Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series: Encyclopedia of Geochemistry

Editor/Author White, William M.
Publication Year: 2018
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media

ISBN: 978-3-319-39311-7
Category: Science - Chemistry
Image Count: 527
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: Dec 2020
Table of Contents

Geochemistry applies chemical techniques and approaches to understanding the Earth and how it works. It touches upon almost every aspect of earth science, ranging from applied topics such as the search for energy and mineral resources, environmental pollution, and climate change to more basic questions such as the Earth's origin and composition, the origin and evolution of life, rock weathering and metamorphism, and the pattern of ocean and mantle circulation.

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Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • A
  • Ab Initio Calculations - David A. Dixon
  • Achondrites - Akira Yamaguchi, Jean-Alix Barrat and Richard Greenwood
  • Acid Deposition - Gregory B. Lawrence
  • Acid–Base Reactions - Carl O. Moses
  • Activation Parameters: Energy, Enthalpy, Entropy, and Volume - William H. Casey and C. André Ohlin
  • Activity and Activity Coefficients - Barry R. Bickmore and Matthew C. F. Wander
  • Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals - Ricardo Arevalo Jr.
  • Aluminum - Mainak Mookherjee
  • Analytical Techniques - William M. White
  • Anthropogenic CO2 - Klaus S. Lackner
  • Antimony - Jacqueline R. Houston
  • Aqueous Solutions - Barry R. Bickmore and Matthew C. F. Wander
  • Archeological Geochemistry - Patrick Degryse and R. Alexander Bentley
  • Argon - Mark A. Kendrick
  • Argon Isotopes - Philippe Sarda
  • Arsenic - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Astatine - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Atmophile Elements - Daniele L. Pinti
  • Atmospheric Evolution - Colin Goldblatt
  • Atomic Absorption, Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy, and Infrared Spectroscopy - Michael A. Rutzke
  • Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes - Russell S. Harmon
  • Authigenesis - Norbert Clauer
  • B
  • Barium - William M. White
  • Beryllium - Jeffrey G. Ryan
  • Beryllium Isotopes - Paul R. Bierman and Eric W. Portenga
  • Biogenic Methane - Dariusz Strąpoć
  • Biogeochemistry - Hilairy Ellen Hartnett
  • Biological Pump - Sarah L. C. Giering and Matthew P. Humphreys
  • Biomarker: Assessment of Thermal Maturity - Kenneth E. Peters and J. Michael Moldowan
  • Biomarkers: Coal - Achim Bechtel and Wilhelm Püttmann
  • Biomarkers: Petroleum - Meng He, J. Michael Moldowan and Kenneth E. Peters
  • Biopolymers and Macromolecules - Markus Kleber and Patrick Reardon
  • Bismuth - Cristiana L. Ciobanu and Nigel J. Cook
  • Black Shales and Sapropels - Kay-Christian Emeis
  • Boron - Christophe Lécuyer
  • Boron Stable Isotopes - Gavin L. Foster, Christophe Lécuyer and Horst R. Marschall
  • Bromine - Hélène Bureau
  • C
  • Cadmium - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Caesium - Gray E. Bebout
  • Calcium - Christophe Lécuyer
  • Calcium Isotopes - Juraj Farkaš
  • Calorimetry - Masaki Akaogi
  • Carbon - Adrian Jones
  • Carbon Cycle - Elizabeth A. Canuel and Amber K. Hardison
  • Carbon Isotopes - Thomas Wagner, Clayton R. Magill and Jens O. Herrle
  • Carbonate Compensation Depth - Ryan J. Woosley
  • Carbonate Minerals and the CO2-Carbonic Acid System - Abraham Lerman and Fred T. Mackenzie
  • Cerium - Catherine Chauvel
  • Chalcophile Elements - Sarah-Jane Barnes
  • Chelation - Corey D. Pilgrim
  • Chemical Bonds - Barry R. Bickmore and Matthew C. F. Wander
  • Chemical Weathering - Jérôme Viers and Priscia Oliva
  • Chlorine - Mark A. Kendrick
  • Chlorine Isotopes - Magali Bonifacie
  • Chondrites - Sara Russell
  • Chondrules - Rhian Jones
  • Chromium - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Chromium Isotopes - Devon B. Cole, Xiangli Wang, Liping Qin, Noah J. Planavsky and Christopher T. Reinhard
  • Clapeyron's Equation - Masaki Akaogi
  • Clay Membranes - Ian C. Bourg
  • Clay Minerals - Josh Wimpenny
  • Coal - Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble and James C. Hower
  • Cobalt - Olivier Pourret and Michel-Pierre Faucon
  • Colloids - Jean-François Boily
  • Complexes - Jay R. Black
  • Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis - Yi Ge Zhang
  • Copper - Xingcheng Liu and Xiaolin Xiong
  • Copper Isotopes - Paul Savage
  • Cosmic Elemental Abundances - Herbert Palme
  • Cosmogenic Nuclides - Rainer Wieler
  • Critical Points - William H. Casey and Peter A. Rock
  • Critical Zone - Justin B. Richardson
  • Crystal Chemistry - Dana T. Griffen
  • Crystal Field Theory - Hans Keppler
  • D
  • Debye-Hückel Equation - Jay R. Black
  • Density Functional Theory - David A. Dixon
  • Diagenesis - Isabel P. Montañez and Laura J. Crossey
  • Diffusion - Yan Liang
  • Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) - Hilairy Ellen Hartnett
  • Dolomite and Dolomitization - Jennifer A. Roberts
  • Dysprosium - Scott M. McLennan
  • E
  • Earth's Atmosphere - Daniele L. Pinti
  • Earth's Continental Crust - Roberta L. Rudnick
  • Earth's Core - William F. McDonough
  • Earth's Oceanic Crust - Michael Perfit
  • Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) - Stuart Kearns
  • Electronegativity - Barry R. Bickmore and Matthew C. F. Wander
  • Elements: Metalloids - David A. Dixon and Monica Vasiliu
  • Enthalpy - Carl O. Moses
  • Entropy - Carl O. Moses
  • Epigenesis - Jamie J. Wilkinson
  • Equilibrium - Heinz Gamsjäger
  • Equilibrium Constant - Erich Königsberger
  • Erbium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Europium - Matthias Willbold
  • Evaporites - John Warren
  • Experimental Mineralogy and Petrology - Charles A. Geiger and Tatsuhiko Kawamoto
  • F
  • Ferromanganese Crusts and Nodules: Rocks That Grow - Kira Mizell and James R. Hein
  • Fick's Law - Isao Sakaguchi
  • Fission Track Analysis - Stuart N. Thomson
  • Fluid Inclusions - Robert J. Bodnar
  • Fluid–Rock Interaction - William E. Glassley, Laura J. Crossey and Isabel P. Montanez
  • Fluorine - Kenneth T. Koga and Estelle F. Rose-Koga
  • Formation and Evolution of the Earth - Francis Albarède
  • Fractional Crystallization and Assimilation - Frank Spera and Melissa Scruggs
  • Free Energy - Carl O. Moses
  • Fugacity - Christopher A. Colla and William H. Casey
  • G
  • Gadolinium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Gallium - Munir Humayun
  • Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) - Patricia M. Medeiros
  • Gas Hydrates - Rajnish Kumar and Praveen Linga
  • Gas Source Mass Spectrometry (GS-MS) - Masahiko Honda and Allan R. Chivas
  • Geochemical Classification of Elements - Cin-Ty Lee
  • Geochemical Exploration - John F. H. Thompson
  • Geochemical Reference Materials - Thomas C. Meisel
  • Geochemical Thermodynamics - William H. Casey and Peter A. Rock
  • Geochemistry - William M. White
  • Geochronology and Radiogenic Isotopes - Jeff Vervoort
  • Geologic Time Scale - Mark D. Schmitz
  • Geoneutrinos - William F. McDonough
  • Geothermal Systems - Adam J. Hawkins and Jefferson W. Tester
  • Geothermometry and Geobarometry - Keith Putirka
  • Germanium - Louis A. Derry
  • Giant Impact Hypothesis - Hidenori Genda
  • Gibbs-Duhem Equation - William H. Casey and Peter A. Rock
  • Gold - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Gouy-Chapman Theory - Garrison Sposito
  • H
  • Hafnium - Janne Blichert-Toft
  • Hafnium Isotopes - Janne Blichert-Toft
  • Halide Minerals - John Warren
  • Halogens - Mark A. Kendrick
  • Heat Capacity - Brian F. Woodfield
  • Heat-Producing Elements (HPEs) - Hugh StC O'Neill
  • Helium - Yuji Sano
  • Helium Isotopes - Yuji Sano
  • Henry's Law - William M. White
  • High Field Strength Elements - Vincent J. M. Salters
  • High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry - Elizabeth B. Kujawinski
  • History of Geochemistry - William M. White
  • Holmium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Hydrocarbons - John K. Volkman
  • Hydrogen - James G. Brophy and Arndt Schimmelmann
  • Hydrogen Isotopes - Arndt Schimmelmann and Peter E. Sauer
  • Hydrologic Cycle - Giuseppe Mascaro
  • Hydrothermal Alteration - Andri Stefánsson and Barbara I. Kleine
  • Hydrothermal Solutions - Jean-François Boily
  • Hydrothermal Vents - Wolfgang Bach and Eoghan P. Reeves
  • Hypogene - Barbara I. Kleine and Andri Stefánsson
  • I
  • Incompatible Elements - Catherine Chauvel
  • Indium - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) - Maria Schönbächler
  • Iodine - Hélène Bureau
  • Ion Exchange Chromatography - Maria Schönbächler
  • Ion Microprobe - Kazuhide Nagashima
  • Ionic Radii - Hugh Rollinson and Jacob Adetunji
  • Iridium - Thomas C. Meisel
  • Iron - Munir Humayun
  • Iron Formations - Clark M. Johnson
  • Iron Isotopes - Noah J. Planavsky and Vincent Busigny
  • Iron Meteorites - Henning Haack
  • Isotope Dilution - Jon Woodhead
  • K
  • Kerogen - Steven Petsch
  • Kinetics of Geochemical Processes - Don Sparks
  • Krypton - Greg Holland
  • L
  • Laboratory Simulations of Organic Geochemical Processes at Elevated Temperatures - Jeffrey S. Seewald
  • Lanthanide Rare Earths - Scott M. McLennan
  • Lanthanum - Catherine Chauvel
  • Large-Ion Lithophile Elements - Catherine Chauvel and Roberta L. Rudnick
  • Laser Ablation – Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry - Takafumi Hirata
  • Lead - Dominique Weis
  • Lead Isotopes - Dominique Weis
  • Lipids (Bacteria and Archaea) - Ann Pearson
  • Lithium - Jeffrey G. Ryan
  • Lithium Isotopes - Jeffrey G. Ryan
  • Lithophile Elements - Frances E. Jenner and Hugh StC O'Neill
  • Low-Temperature Geochemistry - Tori Z. Forbes
  • Luminescence - Tori Z. Forbes
  • Lutetium - Scott M. McLennan
  • M
  • Magmatic Process Modeling - Mark Ghiorso
  • Magnesium - Fang-Zhen Teng
  • Magnesium Isotopes - Fang-Zhen Teng
  • Magnetism - H. Tsunakawa and Y. Yamamoto
  • Manganese - Tammie L. Gerke and Brenda J. Little
  • Mantle Geochemistry - Andreas Stracke
  • Marine Sediment - Ann G. Dunlea, Rachel P. Scudder and Richard W. Murray
  • Mass Transfer - Peter C. Lichtner
  • Mercury - Charles N. Alpers
  • Mercury Isotopes - Bridget A. Bergquist
  • Metamorphic Reactions and Processes - Eleanor C. R. Green
  • Meteorites - Michael K. Weisberg
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORB) - Charles H. Langmuir
  • Mineral Defects - Kurt Schwartz and Maik Lang
  • Mineral Genesis - Alain J. Baronnet
  • Mineralogy - Michael F. Hochella Jr.
  • Molybdenum - Anthony Chappaz, Jennifer B. Glass and Timothy W. Lyons
  • Molybdenum Isotopes - Jane Barling, Jie Yang and Yu-Hsuan Crystal Liang
  • N
  • Native Minerals - Satoshi Matsubara
  • Natural Gas - Giuseppe Etiope
  • Neodymium - Michael Bizimis and Howie D. Scher
  • Neodymium Isotopes - Michael Bizimis and Howie D. Scher
  • Neon - Manuel Moreira
  • Neon Isotopes - Moreira Manuel
  • Neutron Activation Analysis - James R. Budahn
  • Nickel - William L. Griffin and Mathieu Chassé
  • Niobium - Carsten Münker
  • Nitrogen - Pierre Cartigny
  • Nitrogen Cycle - Monica M. Palta and Hilairy Ellen Hartnett
  • Nitrogen Isotopes - Pierre Cartigny and Vincent Busigny
  • Noble Gases - Chris J. Ballentine and Peter H. Barry
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance - Corey D. Pilgrim
  • Nucleosynthesis - Jitendra Nath Goswami
  • Nutrients - J. A. Brandes
  • O
  • Ocean Biochemical Cycling and Trace Elements - Hein J. W. de Baar, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven and Rob Middag
  • Ocean Salinity, Major Elements, and Thermohaline Circulation - Hein J. W. de Baar, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven and Rob Middag
  • Oceanic Island Basalts - Matthew Gerard Jackson
  • Oil Seeps and Coastal Bitumen - David McKirdy, Andrew Ross and Asrarur Talukder
  • Oil Shale - Justin E. Birdwell
  • Oil-Oil and Oil-Source Rock Correlations - Norelis D. Rodriguez
  • Oklo Natural Nuclear Reactors - Mark J. Rigali
  • Onuma Diagrams - Chenguang Sun
  • Ore Deposits - Michel Cuney
  • Organic Facies - R. Paul Philp
  • Organic Geochemistry - John K. Volkman
  • Organic Matter Degradation and Preservation - Sandra Arndt and Douglas Edward LaRowe
  • Organic Matter in Fossils - A. D. Muscente, Andrew D. Czaja, Leigh Anne Riedman and Caitlin Colleary
  • Organics: Sources and Depositional Environments - Elisabeth Sikes
  • Osmium - Richard J. Walker
  • Osmium Isotopes - Richard J. Walker
  • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions and Eh-pH (Pourbaix) Diagrams - William H. Casey
  • Oxide Minerals - Patrick Nadoll
  • Oxygen - Edward D. Young
  • Oxygen Isotopes - Hisayoshi Yurimoto
  • Ozone and Stratospheric Chemistry - Slimane Bekki and Joël Savarino
  • P
  • Paleoclimatology - Larry C. Peterson
  • Paleoenvironments - B. D. A Naafs and R. D. Pancost
  • Paleoproductivity - Gerold Wefer
  • Paleotemperatures - Jennifer E. Hertzberg and Matthew W. Schmidt
  • Palladium - James M. Brenan
  • Paragenesis - Denton S. Ebel and Robert J. Kamilli
  • Partial Melting - Paul D. Asimow
  • Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) - Masanori Kurosawa
  • Partitioning and Partition Coefficients - Chenguang Sun
  • Peat - Thomas J. Kelly, Ian T. Lawson and Lydia E. S. Cole
  • Periodic Table - Karen Harpp
  • Petroleum - Philippe Ungerer
  • Phase Equilibria - Robert W. Luth
  • Phosphorus - Karl B. Föllmi
  • Platinum - James M. Brenan
  • Platinum Group Elements - Igor S. Puchtel
  • Poisson-Boltzmann Equation - Joan E. Curry
  • Polonium - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Polyoxometalates and Other Metal-Oxo Clusters in Nature - May Nyman
  • Porphyrins - J. William Louda
  • Potassium - Ricardo Arevalo Jr.
  • Praseodymium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Precambrian Geochemistry - Tsuyoshi Komiya
  • Precambrian Organic Matter - Roger Summons
  • Presolar Grains - Peter Hoppe
  • Programmed Temperature Pyrolysis - Kenneth E. Peters and Leonardo Briceño Rodriguez
  • Promethium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Protactinium - Julie Prytulak
  • Q
  • Quantum Numbers - David A. Dixon
  • R
  • Radioactivity - Don Porcelli
  • Radium - William M. White
  • Radon - Don Porcelli
  • Raman Microspectroscopy - András Gorzsás
  • Refractory Inclusions in Chondritic Meteorites - Alexander N. Krot and Glenn J. MacPherson
  • Rhenium - James M. Brenan
  • Rhodium - Thomas C. Meisel
  • Rubidium - Oliver Nebel
  • Ruthenium - Thomas C. Meisel
  • S
  • Samarium - Michael Bizimis and Howie D. Scher
  • Scandium - Iain M. Samson and Mathieu Chassé
  • Selenium - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Siderophile Elements - James M. D. Day
  • Silicate Melts - Pascal Richet
  • Silicate Minerals - Ritsuro Miyawaki
  • Silicon - Monica Vasiliu and David A. Dixon
  • Silicon Isotopes - Anat Shahar
  • Silver - Helen Mango
  • Sodium - Jérôme Gaillardet
  • Soils - Johannes Lehmann
  • Solid Solution/Exsolution - C. Noguera and B. Fritz
  • Solubility - Jean-François Boily
  • Stable Isotope Geochemistry - William M. White
  • Standard States - William H. Casey and Peter A. Rock
  • Stoichiometry - Anna F. Oliveri
  • Strontium - Oliver Nebel
  • Strontium Isotopes - Oliver Nebel and Jessica A. Stammeier
  • Subduction Zone Geochemistry - Terry Plank
  • Sulfate Minerals - Andrew G. Christy
  • Sulfide Minerals - Andrew G. Tomkins and Bree Morgan
  • Sulfur - James Farquhar
  • Sulfur Cycle - Martin A. Schoonen
  • Sulfur Isotopes - James Farquhar
  • Supergene - Martin Reich
  • Surface Geochemistry - Christian Ludwig and William H. Casey
  • Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis - Juan S. Lezama Pacheco and Scott E. Fendorf
  • T
  • Tantalum - Carsten Münker
  • Technetium - Yoshio Takahashi
  • Tellurium - Yoshio Takahashi
  • Terbium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Thallium - Josh Wimpenny
  • Thallium Isotopes - Sune G. Nielsen
  • Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry - John C. Lassiter
  • Thermogravimetry - Jiri Kucerik
  • Thorium - Vincent J. M. Salters
  • Thulium - Scott M. McLennan
  • Tin - William M. White
  • Titanium - Jay B. Thomas
  • Trace Elements - William M. White
  • Transition Elements - Dante Canil
  • Tungsten - George R. Helz
  • Tungsten Isotopes - Thorsten Kleine
  • U
  • Unified Atomic Mass Unit, Avogadro Constant, and Mole - Norman E. Holden
  • Uranium - Vincent J. M. Salters
  • Uranium Decay Series - Bernard Bourdon
  • V
  • Van der Waals Force - Taku Tsuchiya
  • Vanadium - Olivier Pourret and Aline Dia
  • Volcanic Gases - Alessandro Aiuppa and Fabrice Gaillard
  • Volcanism - Nick Rogers
  • W
  • Water - Carl O. Moses
  • X
  • Xenon - Sujoy Mukhopadhyay
  • Xenon Isotopes - Sujoy Mukhopadhyay
  • X-Ray Diffraction - Tori Z. Forbes
  • X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis - Izumi Nakai
  • Y
  • Ytterbium - J. H. L. Voncken
  • Yttrium - J. H. L. Voncken
  • Z
  • Zinc - Joël Brugger
  • Zinc Isotopes - Frédéric Moynier
  • Zirconium - Carsten Münker