Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series: Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Production

Editor/Author Lipman, Timothy E. and Weber, Adam
Publication Year: 2019
Publisher: Springer Science+Business Media

Single-User Purchase Price: $799.99
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: Not Available
ISBN: 978-1-4939-7789-5
Category: Technology & Engineering - Engineering
Image Count: 593
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This handbook offers concise yet comprehensive coverage of the current state of fuel cell research and identifies key areas for future investigation.

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Table of Contents

  • Series Preface
  • Volume Preface
  • About the Editor-in-Chief
  • Ediors and Contributors
  • Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Production: Introduction - Adam Z. Weber and Timothy E. Lipman
  • Hydrogen Production Section
  • Fuel Cell Section
  • Bibliography
  • Part I Fuel Cells
  • Fuel Cell Comparison to Alternate Technologies - Julia Kunze-Liebhäuser, Odysseas Paschos, Sethu Sundar Pethaiah and Ulrich Stimming
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • Classical Heat Engines
  • Electrochemical Systems
  • Electromobility: An Example for Combining Key Energy Technologies
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Fuel Cell Systems: Total Cost of Ownership - Max Wei, Ahmad Mayyas, Timothy E. Lipman, Hanna Breunig, Roberto Scataglini, Shuk Han Chan, Joshua Chien, David Gosselin and Nadir Saggiorato
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Modeling Approach
  • Fuel Cell System Designs and Functional Specifications
  • Total Cost of Ownership Modeling Results
  • Summary
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Fuel Cell Types and Their Electrochemistry - Günther G. Scherer
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • What Is a Fuel Cell?
  • The Role of the Electrolyte
  • Classification of Fuel Cell Types
  • The Role of Electrocatalysis and the Electrode /Electrolyte Interface
  • Fuel Cell Families
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Polymer Electrolyte (PE) Fuel Cell Systems - John F. Elter
  • Glossary
  • Definition of Subject
  • Introduction
  • The PEM Fuel Cell Industry
  • Fuel Cell Basics
  • Critical Parameters/Critical Specifications
  • Recent Advancements
  • Fuel Cell System Design
  • Technical Readiness
  • System Cost and Reliability
  • Fuel Cell Systems and Sustainability
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells: Automotive Applications - Shyam S. Kocha
  • Glossary
  • Definition of Subject: Automotive PEM Fuel Cells
  • Introduction
  • Brief History of Automotive Fuel Cells
  • Automotive PEMFCS
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • PEM Fuel Cells: Materials and Design Development Challenges - Stephen J. Paddison and Hubert A. Gasteiger
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • Processes in an MEA and Voltage–Loss Terms
  • Ion and Water Transport in Ionomers
  • Degradation of Pt-Based Catalysts
  • Carbon-Support Corrosion
  • Membrane Development Needs and Approaches
  • Temperature Targets
  • Proton Conductivity
  • Reactant Gas Permeability
  • Morphology
  • Choice of the Protogenic Group
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • PEM Fuel Cell Materials: Costs, Performance, and Durability - A. de Frank Bruijn and Gaby J. M. Janssen
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • PEMFC Component Costs and Performance: Targets, Status and Developments
  • Operating Conditions Leading to Performance Loss and Shortening the PEMFC Lifetime
  • Materials Degradation and the Relation to Performance Loss and Shortening the PEMFC Lifetime
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • PEM Fuel Cells: Modeling - M. Secanell, A. Jarauta, A. Kosakian, M. Sabharwal and J. Zhou
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Fuel Cell Components and Operation
  • General Models
  • Microscale Simulation for Parameter Estimation
  • Implementation
  • Conclusion
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • PEM Fuel Cells and Platinum-Based Electrocatalysts - Junliang Zhang
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Electrocatalysis of the ORR at Platinum Surfaces
  • Pt-Alloy Electrocatalysts
  • Pt Monolayer Electrocatalysts
  • Pt and Pt-Alloy Nanowire and Nanotube Electrocatalysts
  • Facet- and Shape-Controlled Pt-Alloy Nanocrystal Electrocatalysts
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells with Low-Pt Content - Anusorn Kongkanand, Wenbin Gu and Mark F. Mathias
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • PEM Fuel Cell Electrodes
  • Performance of Low-Pt Fuel Cell
  • Local Transport Resistance
  • Ionomer Thin Film and Ionomer-Pt Interface
  • Catalyst Roadmap
  • Durability of Low-Pt Fuel Cell
  • Other Challenges
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM-FC) and Non-noble Metal Catalysts for Oxygen Reduction - Ulrike I. Kramm, Peter Bogdanoff and Sebastian Fiechter
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Transition Metal Carbides, Nitrides, and Chalcogenides
  • Non-noble Metal Catalysts with Molecular Centers
  • NNMC and Their Potential for PEM-FC Application
  • Future Direction
  • Bibliography
  • Membrane Electrolytes, from Perfluorosulfonic Acid (PFSA) to Hydrocarbon Ionomers - Kenji Miyatake
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • Perfluorosulfonic Acid Ionomer Membranes
  • Hydrocarbon Ionomer Membranes
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Ionomer Thin Films in PEM Fuel Cells - Ahmet Kusoglu
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction: Ionomers in Fuel Cells
  • Ionomer Thin Films
  • Summary and Remarks
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells - Robert C. T. Slade, Jamie P. Kizewski, Simon D. Poynton, Rong Zeng and John R. Varcoe
  • Glossary
  • Definition
  • Introduction
  • An Overview of Alkaline Anion-Exchange Membranes (AEMs)
  • Properties of AEMs
  • Synthetic Routes to AEMs
  • Development of Alkaline Ionomers
  • AMFCs with H2 as Fuel
  • The Application of AEMs in Other Fuel Cell Types
  • A Brief Overview of the Patent Literature
  • Future Directions and Research Challenges
  • Bibliography
  • Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: High-Temperature, Low-Humidity Operation - Steven J. Hamrock and Andrew M. Herring
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
  • Electrolyte Membranes
  • PFSAs
  • Non-fluorinated or Hydrocarbon PEMs
  • Mechanical Stabilization of Low EW Membranes
  • Stabilizing Low EW Membranes Through Chemical Modification of the Ionomer
  • Conductivity Enhancing/Stabilizing Inorganic Additives
  • Electrodes
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Polybenzimidazole Fuel Cell Technology: Theory, Performance, and Applications - Andrew T. Pingitore, Max Molleo, Thomas J. Schmidt and Brian C. Benicewicz
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction to Polybenzimidazole Fuel Cell Sustainability
  • History and Technical Information of Polybenzimidazole Membranes
  • PBI/PA Fuel Cell Systems and Their Applications
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications - Sridhar V. Kanuri and Sathya Motupally
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Market Requirements
  • Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells
  • Cell Stack Assembly Components
  • Cell Stack Assembly Life
  • PAFC Applications
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells - Choong-Gon Lee
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Components of MCFC
  • Performance Analysis
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - A. Atkinson, S. J. Skinner and J. A. Kilner
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • Novel Devices and Configurations
  • Microtubular SOFCs
  • Mixed Reactant Fuel Cells
  • Dual Proton-Oxygen Ion-Conducting Cells
  • Novel Materials
  • Electrolyte Materials
  • Electrode Materials
  • Accelerated Materials Discovery
  • Development of In Situ Diagnostics
  • In Situ Materials Characterization
  • Neutron Scattering Studies of Fuel Cell Oxides
  • Synchrotron X-Ray Studies
  • Raman Spectroscopy
  • Summary
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Fuel Cells (SOFC): Alternative Approaches (Electrolytes, Electrodes, Fuels) - K. Sasaki, Y. Nojiri, Y. Shiratori and S. Taniguchi
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Alternative Electrolyte Materials
  • Oxygen Ionic Conductors
  • Protonic Conductors
  • Alternative Electrode Materials
  • Anode Materials
  • Alternative Fuels
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Direct Hydrocarbon Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - Michael Van Den Bossche and Steven Mcintosh
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Copper-Ceria
  • Lanthanum Chromates
  • Double Perovskites
  • Strontium Titanates
  • Other Materials of Interest
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials: Durability, Reliability, and Cost - Harumi Yokokawa and Teruhisa Horita
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Historical Aspects of Reliability, Durability, and Cost Issues
  • Durability/Reliability of SOFC Systems
  • Cost Issues
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Marketing Issues - John Bøgild Hansen and Niels Christiansen
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • The Global Energy Challenge
  • Briefly on the SOFC Technology
  • Markets
  • Major SOFC Players
  • Steps in Commercialization
  • Competitiveness
  • Summing Up
  • Future Directions
  • Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Sustainability Aspects - K. U. Birnbaum, Robert Steinberger-Wilckens and P. Zapp
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • High-Efficiency Energy Converters Based on SOFC
  • CO2 Emission Reductions from Employing SOFCs
  • Materials Inventory of SOFC Concepts
  • Environmental Impacts
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Part II Hydrogen Production Science and Technology
  • Hydrogen Production Science and Technology - Timothy E. Lipman
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Review of Hydrogen Production Methods
  • Hydrogen Production Costs
  • Hydrogen at Scale
  • Conclusion
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production Through Electrolysis - Abudukeremu Kadier, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Washington Logroño, Azah Mohamed and Hassimi Abu Hasan
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Advantages of MECs over Other Hydrogen Production Technologies
  • Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC): Fundamentals
  • Crucial Operating Factors Affecting H2 Production in MECs
  • Various Applications of MECs Beyond Hydrogen Production
  • Conclusions and Future Application of MECs
  • Bibliography
  • Electrochemical Hydrogen Production - Marc T. M. Koper
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • General Theory
  • More Detailed Theories and Simulations
  • Hydrogen Evolution at Metal Electrodes
  • Hydrogen Evolution at (Electrodes Modified with) Molecular Catalysts in Aqueous and Nonaqueous Solvents
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production from Biological Sources - Ao Xia, Xun Zhu and Qiang Liao
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Glossary
  • Introduction
  • Substrates for Dark Fermentation
  • Pre-treatment of Raw Materials
  • Process Control and Optimization
  • Bioreactors for Hydrogen Production
  • Use of Hydrogen as a Transport Fuel
  • Further Use of Volatile Fatty Acids as a Biorefinery
  • Potential of Biomass Wastes: A Case Study in China
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives
  • Bibliography
  • Biohydrogen Production - Suphi Ş. Öncel and Ayşe Köse
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Metabolic Machinery Microalgal Biohydrogen Production
  • Conventional Methods for Genetic Optimization
  • Genetic Modifications in Terms of Biohydrogen Production
  • Systems Biology Approach for Understanding Biohydrogen Production
  • Targeted Genome Engineering (TGE)
  • Bioethics
  • Opinions on Biohydrogen Research
  • Conclusion
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Biohydrogen Production from Agricultural Residues - Emmanuel Koukios and Ioannis (John) A. Panagiotopoulos
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Biohydrogen Production via Dark Fermentation
  • Process Parameters
  • Agricultural Residues
  • Pretreatment of Agricultural Residues for Biohydrogen Production
  • Fermentation Inhibitors
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Genetic Optimization for Increasing Hydrogen Production in Microalgae - Cecilia Faraloni and Giuseppe Torzillo
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Potential of Microalgal Engineering: Application Fields and Advantages
  • Enzymes Which Catalyze the Biological Hydrogen Production: Hydrogenase and Nitrogenase
  • Description of the Mechanisms of Biohydrogen Production Used by Microalgae
  • Different Pathways for Hydrogen Production in Microalgae Which May Be Influenced by Genetic Engineering Approach
  • Approaches to Promote H2 Production: Two-Stage Hydrogen Production (Sulfur Deprivation Technique)
  • Mutant Strains of Microalgae for Increasing H2 Production
  • Monitoring the PSII Performance During H2 Production in Mutant Strains by Means of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Changes During Sulfur Starvation
  • Future directions
  • Bibliography
  • Advances on Inorganic Membrane Reactors for Production of Hydrogen - Adolfo Iulianelli and Angelo Basile
  • Introduction: Membrane Reactors
  • The Role of the Pd-Based Membranes Applied to MRs
  • Conclusion and Future Trends
  • Abbreviations and Symbols
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production Through Pyrolysis - Ali Bakhtyari, Mohammad Amin Makarem and Mohammad Reza Rahimpour
  • Introduction
  • Hydrogen: A Clean and Sustainable Energy Carrier
  • Hydrogen Market: A Criterion for Decision
  • Hydrogen Applications: Wide Usefulness
  • Hydrogen Production: Wide Spread of Routes
  • Pyrolysis: An Efficient Route
  • Hydrogen from Biomass Feedstock: A Renewable and Sustainable Route
  • Biomass: Cheap and Abundant Feedstock
  • Bio-oil
  • Pyrolysis of Biomass
  • Liquefaction of Biomass
  • Pyrolysis vs. Liquefaction
  • Pyrolysis Specifications
  • The Kinetics of Gas Generation Reactions in the Pyrolysis of Biomass
  • Pyrolysis of Methane: A Suitable Alternative
  • Pyrolysis of Hydrogen Sulfide: Energy Delivery and Decontamination
  • Conclusion, Further Studies, and Outlook
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production from Algal Pathways - Muhammad Aziz and Ilman Nuran Zaini
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • Algae Potential
  • Key Technologies
  • Highly Energy-Efficient Integrated Systems
  • Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting - Paula Dias and Adélio Mendes
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject and Its Importance
  • Introduction
  • PEC Water Splitting: Working Principles
  • PEC Materials Overview
  • PEC Devices Overview
  • Efficiency
  • Stability/Photocorrosion
  • PEC Reactors
  • Measurements Protocols
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen via Direct Solar Production - Shamindri M. Arachchige and Karen J. Brewer
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Photochemical Water Splitting
  • Components for Supramolecular Solar Hydrogen Photocatalysis
  • Solar Hydrogen Photocatalysis
  • Iron-Based System
  • Rh-Based Supramolecular and Multicomponent Systems
  • Co-Based Supramolecular and Multicomponent Systems
  • Pt and Pd-Based Homogeneous Systems for Solar Hydrogen Production
  • Palladium-Based Supramolecular Solar Hydrogen Photocatalysts
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Photo-Catalytic Hydrogen Production - Jiefang Zhu
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Principle of Photocatalytic H2 Production
  • Evaluation of Photocatalytic H2 Production
  • Experimental Setup for Photocatalytic H2 Production
  • Photocatalysts for H2 Production
  • Development and Modification of H2 Production Photocatalysts
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Hydrogen Production from High-Temperature Fuel Cells - Jacob Brouwer and Pere Margalef
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Key Principles of Poly-Generation of H2 with HTFC
  • Cycle Configurations for Poly–Generating HTFC
  • Comparative Efficiency Analyses
  • Hydrogen Transport Impacts on Comparative Analyses
  • Discussion of Scientific Basis for Observed Performance
  • World's First Poly–Generating HTFC System
  • Future Directions
  • Bibliography
  • Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production - Rami S. El-Emam and Ibrahim Dincer
  • Glossary
  • Definition of the Subject
  • Introduction
  • Routes of Nuclear Energy for Hydrogen Production
  • Generation IV Nuclear Reactors for Hydrogen Production
  • Safety Aspects of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plants
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Bibliography