes and compartments
  • 5. Prebiotic polymerization reactions
  • 6. How could evolution begin?
  • 7. Evolution in the laboratory
  • Evolution in the Prokaryotic Grade
  • 1. What is a prokaryote?
  • 2. Archaea and Bacteria
  • 3. Rooting the tree of life
  • 4. Symbiosis, syntrophy, and eukaryotic origins
  • 5. Horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of prokaryotes
  • 6. Darwin's coral of life
  • 7. Biased gene transfer
  • 8. Sex, recombination, and procreation
  • 9. Transfer of genes within and between groups
  • 10. Biochemical innovation as a result of horizontal gene transfer
  • Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes
  • 1. Origin of eukaryotes
  • 2. Timing of the origin and diversification of eukaryotes
  • 3. A brief history of eukaryotic classification
  • 4. Major clades of eukaryotes
  • 5. Distribution of photosynthesis in eukaryotes
  • 6. Extant symbioses
  • 7. Genome diversity in microbial eukaryotes
  • 8. Origins of multicellularity
  • Major Events in the Evolution of Land Plants
  • 1. Phylogenetic framework
  • 2. Origin and diversification of early land plants
  • 3. Origin and diversification of vascular plants
  • 4. Origin and diversification of seed plants
  • 5. Origin and diversification of angiosperms
  • 6. Innovation in the land plant body
  • 7. Innovation in land plant reproduction
  • 8. Coevolution with animals
  • 9. Patterns of extinction
  • Major Events in the Evolution of Fungi
  • 1. Fungi in the tree of life
  • 2. Losses of flagella and diversity of the “basal fungal lineages”
  • 3. Evolution of the dikaryon and multicellular fruiting bodies
  • 4. Evolution of decayers and plant pathogens
  • 5. Evolution of mycorrhizae, lichens, and endophytes
  • 6. Evolution of animal pathogens and mutualists
  • 7. The age of Fungi
  • Origin and Early Evolution of Animals
  • 1. The Cambrian explosion and the origin of animal phyla
  • 2. Animal phylogeny
  • 3. Multicellularity and the origin of sponges (phylum Porifera)
  • 4. The origin of the nervous system and the evolution of sensory structures in Cnidaria
  • 5. The origins of Bilateria and the phylogenetic placement of Ctenophora, Acoela, Myxozoa, and Placozoa
  • 6. Animal diversity
  • Major Events in the Evolution of Arthropods
  • 1. Arthropod origins
  • 2. Phylogenetic framework
  • 3. Colonization of land
  • 4. Evolution of flight
  • 5. Complete metamorphosis
  • 6. Life history specializations
  • Major Features of Tetrapod Evolution
  • 1. Tetrapod ancestry
  • 2. The fish-tetrapod transition
  • 3. Amniote origins
  • 4. Synapsids
  • 5. Diapsids: Lepidosaurs and their relatives
  • 6. Diapsids: Archosaurs
  • Human Evolution
  • 1. Origin of the hominins
  • 2. Early Homo
  • 3. Neanderthals and the origin of modern humans
  • 4. Recent human evolution
  • Section III Natural Selection and Adaptation
  • Natural Selection, Adaptation, and Fitness: Overview
  • 1. Natural selection explains adaptation
  • 2. Concepts are tools
  • 3. Definitions and complications
  • 4. Fitness and units of selection
  • 5. Connecting selection to fitness in hierarchies
  • 6. Polished adaptations or rough history
  • 7. Adaptationist storytelling
  • 8. How to recognize selection and adaptation
  • 9. Can we do without these concepts? Absolutely not.
  • Units and Levels of Selection
  • 1. The group selection controversy
  • 2. Kin selection, inclusive fitness, and the gene's-eye view
  • 3. Species selection
  • 4. Major evolutionary transitions
  • Theory of Selection in Populations
  • 1. An example of natural selection
  • 2. Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection
  • 3. Patterns of selection
  • 4. Components of selection
  • 5. Maintenance of polymorphism
  • 6. Selection and other processes
  • 7. Synthesis and conclusions
  • Kin Selection and Inclusive Fitness
  • 1. The problem of altruism
  • 2. Inclusive fitness and Hamilton's rule
  • 3. Kinds of social selection
  • 4. Comparative evidence in social insects
  • 5. Experimental evidence in microbes
  • 6. Kin recognition
  • 7. Challenges to kin selection
  • Phenotypic Selection on Quantitative Traits
  • 1. How selection works
  • 2. Selection is a statistical process
  • 3. The genetic response to selection
  • 4. Modes of selection
  • 5. The multidimensional phenotype
  • 6. Indirect selection and misleading covariances
  • 7. Genetic correlations and correlated response to selection
  • Responses to Selection: Experimental Populations
  • 1. Will adaptation evolve?
  • 2. How fast will adaptation evolve?
  • 3. Does sex accelerate adaptation?
  • 4. Is adaptation gradual or saltational?
  • 5. What is the limit to adaptation?
  • 6. Is adaptation based on gain or loss of function?
  • 7. Is adaptation repeatable?
  • 8. Is adaptation predictable?
  • 9. Is adaptation reversible?
  • 10. How do ancestry, selection, and chance contribute to adaptation?
  • 11. How can selection maintain diversity?
  • 12. What limits the extent of specialization?
  • Responses to Selection: Natural Populations
  • 1. Measuring selection in natural populations
  • 2. Strength and patterns of phenotypic selection
  • 3. Microevolution in natural populations
  • 4. Local adaptation and population divergence
  • 5. Limits to selection and evolutionary responses
  • Evolutionary Limits and Constraints
  • 1. Lack of genetic variation as a limit and constraint
  • 2. Trade-offs
  • 3. Multivariate selection
  • 4. Gene flow in marginal populations limiting range expansion
  • 5. Limits and constraints: biodiversity and conservation
  • Evolution of Modif ier Genes and Biological Systems
  • 1. Evolution of biological systems
  • 2. Evolution of dominance
  • 3. Direct versus indirect selection
  • 4. The evolution of genetic transmission
  • 5. The evolution of the mutation rate
  • 6. The evolution of sex and recombination
  • 7. The evolution of haploidy versus diploidy
  • 8. On evolution and optimization
  • Evolution of Reaction Norms
  • 1. Two major features of the genotype-phenotype map
  • 2. Induced responses: Examples of adaptive plasticity
  • 3. Robust traits: Examples of canalization
  • 4. Reaction norms: Phenotypic plasticity and canalization
  • 5. The evolutionary significance of plasticity and canalization
  • 6. The Baldwin effect and genetic assimilation
  • Evolution of Life Histories
  • 1. What is the life history and why is it of interest?
  • 2. The theory of life history evolution: A sampler
  • 3. Other aspects of life history evolution
  • 4. What have we learned?
  • 5. Future research
  • Evolution of Form and Function
  • 1. Form and function in organismal design
  • 2. Measuring the evolution of form and function
  • 3. Key features of life's functional systems: Multi-functionality, genes, and complexity
  • 4. General principles of the evolution of complex functional systems
  • Biochemical and Physiological Adaptations
  • 1. Physiological diversity
  • 2. How do we know that physiological variation is adaptive?
  • 3. Biochemical mechanisms inform models of physiological adaptation
  • 4. Adaptive variation in tolerance
  • 5. Adaptive variation in regulation
  • 6. Adaptive acclimation
  • 7. Constraints on physiological adaptation
  • 8. Implications for global change biology
  • Evolution of the Ecological Niche
  • 1. Natural history, niches, and evolution
  • 2. What is an ecological “niche”?
  • 3. Complexities in the niche concept
  • 4. The issue of genetic variation in niches
  • 5. Demographic constraints on niche evolution
  • 6. Niches evolving in communities
  • Adaptation to the Biotic Environment
  • 1. Defining adaptation to the biotic environment
  • 2. Differences between adaptation to biotic versus abiotic environments
  • 3. Factors that influence adaptation to the biotic environment, and our ability to detect them
  • 4. Conflicting selection and community complexity complicate detection of biotic adaptation
  • 5. Lessons from introduced species
  • 6. Changing relative abundances of species may alter selection from the biotic environment
  • Section IV Evolutionary Processes
  • Genetic Drift
  • 1. Genetic drift
  • 2. Effective population size
  • 3. Neutral theory
  • 4. Coalescence
  • 5. Future directions
  • Mutation
  • 1. The meaning of mutation
  • 2. Types of mutations
  • 3. Causes of mutation
  • 4. Mutation and evolution: Basic principles
  • 5. How random is mutation?
  • 6. Variation in mutation rate: Among taxa
  • 7. Variation in mutation rate: Within the genome
  • 8. The mutational spectrum and mutational bias
  • 9. Mutation, genome size, and genomic complexity
  • 10. Mutation and extinction
  • 11. Mutation and evolution: Other long-term consequences
  • Geographic Variation, Population Structure, and Migration
  • 1. The causes of spatial structure in genetic diversity
  • 2. Individuals and their genes move around
  • 3. Gene flow shapes patterns of spatial genetic structure
  • 4. Evolution in spatially structured populations
  • 5. Implications for conservation
  • Recombination and Sex
  • 1. Molecular recombination
  • 2. Rates of recombination
  • 3. Linkage disequilibrium
  • 4. What generates linkage disequilibria?
  • 5. Recombination facilitates selection
  • Genetic Load
  • 1. Genetic load
  • 2. Mutation load
  • 3. Other types of load
  • 4. Consequences of load
  • Inbreeding
  • 1. Inbreeding
  • 2. Measuring the degree of inbreeding
  • 3. Measuring inbreeding coefficients and rates of self-fertilization and other inbreeding
  • 4. Long- and short-term consequences of inbreeding
  • 5. Consequences of inbreeding for molecular evolution and genome evolution
  • 6. Inbreeding depression, heterosis, and purging
  • Selfish Genetic Elements and Genetic Conflict
  • 1. What are selfish genetic elements?
  • 2. Diversity of selfish genetic elements
  • 3. Selfish genetic elements and genome evolution
  • 4. Selfish genetic elements and population variation
  • 5. Selfish genetic elements and speciation
  • 6. Applied uses of selfish genetic elements
  • Evolution of Mating Systems: Outcrossing versus Selfing
  • 1. Definitions and measurement
  • 2. Variation in mating patterns
  • 3. Evolution of self-fertilization
  • 4. Mechanisms of selection
  • 5. The problem of mixed mating
  • 6. Evolutionary history
  • Section V Genes, Genomes, Phenotypes
  • Molecular Evolution
  • 1. What is molecular evolution and why does it occur?
  • 2. Origins of molecular evolution, the molecular clock, and the neutral theory
  • 3. Predictions of the neutral theory for variation within and between species
  • 4. The impact of natural selection on molecular variation and evolution
  • 5. Biological insights from the study of molecular evolution
  • 6. Conclusions
  • Genome Evolution
  • 1. Evolution of genome architecture
  • 2. Genome expansion and restructuring
  • 3. Drivers of genome evolution
  • Comparative Genomics
  • 1. Comparative genomics and genome evolution
  • 2. Evolution of gene number
  • 3. Identifying regulatory regions
  • 4. Copy number variation
  • 5. Rapidly evolving regions
  • 6. Ultraconserved elements
  • 7. The future of comparative genomics
  • Evolution of Sex Chromosomes
  • 1. Origin of sex chromosomes
  • 2. Y (W)-chromosome degeneration
  • 3. Dosage compensation of the X
  • 4. Gene content evolution of sex chromosomes
  • 5. Diversity of sex determination
  • Gene Duplication
  • 1. Mechanisms of gene duplication
  • 2. Fixation of duplicate genes
  • 3. Pseudogenization after duplication
  • 4. Stable retention of duplicate genes
  • 5. Rate of gene duplication
  • 6. Determinants of gene duplicability
  • 7. Functional redundancy among duplicate genes
  • 8. Functional diversification of duplicate genes
  • 9. Future directions in the study of gene duplication
  • Evolution of New Genes
  • 1. Mutational mechanisms to generate new genes
  • 2. Rates of new gene origination
  • 3. Patterns of new gene evolution
  • 4. Evolutionary forces acting on new genes
  • 5. Functions and phenotypic effects of new genes
  • Evolution of Gene Expression
  • 1. The importance of regulatory evolution: A historical perspective
  • 2. Finding expression differences within and between species
  • 3. Genomic sources of regulatory evolution
  • 4. Enhancer evolution
  • 5. Evolution of transcription factors and transcription factor binding
  • 6. Evolutionary forces responsible for expression divergence
  • Epigenetics
  • 1. The concept of epigenetics
  • 2. The history of epigenetics
  • 3. Epigenetics and gene regulation
  • 4. Molecular epigenetics
  • 5. Epigenetic processes
  • 6. Transgenerational epigenetic effects
  • 7. Lamarckism and neo-Lamarckism
  • 8. Epigenetics and evolution
  • 9. Plasticity and assimilation
  • 10. Epilogue
  • Evolution of Molecular Networks
  • 1. Network representations of biological data
  • 2. Global organization of biological networks
  • 3. Evolution of global network organization
  • 4. Local organization and dynamics of biological networks
  • 5. Evolution of local network organization
  • 6. The future of evolutionary systems biology
  • Evolution and Development: Organisms
  • 1. Evolution of form and function
  • 2. The rise of evolutionary developmental biology
  • 3. Evolutionary constraints and patterns of allometry
  • 4. Patterns of parallel evolution
  • 5. The paradox of morphological stasis
  • 6. Opportunities for future research
  • Evolution and Development: Molecules
  • 1. The goals of molecular studies in evolutionary developmental biology
  • 2. Mapping genotype to phenotype during development
  • 3. Mapping genotype to phenotype during evolution
  • 4. The evolution of novel traits and their underlying gene regulatory networks
  • 5. Future areas of research in evolutionary developmental biology
  • Genetics of Phenotypic Evolution
  • 1. Genetic architecture of phenotypic evolution
  • 2. Molecular basis of phenotypic evolution
  • 3. Using genotypes to test whether phenotypes are adaptive
  • 4. Genetic basis of repeated phenotypic evolution
  • 5. Prospects for future research
  • Dissection of Complex Trait Evolution
  • 1. Genetic variation in complex traits
  • 2. Using laboratory crosses to map the mutations responsible for phenotypic evolution
  • 3. Using association testing to map the mutations responsible for phenotypic evolution
  • 4. Current challenges and prospects for future research
  • Searching for Adaptation in the Genome
  • 1. Evolution as mutation and change in allele frequencies
  • 2. The neutral theory of molecular evolution
  • 3. The McDonald-Kreitman test
  • 4. Population genomics approaches for detecting and quantifying adaptation
  • 5. Remaining challenges
  • Ancient DNA
  • 1. Beginnings
  • 2. The importance of being clean
  • 3. Name that bone: Inserting extinct species into molecular phylogenies
  • 4. Ancient population genetics and phylogeography
  • 5. Ancient genomics
  • 6. The future of ancient DNA
  • Section VI Speciation and Macroevolution
  • Species and Speciation
  • 1. Species concepts and definitions
  • 2. Speciation as the evolution of intrinsic barriers to gene exchange
  • 3. Classifying barriers to gene exchange
  • 4. Studying speciation
  • Speciation Patterns
  • 1. Testing the nature of species
  • 2. Speciation patterns in sexual eukaryotes
  • 3. Speciation patterns in asexuals
  • 4. Speciation patterns in prokaryotes
  • 5. Speciation and global diversity patterns
  • 6. Linking patterns with process
  • Geography, Range Evolution, and Speciation
  • 1. Geographic patterns of species and speciation
  • 2. The geography of speciation
  • 3. Island patterns and their implications
  • 4. Speciation and area
  • 5. Geographic and geological triggers of speciation
  • 6. Challenges and prospects
  • Speciation and Natural Selection
  • 1. Types of natural selection contributing to reproductive isolation
  • 2. Types of reproductive barriers and the effect of selection on their evolution
  • 3. Considerations when studying natural selection and speciation
  • 4. Reinforcement
  • 5. Future directions
  • Speciation and Sexual Selection
  • 1. Can sexual selection generate diversity?
  • 2. Patterns of speciation by sexual selection
  • 3. The mechanisms of sexual selection that cause speciation
  • 4. Sexual selection and postmating isolation
  • Gene Flow, Hybridization, and Speciation
  • 1. Gene flow leads to species cohesion
  • 2. Gene flow and the origin of species
  • 3. Hybridization: A common phenomenon
  • 4. Evolutionary outcomes of hybridization
  • 5. How to think about species in the context of gene flow and hybridization
  • Coevolution and Speciation
  • 1. Coevolution and the divergence of species interactions
  • 2. Speciation with character displacement
  • 3. Predators, parasites, and diversification
  • 4. Mutualistic networks and speciation
  • 5. Coevolved symbionts and speciation
  • 6. Escape-and-radiate coevolution
  • 7. Cospeciation
  • 8. Conclusions
  • Genetics of Speciation
  • 1. Genetics of prezygotic isolation
  • 2. Genetics of postzygotic isolation
  • 3. Summary
  • Speciation and Genome Evolution
  • 1. From beanbags to genomes
  • 2. Geography and gene flow
  • 3. Primary versus secondary geographic contact
  • 4. Selection-recombination antagonism and genomic heterogeneity
  • 5. Empirical data and patterns
  • 6. Chromosomal rearrangements and speciation
  • 7. Polyploidy and speciation
  • 8. Sex chromosomes and speciation
  • Adaptive Radiation
  • 1. Biodiversity
  • 2. Origin and development of the concept
  • 3. The ecological theory
  • 4. Speciation
  • 5. Ecological opportunity
  • 6. Species interactions
  • 7. Intrinsic factors: Key innovations
  • 8. Hybridization
  • 9. Testing the ideas
  • 10.Future prospects
  • Macroevolutionary Rates
  • 1. How “fast” is evolution?
  • 2. Rates of speciation and extinction
  • 3. Rates of trait evolution
  • 4. Are there relationships between rates of trait evolution and diversification?
  • Macroevolutionary Trends
  • 1. Directionality in evolution
  • 2. The scope of trends
  • 3. Trend mechanisms
  • 4. Examples of trend hypotheses
  • Causes and Consequences of Extinction
  • 1. Species extinction
  • 2. Some definitions: Extinction styles and magnitudes
  • 3. Mass extinctions
  • 4. Declining extinction risk and resetting the clock
  • 5. Extinction and the drivers of macroevolution
  • Species Selection
  • 1. Concepts and consequences
  • 2. History and controversy
  • 3. Empirical tests
  • Key Evolutionary Innovations
  • 1. Key innovation concepts in evolutionary biology
  • 2. Where do key evolutionary innovations originate?
  • 3. How do key innovations lead to evolutionary diversity?
  • 4. Testing hypotheses of key innovation
  • 5. Problems with the idea of key innovations
  • Evolution of Communities
  • 1. What are communities?
  • 2. Microevolutionary change and community evolution
  • 3. Macroevolutionary change and community evolution
  • 4. Geography of speciation and extinction
  • Section VII Evolution of Behavior, Society, and Humans
  • Genes, Brains, and Behavior
  • 1. Genes and behavior
  • 2. “Nature versus nurture”
  • 3. What is a “behavioral gene”?
  • 4. Analyzing behavior: Natural variations versus mutations
  • 5. Genomes and systems genetics
  • 6. The future of behavioral genetics: The behavioral epigenome
  • Evolution of Hormones and Behavior
  • 1. Hormonal mechanisms and phenotypic variation
  • 2. Hormones and phenotypic integration
  • 3. Hormones and microevolution
  • 4. Hormones and macroevolution
  • 5. Summary and future directions
  • Game Theory and Behavior
  • 1. The basic ideas
  • 2. Examples
  • 3. Issues for consideration
  • 4. Applications
  • 5. Future directions
  • Sexual Selection and Its Impact on Mating Systems
  • 1. What are mating systems and why are they important?
  • 2. Measures of mating systems
  • 3. Plastic, continuous mating systems and the evolution of behavior
  • 4. Mating systems and evolutionary potential
  • 5. Applied relevance of the study of the evolution of mating systems
  • Sexual Selection: Male-Male Competition
  • 1. Why are males most often the competing sex and females the choosy sex?
  • 2. The processes of sexual selection
  • 3. Male-male competition in the big and small
  • 4. Weapon evolution
  • 5. Additional forms of male-male competition
  • 6. Male-male competition in plants
  • 7. Total sexual selection
  • 8. Sexual selection and ecological context
  • Sexual Selection: Mate Choice
  • 1. Why does mate choice fascinate evolutionary biologists?
  • 2. What counts as mate choice?
  • 3. Choosiness lowers the breeding rate, and there are other costs
  • 4. The rewards of being choosy
  • 5. Why do the sexes differ in choosiness?
  • Evolution of Communication
  • 1. Elements of animal communication
  • 2. What communication is
  • 3. How does communication originate and how does it evolve?
  • 4. Evolutionary trajectories: Four examples
  • 5. On the reliability of animal communication
  • Evolution of Parental Care
  • 1. Natural diversity in forms of parental care
  • 2. Origin and evolution of parental care
  • 3. Evolutionary maintenance of parental care
  • 4. Genetics and epigenetics of parental care
  • 5. Sociality beyond family
  • Cooperation and Conflict: Microbes to Humans
  • 1. What is cooperation and why is it so important?
  • 2. Fraternal and egalitarian cooperation
  • 3. Fraternal cooperation is explained by kin selection
  • 4. Egalitarian cooperation requires direct benefits
  • 5. Conflict and control of conflict in fraternal cooperative systems
  • 6. Conflict and control of conflict in egalitarian cooperative systems
  • 7. Organismality results from high cooperation and low conflict
  • Cooperative Breeding
  • 1. Ecology and evolution of cooperative breeding
  • 2. The evolution of helping
  • 3. Individual differences in helping behavior
  • 4. Reproductive conflict
  • Human Behavioral Ecology
  • 1. Development of human behavioral ecology
  • 2. Problems and criticism
  • 3. New focus on evolution in the modern societies
  • 4. What can human behavioral ecology contribute to the general study of evolution?
  • Evolutionary Psychology
  • 1. The Darwinian background for evolutionary psychology
  • 2. The modern-day program of evolutionary psychology
  • 3. Psychological evidence
  • 4. The application of evolutionary models in evolutionary psychology
  • 5. Evolutionary alternatives
  • Evolution of Eusociality
  • 1. Eusociality: A highly integrated form of social organization
  • 2. What drives eusociality?
  • 3. Working together
  • 4. Intragroup conflicts and their resolution
  • Cognition: Phylogeny, Adaptation, and By-Products
  • 1. What are we measuring?
  • 2. The space of possibilities
  • 3. Novel possibilities and unanticipated outcomes
  • 4. Evolving limitless options
  • Evolution of Apparently Nonadaptive Behavior
  • 1. What is apparently nonadaptive behavior?
  • 2. Behavior as a transaction
  • 3. Random mutation versus adaptation: Cannibalism
  • 4. Manipulation: Imposter birds and zombie snails
  • 5. Evolution does not equal perfection: Sexual cannibalism
  • 6. Same-sex sexual behavior: A case study
  • 7. Insights from apparently nonadaptive behavior
  • Aging and Menopause
  • 1. A natural history of aging
  • 2. Theories for the evolution of aging
  • 3. Menopause
  • 4. Pressing questions on the evolution of aging
  • Section VIII Evolution and Modern Society
  • Evolutionary Medicine
  • 1. Evolution and medicine
  • 2. Pathogens
  • 3. Defense mechanisms
  • 4. Trade-offs in human traits
  • 5. Mismatches to modernity
  • 6. Implications of evolutionary medicine
  • Evolution of Parasite Virulence
  • 1. Defining virulence
  • 2. The phase model of virulence
  • 3. The trade-off model
  • 4. Vertically transmitted parasites
  • 5. How well do optimality models predict virulence?
  • Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
  • 1. A medical miracle—and how to ruin it
  • 2. Origins of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance mechanisms
  • 3. Transmission of resistant bacteria
  • 4. Persistence and reversibility of resistance
  • 5. Can resistance evolution be slowed or even stopped?
  • 6. Will antibiotics become a footnote to medical history?
  • Evolution and Microbial Forensics
  • 1. Evolutionary thinking, molecular epidemiology, and microbial forensics
  • 2. The uses of DNA in human and microbial forensics
  • 3. Genetic technology and the significance of a “match”
  • 4. The Kameido Aum Shinrikyo anthrax release
  • 5. The Ames strain and the 2001 anthrax letters
  • 6. From molecular epidemiology to microbial forensics and back
  • Domestication and the Evolution of Agriculture
  • 1. Domestication
  • 2. Evolution under domestication
  • 3. Agriculture as a mutualism
  • 4. Agriculture in ants
  • 5. Conclusions
  • Evolution and Conservation
  • 1. Evolution, genetics, and conservation
  • 2. Process versus pattern and why both matter
  • 3. The enemies to watch out for
  • 4. What genomics brings to the table
  • 5. Concluding thoughts and prospectus
  • Directed Evolution
  • 1. Directed evolution of nucleic acids
  • 2. Directed evolution of proteins
  • 3. Directed evolution of cells
  • 4. The future of directed evolution
  • Evolution and Computing
  • 1. Unexpected links and shared principles
  • 2. How evolutionary biology joined forces with computer science
  • 3. How evolutionary computation is helping evolutionary biology
  • 4. Evolutionary computation takes off
  • 5. The future of evolution and computing
  • Linguistics and the Evolution of Human Language
  • 1. What is language?
  • 2. When did language evolve?
  • 3. Why did language evolve?
  • 4. The evolution of human languages
  • 5. Languages adapt to speakers
  • 6. The future of language evolution
  • Cultural Evolution
  • 1. What cultural evolution is not
  • 2. Memetics
  • 3. Cultural evolution
  • 4. Nonhuman animal cultural evolution
  • 5. Defining culture
  • Evolution and Notions of Human Race
  • 1. The biological meaning of race
  • 2. Do biological races exist in chimpanzees?
  • 3. Do biological races exist in humans?
  • 4. Do adaptive traits define human races?
  • 5. Do human races exist: The answer
  • The Future of Human Evolution
  • 1. Can we predict how humans will evolve?
  • 2. Has human evolution stopped?
  • 3. Future nonadaptive evolution
  • 4. Future adaptive evolution
  • 5. Eugenics and genetic engineering
  • Evolution and Religion
  • 1. Natural theology and the Bridgewater Treatises
  • 2. Darwin's revolution
  • 3. Evolution and the Bible
  • 4. The problem of evil
  • 5. Evolution: Imperfect design, not intelligent design
  • 6. Evolution and religion: Coda
  • Creationism and Intelligent Design
  • 1. What kind of creationist?
  • 2. The creation-evolution continuum
  • 3. Intelligent design
  • 4. What does the future hold?
  • Evolution and the Media
  • 1. Evolution and the birth of modern science communication
  • 2. Evolution and creationism: The dangers of false balance
  • 3. Evolution and the rise of new media
  • 4. The Darwinius affair: A cautionary tale
  • 5. Conclusion