Editor/Author
MacInnes, John

Publication Year: 2022

Publisher: Sage UK

Single-User Purchase Price:
$34.00

Unlimited-User Purchase Price:
$51.00

ISBN: 978-1-5264-2416-7

Category: Social Sciences - Research Methods & Study Skills

Image Count:
46

Book Status: Available

Table of Contents

Statistical Inference and Probability breaks down the complex topic of inferential statistics with accessible language and detailed examples. It covers a range of topics, including: probability and sampling distributions; inference and regression; power, effect size and inverse probability.

- List of Figures and Tables
- About the Author
- 1 The Challenge and Promise of Inference
- What Is Inference?
- Informal Inference: The Tyranny of Causal Narratives
- Cognitive Illusions
- Scientific Inference
- Statistical Inference
- Exploration and Inference: Detectives and Lawyers
- The NHST Wars
- Inference, Reproducibility and Replication
- Inference in Action: The Salk Vaccine Trial
- Inference in Action: Fertility and Development
- The World Before Statistics
- What Knowledge I Assume
- The Structure of This Book
- 2 Probability, Randomness, Probability Distributions and Sampling Distributions
- What is Probability?
- Some Elementary Descriptive Statistics and Notations
- Trials and Sample Spaces
- The Law of Large Numbers
- Bernoulli Trials
- The Probability Distribution
- Bar Charts and Histograms
- Heights of Union Soldiers
- Probability Distributions and Variables
- Conditional Probability With Categorical Variables
- Conditional Probability With Continuous Variables
- Pearson's r
- Conditional Probabilities With a Continuous and Categorical Distribution
- What Have We Done?
- Appendix: Simulating Coin Flips With Excel
- 3 Bernoulli, Coke and Pepsi
- A Series of 10 Trials
- Statistical Inference and Research Design
- The Null Hypothesis
- Short Run Probabilities: The Binomial Distribution
- The Sampling Distribution and p-Values
- Alpha, Significance, Confidence and Type I Errors
- Improbable Expectations, Definite Results
- Why the Double Negative and All the Bother?
- The Logic of NHST
- From Statistical Inference to Scientific Inference
- What Does Significant Mean?
- Appendix: A Famous Experiment: Milk First or Tea First?
- 4 Samples and Populations
- The Difficulty of Measurement
- The Illusion of Representative Samples
- The Sampling Distribution, Samples and Populations
- Flipping the Logic: One Sample From a Distribution
- Standard Errors
- Confidence Intervals for Point Estimates
- The t-Distribution
- Examining Differences in Means and Proportions
- Calculating Standard Errors for Categorical Variables
- The Binomial Formula in Action: Stop and Search
- Chi-Square and Contingency Tables
- Chi-Square and Goodness of Fit
- Fisher's Exact Test
- Appendix: Degrees of Freedom
- 5 Inference and Regression
- Introduction
- The Analysis of Variance
- The Regression Equation
- Regression as the Analysis of Unconditional and Conditional Variance
- Correlation and Regression
- Regression and ANOVA
- Multiple Regression
- Inference in Regression: The F-Statistic and Standard Errors
- An Example of Multiple OLS Regression
- What Can Go Wrong With Multiple Regression?
- Transformation
- Appendix: A Refresher on Powers and Logarithms
- Powers
- Arithmetic Rules of Powers
- Powers Can Be Negative
- Powers Need Not Be Whole Numbers
- Logarithms
- The Logit
- 6 Power, Effect Size and Inverse Probability
- Introduction
- Thomas Bayes: Prior and Posterior Probabilities
- Taxi for Kahneman and Tversky
- A More Substantial Application: Medical Tests
- Covid-19
- Breast Cancer Screening
- 7 What Does Sound Inference Comprise?
- The ASA Debate
- Ten Steps of Inference
- The Six Principles of the ASA
- From the Six Principles to ATOM
- Contemporary Scientific Research
- Glossary
- References