Britannica's Practical Guide to the Arts

Editors: Campbell, Trenton, Kuhtz, Cleo and Kuhtz, Russell et.al
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: Britannica Digital Learning

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-62-513434-9
Category: Arts & Leisure - Art & Art History
Image Count: 185
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Britannica's Practical Guide to the Arts offers a highly useful, information-packed, detailed, and practical guide to the techniques, materials, and styles associated with the fine arts and their production. Key historical developments in painting, photography, sculpture, drawing, and music are also discussed.

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Table of Contents

    • Drawing: Materials, Techniques, Styles, and Practice
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER ONE THE ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN IN DRAWING
    • A SKETCH
    • PLANE TECHNIQUES
    • PERSPECTIVE
    • THE DRAWING SURFACE
    • THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DRAWING AND OTHER ART FORMS
    • SURFACES
    • CHAPTER TWO TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES AND THE PRESERVATION OF WORKS ON PAPER
    • CHARCOAL
    • KÄTHE KOLLWITZ
    • CHALKS
    • METALPOINTS
    • ALBRECHT DÜRER
    • GRAPHITE POINT
    • PENCIL DRAWING
    • COLOURED CRAYONS
    • PASTEL
    • INCISED DRAWING
    • BRUSH, PEN, AND DYESTUFFS
    • PENS
    • QUILL, REED, AND METAL PENS
    • INKS
    • BISTRE AND SEPIA
    • PEN DRAWINGS
    • THE PICASSO MUSEUM
    • BRUSH DRAWINGS
    • WASH DRAWING
    • COMBINATIONS OF VARIOUS TECHNIQUES
    • CLAUDE LORRAIN
    • MECHANICAL DEVICES
    • CAMERA OBSCURA
    • THE CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF PRINTS AND DRAWINGS ON PAPER
    • CHAPTER THREE APPLIED DRAWINGS
    • TECHNICAL DRAWINGS
    • ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS
    • A PANTOGRAPH
    • LOUIS SULLIVAN
    • TOPOGRAPHIC AND CARTOGRAPHIC DRAWINGS
    • SCIENTIFIC ILLUSTRATIONS
    • JOHN JAMES AUDUBON
    • ILLUSTRATIVE DRAWINGS
    • ILLUSTRATIONS
    • SCRATCHBOARD
    • CARICATURE
    • CARTOONS
    • AL HIRSCHFELD
    • CHAPTER FOUR SUBJECT MATTER
    • PORTRAITS
    • HANS HOLBEIN THE YOUNGER
    • LANDSCAPES
    • THE DANUBE SCHOOL
    • FIGURE COMPOSITIONS AND STILL LIFES
    • ODILON REDON
    • FANCIFUL AND NONREPRESENTATIONAL DRAWINGS
    • WALTER CRANE
    • ARTISTIC ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS
    • GIOVANNI BATTISTA PIRANESI
    • CHAPTER FIVE THE HISTORY OF DRAWING
    • WESTERN HISTORY
    • THE 14TH, 15TH, AND 16TH CENTURIES
    • JACOPO BELLINI
    • LEONARDO DA VINCI'S NOTEBOOKS AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES
    • THE 17TH, 18TH, AND 19TH CENTURIES
    • JACQUES CALLOT
    • THOMAS ROWLANDSON
    • EASTERN HISTORY
    • HOKUSAI
    • CONCLUSION
    • GLOSSARY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Music: Techniques, Styles, Instruments, and Practice
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER ONE MUSIC NOTATION, SOUND, AND THE STRUCTURE OF MUSIC
    • MUSIC NOTATION
    • MUSICAL SOUND IN WESTERN MUSIC TRADITIONS
    • HOW MUSIC IS WRITTEN
    • DURATION AND RHYTHM
    • TEMPO AND DYNAMICS
    • THE STRUCTURE OF MUSIC
    • MELODY
    • MAJOR AND MINOR SCALES
    • HARMONY
    • DIATONIC SCALES PRODUCE TONALITY
    • COMMON SCALE TYPES
    • OTHER SCALES
    • CHAPTER TWO MUSICAL COMPOSITION
    • SOCIETAL PERSPECTIVES OF MUSICAL COMPOSITION
    • MUSICAL ELEMENTS
    • THE ELEMENTS OF RHYTHM
    • DEVELOPMENT OF COMPOSITION IN THE MIDDLE AGES
    • COMPOSITION IN THE RENAISSANCE
    • THE BAROQUE PERIOD
    • THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
    • THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
    • INSTRUMENTATION
    • THE 20TH CENTURY AND EARLY 21ST CENTURY
    • CHAPTER THREE MUSICAL FORM
    • PRINCIPLES OF MUSICAL FORM
    • FORMAL TYPES
    • ITERATIVE AND REVERTING TYPES
    • STROPHIC TYPES
    • PROGRESSIVE TYPES
    • WESTERN COMPOUND FORMS
    • THE SONATA
    • CYCLIC FORM
    • FANTASIAS AND PROGRAM MUSIC
    • FANTASIA
    • OPERA AND ORATORIO
    • THE MASS
    • 20TH-CENTURY MODIFICATIONS AND BEYOND
    • CHAPTER FOUR MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
    • GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS
    • TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS
    • CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTS
    • HISTORY AND EVOLUTION
    • PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
    • STRINGED INSTRUMENTS
    • KEYBOARD INSTRUMENTS
    • WIND INSTRUMENTS
    • ADOLPHE SAX
    • ENSEMBLES
    • AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENTS
    • ELECTRIC AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS
    • CHAPTER FIVE MUSICAL PERFORMANCE AND EXPRESSION
    • PERFORMANCE
    • ASPECTS OF WESTERN MUSICAL PERFORMANCE
    • THE DEVELOPMENT OF WESTERN MUSICAL PERFORMANCE
    • JOHN ADAMS
    • EXPRESSION
    • CHAPTER SIX MUSICAL STYLES AND GENRES IN WESTERN MUSIC
    • THE ESTABLISHMENT OF WESTERN MUSICAL TRADITIONS
    • ROOTS IN ANTIQUITY
    • THE MIDDLE AGES
    • THE RENAISSANCE PERIOD
    • THE TONAL ERA AND AFTER: 1600 TO THE PRESENT
    • THE BAROQUE ERA
    • THE CLASSICAL PERIOD
    • THE ROMANTIC PERIOD
    • MODERN PERIOD
    • THE MARSALIS FAMILY
    • CONCLUSION
    • GLOSSARY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Painting: Materials, Techniques, Styles, and Practice
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER ONE THE ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN IN PAINTING
    • DESIGN ELEMENTS
    • LINE
    • SHAPE AND MASS
    • ADOLPH GOTTLIEB
    • COLOUR
    • THE NATURE OF COLOUR AND THE LAWS OF COLOUR MIXTURE
    • TEXTURE
    • GEORGES SEURAT
    • VOLUME AND SHAPE
    • LINEAR AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE AND ANAMORPHOSIS
    • TIME AND MOVEMENT
    • GIACOMO BALLA
    • DESIGN PRINCIPLES
    • GOLDEN MEAN
    • DESIGN RELATIONSHIPS WITH PAINTING AND OTHER VISUAL ARTS
    • CHAPTER TWO PROCEDURES AND MEDIUMS
    • WORKING PROCEDURE
    • CANVAS AND SIZING
    • PRESERVATIVES
    • MEDIUMS
    • PIGMENTS
    • TEMPERA
    • GESSO
    • FRESCO
    • DIEGO RIVERA
    • OIL
    • IMPASTO
    • WATERCOLOUR
    • JOHN MARIN
    • INK
    • SUIBOKU-GA
    • GOUACHE
    • ENCAUSTIC
    • CASEIN
    • CHAPTER THREE SYNTHETIC AND OTHER MEDIUMS
    • FRENCH PASTELS
    • ARTHUR G. DOVE
    • OIL PASTELS
    • GLASS PAINTINGS
    • IVORY PAINTING
    • LACQUER
    • SAND, OR DRY, PAINTING
    • PAPER
    • KARA WALKER
    • COLLAGE
    • MECHANICAL MEDIUMS
    • MIXED MEDIUMS
    • CHAPTER FOUR FORMS OF PAINTING
    • MURAL PAINTING
    • GRAFFITI AND KEITH HARING
    • EASEL AND PANEL PAINTING
    • PLEIN-AIR PAINTING
    • MINIATURE PAINTING
    • ROSALBA CARRIERA
    • MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION AND RELATED FORMS
    • SCROLL PAINTING
    • CHINESE AND JAPANESE SCROLLS
    • SCREEN AND FAN PAINTING
    • PANORAMAS
    • MODERN FORMS
    • CHAPTER FIVE THE CONSERVATION OF PAINTINGS
    • PAINTINGS ON WOOD
    • PAINTINGS ON CANVAS
    • A LAKE
    • WALL PAINTINGS
    • PAINTINGS ON IVORY
    • PAINTINGS ON PAPER
    • CHAPTER SIX IMAGERY AND SUBJECT MATTER
    • KINDS OF IMAGERY
    • KINDS OF SUBJECT MATTER
    • DEVOTIONAL
    • NARRATIVE
    • SHĀH-NĀMEH
    • PORTRAITURE
    • REMBRANDT VAN RIJN AND PORTRAITS
    • GENRE
    • JOHANNES VERMEER
    • LANDSCAPE
    • CLAUDE LORRAIN
    • STILL LIFE
    • WILLIAM HARNETT
    • OTHER SUBJECTS
    • ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM
    • CHAPTER SEVEN SYMBOLISM
    • DEVOTIONAL ICONOGRAPHY AND FORM
    • SYMBOLISM IN EASTERN PAINTING
    • KALI
    • SYMBOLISM IN WESTERN PAINTING
    • CONCLUSION
    • GLOSSARY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Photography: Equipment, Techniques, Styles, and Practice
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER ONE CAMERAS AND LENSES
    • THE CAMERA AND LENSES
    • BASIC CAMERA FUNCTIONS
    • PRINCIPAL CAMERA TYPES
    • THE 35-MM MINIATURE CAMERA
    • THE ULTRAMINIATURE OR SUBMINIATURE
    • SHUTTER TYPES
    • THE VIEW, OR TECHNICAL, CAMERA
    • THE MEDIUM-SIZE HAND CAMERA
    • THE FOLDING ROLL-FILM CAMERA
    • THE SINGLE-LENS REFLEX
    • THE TWIN-LENS REFLEX
    • SHUTTER AND DIAPHRAGM SYSTEMS
    • THE LEAF SHUTTER
    • FOCAL-PLANE SHUTTER
    • DIAPHRAGM AND SHUTTER SETTINGS
    • EXPOSURE VALUES
    • AUTOMATIC-DIAPHRAGM SYSTEMS
    • METHODS OF FOCUSING AND FRAMING
    • FOCUSING AIDS
    • AUTOFOCUS SYSTEMS
    • RANGE FINDER
    • VIEWFINDERS
    • EXPOSURE-METERING SYSTEMS
    • AN EXPOSURE METER
    • FLASH SYSTEMS
    • ELECTRONIC FLASH
    • AUTOMATIC AND DEDICATED FLASH
    • HAROLD E. EDGERTON
    • FLASHBULBS
    • FIRING AND SYNCHRONIZATION
    • SYSTEM CAMERAS
    • CHARACTERISTICS AND PARAMETERS OF LENSES
    • FOCAL LENGTH AND IMAGE SCALE
    • APERTURE
    • ANGLE OF COVERAGE
    • OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
    • ABERRATIONS
    • CHROMATIC ABERRATION
    • RESOLVING POWER AND CONTRAST-TRANSFER FUNCTION
    • SPECIAL LENS TYPES
    • TELEPHOTO LENSES
    • WIDE-ANGLE AND RETROFOCUS LENSES
    • FISH-EYE LENSES
    • MIRROR LENSES
    • VARIABLE-FOCUS LENSES
    • LENS-CHANGING SYSTEMS
    • LENS COATING
    • CHAPTER TWO BLACK-AND-WHITE FILMS
    • THE LATENT IMAGE
    • SENSITOMETRY AND SPEED
    • COLOUR SENSITIVITY
    • FILTERS
    • PHOTOGRAPHIC FILTER
    • OTHER FILM CHARACTERISTICS
    • GRAIN
    • RESOLVING POWER AND ACUTANCE
    • CONTRAST
    • FILM STRUCTURE AND FORMS
    • SHEET FILM
    • ROLL FILM
    • PERFORATED FILM
    • EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY
    • DISK FILM
    • CHAPTER THREE PICTURE-TAKING TECHNIQUE
    • SHARPNESS CONTROL
    • DEPTH OF FIELD
    • SUBJECT AND CAMERA MOVEMENT
    • EXPOSURE TECHNIQUE
    • AUTOMATIC METER CONTROL
    • FLASH EXPOSURES
    • EXPOSURE LATITUDE
    • YOUSUF KARSH
    • LIGHTING TECHNIQUE
    • CHAPTER FOUR BLACK-AND-WHITE PROCESSING AND PRINTING
    • NEGATIVE DEVELOPMENT
    • DEVELOPERS AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
    • DARKROOM EQUIPMENT
    • FIXING
    • WASHING AND DRYING
    • HIGH-SPEED PROCESSING
    • PRINTING
    • ENLARGERS
    • PRINTING PAPERS
    • PRINTING EXPOSURES
    • PRINT PROCESSING
    • STABILIZATION PROCESSING
    • DRY PROCESSING
    • CHAPTER FIVE COLOUR PHOTOGRAPHY
    • COLOUR FILMS
    • REVERSAL (SLIDE) FILMS
    • NEGATIVE (PRINT) FILMS
    • COLOUR-FILM STRUCTURE
    • ADDITIVE COLOUR FILMS
    • COLOUR BALANCE
    • COLOUR-FILM PROCESSING
    • STEVE McCURRY
    • REVERSAL COLOUR-FILM PROCESSING
    • NEGATIVE COLOUR PROCESSING
    • COLOUR PRINTING
    • POSITIVE PRINTS FROM COLOUR NEGATIVES
    • REVERSAL COLOUR PRINTING
    • DYE-DESTRUCTION PROCESSES
    • DIFFUSION-TRANSFER COLOUR PRINTS
    • ASSEMBLY COLOUR PRINTS
    • TRANSPARENCY PROJECTION
    • CHAPTER SIX INSTANT-PICTURE PHOTOGRAPHY
    • BLACK-AND-WHITE DIFFUSION TRANSFER
    • POLAROID CORPORATION
    • THE POLACOLOR PROCESS
    • SINGLE-SHEET PROCESS
    • AUTOPROCESS MATERIALS
    • APPLICATIONS
    • CHAPTER SEVEN SPECIAL PHOTOSENSITIVE SYSTEMS, SPECIAL TECHNIQUES, AND APPLIED PHOTOGRAPHY
    • ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY
    • COLLOID AND PHOTOPOLYMER PROCESSES
    • DIAZONIUM PROCESSES
    • PHOTOCHROMIC SYSTEMS
    • ELECTRONIC PHOTOGRAPHY
    • HIGH-SPEED AND STROBOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY
    • HIGH-SPEED SHUTTERS
    • HIGH-SPEED LIGHT SOURCES
    • SYNCHRONIZATION
    • STROBOSCOPIC PHOTOGRAPHY
    • AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • NADAR
    • SATELLITE AND SPACE PHOTOGRAPHY
    • UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY
    • CLOSE-RANGE AND LARGE-SCALE PHOTOGRAPHY
    • CLOSE-UP AND MACROPHOTOGRAPHY
    • PHOTOMICROGRAPHY
    • STEREOSCOPIC AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • PHOTOGRAMMETRY
    • INFRARED PHOTOGRAPHY
    • ULTRAVIOLET PHOTOGRAPHY
    • RADIOGRAPHY AND OTHER RADIATION RECORDING TECHNIQUES
    • X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY
    • GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY
    • AUTORADIOGRAPHY
    • NUCLEAR-TRACK RECORDING
    • ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • MICROFILMING AND MICROREPRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER EIGHT DIGITAL CAMERAS AND DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • DIGITAL CAMERA TYPES
    • DSLR CAMERAS
    • MIRRORLESS CAMERAS
    • POINT-AND-SHOOT CAMERAS
    • LIGHT FIELD CAMERAS: AN EMERGING DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY
    • MOBILE PHONE CAMERAS
    • DIGITAL CAMERA PARTS
    • BODY
    • SENSOR
    • LENS
    • STORAGE
    • SOFTWARE
    • THE FIRST DIGITAL CAMERA
    • DIGITAL CAMERA TECHNIQUES
    • PARALLELS TO TRADITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • RAW VERSUS JPEG FILE FORMATS
    • FILTERS
    • USING APPS
    • HDR PHOTOGRAPHY
    • IMAGE EDITING PROGRAMS
    • CHAPTER NINE PHOTOGRAPHY'S PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
    • PHOTOGRAPHY AND THE MEDIA
    • PHOTOGRAPHY IN INDUSTRY, RESEARCH, AND SCIENCE
    • IMOGEN CUNNINGHAM
    • A FINE ART
    • PHOTOGRAPHY AS A POPULAR PASTIME
    • JAMES NACHTWEY
    • PHOTOGRAPHY AS A VOCATION
    • CONCLUSION
    • GLOSSARY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY
    • Sculpture: Materials, Techniques, Styles, and Practice
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHAPTER ONE THE ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES OF SCULPTURAL DESIGN
    • ELEMENTS OF DESIGN
    • PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
    • CONTRAPPOSTO
    • FORESHORTENING
    • RELATIONSHIPS TO OTHER ARTS
    • CHAPTER TWO MATERIALS OF SCULPTURE AND THEIR CONSERVATION AND REPAIR
    • PRIMARY
    • MARBLE
    • DAVID SMITH
    • TERRA-COTTA
    • PLASTER OF PARIS
    • SECONDARY
    • PAPIER-MÂCHÉ
    • CONSERVATION AND RESTORATION OF SCULPTURE
    • STONE SCULPTURE
    • METAL SCULPTURE
    • WOOD SCULPTURE
    • CHAPTER THREE METHODS AND TECHNIQUES
    • REPOUSSÉ
    • THE SCULPTOR AS DESIGNER AND AS CRAFTSMAN
    • GENERAL METHODS
    • CARVING
    • INDIRECT CARVING
    • CARVING TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
    • A FILE
    • MODELING
    • AN ARMATURE
    • MODELING FOR CASTING
    • MODELING FOR POTTERY SCULPTURE
    • GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MODELED SCULPTURE
    • CONSTRUCTING AND ASSEMBLING
    • DIRECT METAL SCULPTURE
    • REPRODUCTION AND SURFACE-FINISHING TECHNIQUES
    • THE LOST-WAX PROCESS
    • CASTING AND MOLDING
    • POINTING
    • SURFACE FINISHING
    • ABOUT GILDING
    • ANODIZING
    • CHAPTER FOUR FORMS, SUBJECT MATTER, IMAGERY, AND SYMBOLISM OF SCULPTURE
    • SCULPTURE IN THE ROUND
    • THE GREAT PHIDIAS AND THE PARTHENON SCULPTURES
    • RELIEF SCULPTURE
    • INTAGLIO
    • MODERN FORMS OF SCULPTURE
    • ENVIRONMENTAL SCULPTURE
    • REPRESENTATIONAL SCULPTURE
    • THE HUMAN FIGURE
    • DEVOTIONAL IMAGES AND NARRATIVE SCULPTURE
    • PORTRAITURE
    • SCENES OF EVERYDAY LIFE
    • ANIMALS
    • FANTASY
    • OTHER SUBJECTS
    • NONREPRESENTATIONAL SCULPTURE
    • DECORATIVE SCULPTURE
    • SYMBOLISM
    • THE TYMPANUM
    • CHAPTER FIVE USES OF SCULPTURE
    • DECORATIONS
    • ARCHITECTURE
    • GARDENS AND PARKS
    • COMMEMORATIONS
    • JEAN-ANTOINE HOUDON
    • COINAGE AND MEDALS
    • GLYPTIC ARTS
    • CEREMONIES AND RITUALS
    • CHAPTER SIX THE HISTORY OF SCULPTURE
    • SCULPTURE AMONG EARLY PEOPLES
    • THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE AT TULA
    • THE ART OF EGYPT
    • MESOPOTAMIA AND ITS ART
    • AFRICAN SCULPTURE
    • ASIAN SCULPTURE
    • THE GLORIOUS SCULPTURE OF GREECE
    • PRAXITELES
    • FROM THE ROMANS TO THE RENAISSANCE
    • CHRISTIANITY AND A NEW ART
    • TILMAN RIEMENSCHNEIDER
    • THE RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
    • DONATELLO OF FLORENCE
    • THE DELLA ROBBIAS
    • VERROCCHIO, PUPIL OF DONATELLO
    • THE GREAT MICHELANGELO
    • CELLINI AND DA BOLOGNA
    • THE BAROQUE IN SCULPTURE
    • SCULPTURE IN FRANCE
    • NEOCLASSICISM IN SCULPTURE
    • THE 19TH CENTURY
    • SCULPTURE IN THE UNITED STATES
    • DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH
    • MODERN MOVEMENT
    • FIGURATIVE AND BIOMORPHIC SCULPTURE
    • THE CONSTRUCTIVIST TRADITION
    • OBJECTS AND ASSEMBLAGE
    • POSTWAR SCULPTURE
    • ISAMU NOGUCHI
    • CHRISTO AND JEANNE-CLAUDE
    • CONCLUSION
    • GLOSSARY
    • BIBLIOGRAPHY