The SAGE Quantitative Research Kit: Statistical Inference and Probability

Editor/Author MacInnes, John
Publication Year: 2022
Publisher: Sage UK

Single-User Purchase Price: $34.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $51.00
ISBN: 978-1-5264-2416-7
Category: Social Sciences - Research Methods & Study Skills
Image Count: 46
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Statistical Inference and Probability breaks down the complex topic of inferential statistics with accessible language and detailed examples. It covers a range of topics, including: probability and sampling distributions; inference and regression; power, effect size and inverse probability.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Figures and Tables
  • About the Author
  • 1 The Challenge and Promise of Inference
  • What Is Inference?
  • Informal Inference: The Tyranny of Causal Narratives
  • Cognitive Illusions
  • Scientific Inference
  • Statistical Inference
  • Exploration and Inference: Detectives and Lawyers
  • The NHST Wars
  • Inference, Reproducibility and Replication
  • Inference in Action: The Salk Vaccine Trial
  • Inference in Action: Fertility and Development
  • The World Before Statistics
  • What Knowledge I Assume
  • The Structure of This Book
  • 2 Probability, Randomness, Probability Distributions and Sampling Distributions
  • What is Probability?
  • Some Elementary Descriptive Statistics and Notations
  • Trials and Sample Spaces
  • The Law of Large Numbers
  • Bernoulli Trials
  • The Probability Distribution
  • Bar Charts and Histograms
  • Heights of Union Soldiers
  • Probability Distributions and Variables
  • Conditional Probability With Categorical Variables
  • Conditional Probability With Continuous Variables
  • Pearson's r
  • Conditional Probabilities With a Continuous and Categorical Distribution
  • What Have We Done?
  • Appendix: Simulating Coin Flips With Excel
  • 3 Bernoulli, Coke and Pepsi
  • A Series of 10 Trials
  • Statistical Inference and Research Design
  • The Null Hypothesis
  • Short Run Probabilities: The Binomial Distribution
  • The Sampling Distribution and p-Values
  • Alpha, Significance, Confidence and Type I Errors
  • Improbable Expectations, Definite Results
  • Why the Double Negative and All the Bother?
  • The Logic of NHST
  • From Statistical Inference to Scientific Inference
  • What Does Significant Mean?
  • Appendix: A Famous Experiment: Milk First or Tea First?
  • 4 Samples and Populations
  • The Difficulty of Measurement
  • The Illusion of Representative Samples
  • The Sampling Distribution, Samples and Populations
  • Flipping the Logic: One Sample From a Distribution
  • Standard Errors
  • Confidence Intervals for Point Estimates
  • The t-Distribution
  • Examining Differences in Means and Proportions
  • Calculating Standard Errors for Categorical Variables
  • The Binomial Formula in Action: Stop and Search
  • Chi-Square and Contingency Tables
  • Chi-Square and Goodness of Fit
  • Fisher's Exact Test
  • Appendix: Degrees of Freedom
  • 5 Inference and Regression
  • Introduction
  • The Analysis of Variance
  • The Regression Equation
  • Regression as the Analysis of Unconditional and Conditional Variance
  • Correlation and Regression
  • Regression and ANOVA
  • Multiple Regression
  • Inference in Regression: The F-Statistic and Standard Errors
  • An Example of Multiple OLS Regression
  • What Can Go Wrong With Multiple Regression?
  • Transformation
  • Appendix: A Refresher on Powers and Logarithms
  • Powers
  • Arithmetic Rules of Powers
  • Powers Can Be Negative
  • Powers Need Not Be Whole Numbers
  • Logarithms
  • The Logit
  • 6 Power, Effect Size and Inverse Probability
  • Introduction
  • Thomas Bayes: Prior and Posterior Probabilities
  • Taxi for Kahneman and Tversky
  • A More Substantial Application: Medical Tests
  • Covid-19
  • Breast Cancer Screening
  • 7 What Does Sound Inference Comprise?
  • The ASA Debate
  • Ten Steps of Inference
  • The Six Principles of the ASA
  • From the Six Principles to ATOM
  • Contemporary Scientific Research
  • Glossary
  • References