Handbook on Animal-Assisted Therapy

Editor: Fine, Aubrey
Publication Year: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology

ISBN: 978-0-12-815395-6
Category: Animals & Veterinary Medicine
Image Count: 44
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: Sept 2020
Table of Contents

This book will help therapists discover the benefits of incorporating animal assisted therapy into their practice, how to design and implement animal assisted interventions, and the efficacy of animal assisted therapy with different disorders and patient populations. Coverage includes the use of AAT with children, families and the elderly, in counseling and psychotherapy settings, and for treating a variety of specific disorders.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • About the Editor
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • The Conceptualization of the Animal-Human Bond: The Foundation for Understanding Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • Understanding Our Kinship With Animals: Input for Health Care Professionals Interested in the Human–Animal Bond
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Introduction to the Human–Animal Bond
  • 1.3 Defining the Human–Animal Bond
  • 1.4 Pets and People: Case Studies Reveal the Importance
  • 1.5 Theories Explaining the Bond
  • 1.6 The Biological Benefits of the Bond
  • 1.7 Final Remarks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Animal-Assisted Interventions in Historical Perspective
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Animal Souls and Spiritual Healing
  • 2.3 Animal Powers and Shamanism
  • 2.4 Animism in Classical and Medieval Times
  • 2.5 Animals as Agents of Socialization
  • 2.6 Animals and Psychotherapy
  • 2.7 Animals, Relaxation, and Social Support
  • 2.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Forward Thinking: The Evolving Field of Human–Animal Interactions
  • 3.1 To See Where We Are Headed, We Must See Where We Have Been
  • 3.2 Levinson’s Early Research Challenges: Their Relevance to Today’s HAI
  • 3.3 Developing Common Terminology
  • 3.4 Redefining Our Relationship With Animals and the Living World
  • 3.4.1 Animals at Home and in the Community
  • 3.4.2 Embracing Biophilia and Moving Toward Biocentrism
  • 3.4.3 One Health and Global Perspective
  • 3.4.4 Therapeutic Transfer
  • 3.4.4.1 Animal Welfare as a Feature of Training, Working Conditions, and the AAI Environment
  • 3.5 What Do Animals Have to Do With Human Health?
  • 3.5.1 Public Health and Wellness
  • 3.5.2 Social Capital
  • 3.5.3 Birds Tweet? Technology and AAIs
  • 3.5.4 Nature Deprivation
  • 3.5.5 Animal Welfare in AAIs
  • 3.6 Research Directions
  • 3.6.1 Research Directions for Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 3.6.2 Research Directions for Animals in Communities and One Health
  • 3.7 Professionalizing the Field
  • 3.7.1 The Importance of Education
  • 3.7.2 A Call for Specialized Training, Certification, and Standards of Practice
  • 3.8 Into the Future
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Influence of Cultural and Religious Factors on Attitudes Toward Animals
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Cultural and Religious Factors
  • 4.2.1 Significance of Cultural Continuity
  • 4.2.1.1 Omoiyari (Altruistic Sensitivity)–A Core Japanese Cultural Value
  • 4.2.1.2 The Importance of Familismo in the Latino Community
  • 4.2.2 Significance of Acculturation
  • 4.2.2.1 Example: Western Context
  • 4.3 A Culturally Responsive Framework for AAI
  • 4.3.1 Cultural Self-Awareness
  • 4.3.2 Knowledge of Clients
  • 4.3.3 Developing Skills
  • 4.4 Conclusion
  • Dedication
  • References
  • The Social Capital of Companion Animals: Pets as a Catalyst for Social Networks and Support… and a Barometer of Community Violence
  • 5.1 What Is Social Capital?
  • 5.2 Animals and Social Capital
  • 5.3 The Absence of Pets and Social Capital
  • 5.4 Estimating Community Pet Populations
  • 5.5 Estimating Unwanted, Abused, Free-Roaming, and Aggressive Animal Populations
  • 5.6 The Urban Community Link: Pets as Calming Ambassadors of Nature
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Living With Assistance Dogs and Other Animals: Their Therapeutic Roles and Psychosocial Health Effects
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Definitions of Assistance Dogs and Other Animals Used in Human Health
  • 6.3 Patterns of Changes of Assistance Dogs
  • 6.3.1 Numbers of Assistance Dogs and Changes of Their Roles6
  • 6.3.2 Psychosocial Effects of Assistance Dogs, Especially for Partners’ Psychiatric and Cognitive Needs
  • 6.3.3 Service Dogs for Military Personnel and Veterans
  • 6.4 Effects of Assistance Dogs and Benefits Gained From Living With Dogs
  • 6.4.1 Benefits of Assistance Dogs to Their Handlers
  • 6.4.2 Potential of Companion Animals to Enhance Handlers’ Quality of Life
  • 6.4.3 Effects of Animals’ Social Support on Handlers’ Loneliness and Depression
  • 6.4.4 Socializing Effects of Dogs
  • 6.4.5 Motivating Effects of Dogs
  • 6.4.6 Physiologic and Calming Effects of Dogs
  • 6.4.7 Synergistic Relationships With the Interacting Animals
  • 6.5 Therapeutic Roles of Both Assistance Dogs and Companion Dogs
  • 6.6 Considerations When Living With Animals
  • 6.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • The Animal–Human Bond: Health and Wellness
  • 7.1 Health Benefits From Animal-Assisted Activities
  • 7.1.1 Individual Animal-Assisted Activities
  • 7.1.2 Group Animal-Assisted Activities
  • 7.1.3 Summary
  • 7.2 Epidemiological Evidence of Health Benefits
  • 7.2.1 Summary
  • 7.3 Experimental or Quasiexperimental Research
  • 7.3.1 Effects of Explicitly Looking at or Observing Animals or Pictures of Animals
  • 7.3.2 Effects of Implicitly Observing or Being in the Presence of an Animal
  • 7.3.3 Effects of Interacting With Animals
  • 7.3.4 Summary
  • 7.3.5 Clinical Trials of Pet Interventions
  • 7.4 Discussion
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Animal-Assisted Interventions and Therapy: Conceptual Model and Guidelines for Quality Assurance
  • What’s Love Got to Do With It? Selecting Animals for Animal-Assisted Mental Health Interventions
  • 8.1 Step 1: Clarifying the Purpose of Animals in Practice
  • 8.2 Step 2: Determining the Category—and Approach—of Animal Interventions
  • 8.3 Delivery Approach
  • 8.4 Step 3: Developing Animal Staff Job Descriptions
  • 8.5 Step 4: MacNamara Animal Capability Assessment Model
  • 8.5.1 Interplay and Interaction of Animal-Assisted Intervention Factors
  • 8.6 Potential for Animal Stress
  • 8.6.1 An Exception: Sometimes Love Does Have Something to Do With It
  • 8.6.1.1 Animal-Informed Versus Animal-Assisted Therapy
  • 8.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Getting the Right Dog for the Right Job for Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI): Essential Understanding of Dog Behavior and Ethology for Those Working Within AAI
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Part 1: The Value of Dogs Within Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 9.2.1 Is There Anything Special About Why Dogs Are Chosen for Animal-Assisted Intervention Work?
  • 9.2.2 Relationship Between the Client and the Dog in Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 9.2.3 Specific Attributes of Dogs Involved in Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 9.3 Part 2: Risk Management
  • 9.3.1 Getting the Right Dog for the Right Job
  • 9.4 Part 3: Welfare and Our Ethical Obligations
  • 9.4.1 Sources of Distress in General Management
  • 9.4.2 Sources of Distress in the Therapeutic Setting
  • 9.4.3 Regulation of Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 9.5 Concluding Comments
  • References
  • The Role of the Equine in Animal-Assisted Interactions*
  • 10.1 History of Equine Interactions
  • 10.2 Role of Equine in Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies—The Horse as the Therapist
  • 10.3 Equine Welfare
  • 10.4 Why a Horse?
  • 10.5 Hippotherapy
  • 10.6 Benefits and Outcomes of Therapeutic Riding and Hippotherapy
  • 10.7 Evolution and Role of the Equine in Therapeutic Riding
  • 10.8 Evidence-Based Research
  • 10.9 Evidence Involving Therapeutic Riding and Children
  • 10.10 Evidence Involving Therapeutic Riding and Adults
  • 10.11 Credentials for Therapeutic Riding Instruction
  • 10.12 The Therapeutic Riding Lesson Team
  • 10.13 Definition, Evolution, and Role of the Equine in Hippotherapy
  • 10.14 Theoretical Base
  • 10.15 Physical Context
  • 10.16 Evidence-Based Research
  • 10.17 The Hippotherapy Team
  • 10.18 Hippotherapy Credentials
  • 10.19 Mental Health Programs
  • 10.20 Role of the Mental Health Professional in Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy/Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy
  • 10.21 Theoretical Underpinnings
  • 10.22 Evidence-Based Research Involving Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy/Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy for Children and Youths
  • 10.23 Evidence Involving Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy/Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy and Adults
  • 10.24 Evidence Involving Equine-Facilitated Psychotherapy/Equine-Assisted Psychotherapy and Victims of Trauma
  • 10.25 Military Trauma, Mental Health, and Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies
  • 10.26 Equine Learning Programs
  • 10.26.1 EFLuine-Facilitated Learning/Equine-Assisted Learning, and Equine-Facilitated Mental Health and Learning
  • 10.26.2 EFLuine-Facilitated Learning/Equine-Assisted Learning and Equine-Facilitated/Assisted Learning for Children and Adults
  • 10.27 Therapeutic Carriage Driving
  • 10.28 Members of the Therapeutic Carriage Driving Team
  • 10.29 Therapeutic Carriage Driving Certification
  • 10.30 Military Veterans and Therapeutic Carriage Driving
  • 10.31 Therapeutic Vaulting
  • 10.32 Benefits
  • 10.33 Examples of Therapeutic Vaulting Exercises
  • 10.34 Credentials for Therapeutic Vaulting
  • 10.35 General Examples of Safety Considerations for All Types of Equine-Assisted Activities/Equine-Assisted Therapy
  • 10.36 Who May Participate?
  • 10.37 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Understanding the Other End of the Leash: What Therapists Need to Understand About Their Cotherapists
  • Our Ethical and Moral Responsibility: Ensuring the Welfare of Therapy Animals
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Defining Animal Welfare
  • 12.3 Benefits to Animals in AAI
  • 12.3.1 Social Benefits
  • 12.3.2 Physiologic Benefits
  • 12.3.3 Behavioral Benefits
  • 12.4 Measuring Animal Welfare in AAI Research
  • 12.4.1 Cortisol
  • 12.4.2 Behavior
  • 12.4.3 Correlating Physiology and Behavior
  • 12.4.4 Other Measures of Animal Welfare
  • 12.5 Research Applications
  • 12.6 Practical Applications
  • 12.6.1 Eligibility/Selection of the Dog
  • 12.6.1.1 Age
  • 12.6.1.2 Diet
  • 12.6.2 Medical Screening
  • 12.6.2.1 Preventive Health
  • 12.6.2.2 Diagnostic Screening
  • 12.6.3 Behavioral Evaluation
  • 12.6.3.1 Equipment
  • 12.6.3.2 Frequency of Behavioral Evaluation
  • 12.7 Managing the Factors of Stress to the Therapy Animal
  • 12.7.1 The Handler
  • 12.7.2 The Environment
  • 12.7.3 The Participant
  • 12.7.4 The Intervention Itself
  • 12.8 Animal-Assisted Intervention Monitoring
  • 12.9 Managing Adverse Events
  • 12.10 Ethical Decision-Making
  • 12.11 Conclusions
  • References
  • The Veterinarian’s Role in Safe and Effective Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Best Practices in Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 13.3 The Veterinarian’s Role in AAI
  • 13.3.1 Animal Considerations
  • 13.3.2 Handler Considerations
  • 13.3.3 Facilities Considerations
  • 13.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Best Practices in Animal-Assisted Therapy: Guidelines for Use of AAT With Special Populations
  • Incorporating Animal-Assisted Interventions Into Psychotherapy Guidelines and Suggestions for Therapists
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 The Need for Research
  • 14.2.1 Objective of the Chapter
  • 14.3 The Role of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Psychotherapy: Is There Such a Thing as an Animal-Assisted Therapy Prescription?
  • 14.4 Consideration 1—Why Clinicians May Find Animals Therapeutically Beneficial
  • 14.4.1 Animals as a Social Lubricant for Therapy
  • 14.4.2 Benefits of Animals as an Extension to a Therapist: A Method for Rapport Building
  • 14.4.3 Therapeutic Benefit of Animals in Therapy: Catalyst for Emotion, Engagement, and Motivation
  • 14.4.4 Animals Acting as Adjuncts to Clinicians
  • 14.4.5 The Use of the Relationship With Animals Vicariously—Role Modeling
  • 14.5 Consideration 2—The Therapeutic Environment: Animals as an Aspect of Milieu Therapy
  • 14.6 Consideration 3—Incorporating Theory Into Practice: Animal-Assisted Therapy From a Life Stage Perspective
  • 14.6.1 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Children
  • 14.6.2 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Adolescence
  • 14.6.3 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for Adults
  • 14.6.4 Suggested Developmental Goals and Treatment Purposes for the Adults
  • 14.7 Practical Suggestions for Clinicians Applying Animals
  • 14.7.1 Training and Liability
  • 14.7.2 Precautions for the Clients
  • 14.7.3 Retirement and Death of a Therapy Animal
  • 14.7.4 Additional Concerns
  • 14.8 Future Directions
  • 14.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Application of Animal-Assisted Interventions in Professional Mental Health Settings: An Overview of Practice Considerations
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Professional Applications of Animal-Assisted Intervention: Gaps in the Literature
  • 15.2.1 Animal-Assisted Interventions in Mental Health: How Professionals Use Animal-Assisted Interventions With Their Clients
  • 15.2.2 Research Needs Pertaining to Animal Welfare and Well-Being in Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 15.3 Professional Practice Foundations
  • 15.3.1 Theoretical Foundations of Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 15.3.2 Competencies
  • 15.3.3 Ethical Considerations and Animal Welfare
  • 15.3.4 Benefits of Animal-Assisted Intervention in Psychotherapy: The Research
  • 15.4 Animal-Assisted Intervention in Psychotherapeutic Practice
  • 15.4.1 Forms and Techniques of Animal-Assisted Intervention in Psychotherapy
  • 15.4.1.1 Therapeutic Use of Metaphors
  • 15.4.1.2 Storytelling
  • 15.4.1.3 Walking Therapy
  • 15.4.1.4 Animal-Assisted Play Therapy
  • 15.4.1.5 Bibliotherapy
  • 15.4.1.6 Puppetry
  • 15.4.1.7 Therapeutically Focused Dog Training
  • 15.4.2 Levels of Structure in Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 15.4.2.1 Nondirective Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 15.4.2.2 Nondirective Animal-Assisted Play Therapy
  • 15.4.2.3 Client-Centered Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 15.4.2.4 The World’s Most Powerful Horse
  • 15.4.2.5 Give a Dog a Ball
  • 15.4.2.6 Teaching a Dog a New Trick
  • 15.4.2.7 Impulse Control Games
  • 15.4.3 Goodness of Fit
  • 15.4.4 Clinical Decision Making With Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 15.4.4.1 Factors Important to Good Decision Making
  • 15.4.4.2 Treatment Planning Before Using Animal-Assisted Intervention With Clients
  • 15.4.4.3 Decision Making Before Using Animal-Assisted Intervention in Specific Sessions With a Client
  • 15.4.4.4 Decision Making During Animal-Assisted Intervention Sessions
  • 15.5 Suggestions for Training and Certification
  • 15.6 Future Directions
  • References
  • Animals in the Lives of Children
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Where Are Animals in Children’s Lives?
  • 16.3 What Do Animals Mean in Children’s Lives?
  • 16.3.1 Physiological Development
  • 16.3.2 Cognitive Development
  • 16.3.3 Social-Emotional Development
  • 16.3.4 Moral Development
  • 16.4 Clinical Implications for Animal-Assisted Therapy/Animal-Assisted Intervention
  • 16.4.1 Animal Puppets, Books, and Props
  • 16.4.2 Living Animals in the Therapy Context
  • 16.4.3 Animals as Stress Reduction
  • 16.4.4 Helping Children Cope With Animal Loss
  • 16.4.5 Animals in Family Systems Therapy
  • 16.4.6 Animals Can Convey Safety
  • 16.4.7 Animal Analogues for AAT
  • 16.5 Integrating Theory and Research
  • 16.6 Best Practices in AAT With Children
  • 16.6.1 Guidelines for Best Practices of AAT With Children and Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Animals in Educational Settings: Research and Practice
  • 17.1 Chapter Overview
  • 17.2 Theoretical Underpinnings and Background of AAE
  • 17.3 Research: What We Know So Far
  • 17.4 Ways in Which Animals Are Incorporated Into Classrooms
  • 17.4.1 Humane Education
  • 17.4.2 Reading Programs
  • 17.5 Suggested Guidelines for the Inclusion of Animals in Classrooms
  • 17.6 Policy Recommendations for Animals in the Classroom
  • 17.6.1 Key Element: The Student
  • 17.6.1.1 Child Health and Safety
  • 17.6.1.2 Educational Needs/Goals
  • 17.6.1.3 Emotional States of the Student
  • 17.6.2 Key Element: The Animal(s)
  • 17.6.2.1 Animal Health and Safety
  • 17.6.3 Key Element: The Teacher
  • 17.7 Applied Example–Risk Assessment and Implementation for Research and Practice
  • 17.8 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • The Roles of Animals for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Why Animals for Autism Spectrum Disorder?
  • 18.2.1 Animals as Social Catalysts
  • 18.2.2 Animals as Stress Reducers
  • 18.2.3 Animals and Sensory-Based Thinking
  • 18.2.3.1 Sensory Oversensitivity
  • 18.2.3.2 Factors That Worsen Sensory Problems
  • 18.3 Animal-Assisted Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.3.1 Animal-Assisted Intervention With Dogs
  • 18.3.2 Animal-Assisted Intervention With Horses
  • 18.3.3 Animal-Assisted Intervention With Other Animals
  • 18.3.4 Suggestions to Consider When Choosing and Implementing Animal-Assisted Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.3.5 Case Examples of Animal-Assisted Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.3.6 Suggestions for Bridging Research With Clinical Practice
  • 18.4 Service Animals for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.4.1 Suggestions to Consider Before Obtaining a Service Dog for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.5 Companion Animals for Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 18.6 Animal Welfare Issues
  • 18.6.1 Service Dog Welfare
  • 18.6.2 Horse Welfare
  • 18.6.3 Other Animal Welfare
  • 18.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Animal Assisted Interventions for Children With Disorders of Executive Function: The Influence of Humane Education and Character Development on the P.A.C.K. Model
  • 19.1 Chapter Overview
  • 19.2 Executive Function and Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 19.3 Therapeutic and School-Based Application of Animal- Assisted Interventions for Improving Executive Function
  • 19.3.1 Psychosocial Intervention Strategies
  • 19.3.2 Integrating Humane Education and Character Development: Two Key Variables for Success
  • 19.3.3 The Case for Social Skills Training Leading to Improved Executive Function
  • 19.4 Supporting Generalization of P.A.C.K.: Home, School, and Out-of-School Contexts
  • 19.4.1 Home
  • 19.4.2 School
  • 19.5 Initial Findings and Lessons Learned
  • 19.6 Safety Concerns: Key Elements—Children and Animals
  • 19.7 Summary
  • References
  • Human–Animal Interaction in the Aging Boom
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Human–Companion Animal Interactions and Aging
  • 20.2.1 Changes in the Human–Animal Bond in Older Adults
  • 20.2.2 The Physiologic Influence of Companion Animals
  • 20.2.3 Psychosocial Influences of Companion Animals
  • 20.2.3.1 Animal-Assisted Interventions for Older Adults
  • 20.3 Facilitating Relationships Between Pets and Older Adults
  • 20.3.1 “Aging in Place”
  • 20.3.2 TigerPlace Pet Initiative
  • 20.4 Pet Selection
  • 20.4.1 Community-Dwelling Older Adults
  • 20.4.2 Pets in Long-Term Care Facilities
  • 20.5 Guidelines for Animal-Assisted Interventions With Older Adults
  • 20.5.1 Animal-Assisted Interventions in Retirement Residences and Nursing Homes
  • 20.5.2 Activity-Based AAI for Older Adults
  • 20.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Animal-Assisted Interventions in Hospitals
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Why Animal-Assisted Intervention in Hospital Settings Is Different
  • 21.2.1 Infection Control
  • 21.2.2 Compassion Fatigue
  • 21.2.3 Animal-Assisted Therapy or Animal-Assisted Activities
  • 21.3 Animal-Assisted Interventions on Inpatient Pediatric Services
  • 21.4 Animal-Assisted Interventions on Inpatient Psychiatric Services
  • 21.5 Animal-Assisted Interventions on Inpatient Oncology Services
  • 21.6 Animal-Assisted Interventions on Other Hospital Services
  • 21.7 Animal-Assisted Intervention Implications for the Hospital Organization
  • 21.8 Summary
  • References
  • Animal-Assisted Activities in Colleges and Universities: An Efficient Model for Reducing Student Stress
  • 22.1 Overview: Characteristics and Strengths of Animal-Assisted Activities
  • 22.2 Supporting Evidence
  • 22.2.1 Summary and Conclusions
  • 22.3 Research Agenda
  • 22.4 Summary and Conclusion
  • References
  • Understanding the Role of Human–Animal Interaction in the Family Context
  • 23.1 Understanding the Role of Human–Animal Interaction in the Family Context
  • 23.2 Animals in the Family System
  • 23.3 Adaptive Human–Animal Interaction in the Family System
  • 23.3.1 Attachment to Animals
  • 23.3.2 Prosocial Behaviors and Social Skills
  • 23.3.3 Role of the Parents and Caregivers
  • 23.3.4 Clinical Relevance
  • 23.4 Nonadaptive Human–Animal Interaction in the Family System
  • 23.4.1 Barriers to Positive Human–Animal Interaction
  • 23.4.2 Loss of a Pet
  • 23.4.3 Child and Animal Maltreatment
  • 23.4.4 Dog Bites
  • 23.4.5 Clinical Relevance
  • 23.5 Children With Developmental Disorders and Animals in the Family
  • 23.5.1 Positive Developmental Outcomes
  • 23.5.2 Barriers to Positive Outcomes
  • 23.5.3 Clinical Relevance
  • 23.6 Strategies for Clinical Practitioners
  • 23.6.1 Pets in Therapeutic Practice
  • 23.6.2 Introducing a Pet to the Family
  • 23.6.3 Using Measures to Assess the Value of Human–Animal Interactions
  • 23.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Treating Human Trauma With the Help of Animals: Trauma-Informed Intervention for Child Maltreatment and Adult Posttraumatic Stress
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Psychodynamic Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy for Effects of Interpersonal Trauma in Childhood
  • 24.2.1 Implications of Interpersonal Trauma
  • 24.2.1.1 Collapse of Potential Space
  • 24.2.1.2 Shame and the Presentation of False Self
  • 24.2.1.3 Poor Therapeutic Alliance
  • 24.2.2 Psychodynamic Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy With Child Victims of Interpersonal Trauma: A Relational Approach to Psychotherapy Par Excellence
  • 24.2.2.1 Establishment of the Therapeutic Alliance in Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy
  • 24.2.2.2 Expanding Potential Space and Minimizing Shame Through Relationship-Based Theory and Practice
  • 24.2.2.3 Object Relations, Attachment, and the Animal-Assisted Psychotherapy Therapy Triangle
  • 24.2.2.4 Reconnection of the Client to Real Self Through Interaction Between Physiological and Psychological Processes
  • 24.2.3 Conclusion
  • 24.3 Operation REBOOT: Finding Purpose and Healing Through the Warrior Canine Connection
  • 24.3.1 Introduction
  • 24.3.2 Background
  • 24.3.3 Mission-Based Trauma Recovery: Operation Heel
  • 24.3.4 Mission-Based Trauma Recovery: The Trojan Dog Effect
  • 24.3.4.1 Reexperiencing
  • 24.3.4.2 Avoidance and Numbing
  • 24.3.4.3 Hyperarousal
  • 24.3.5 Gain From Loss
  • 24.3.6 The Genomic and Neurobiological Basis of the Warrior Canine Connection
  • 24.3.7 The Traumatized Social Brain
  • 24.3.8 Secondary Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • 24.3.9 Mission-Based Trauma Recovery: A Safe Nonpharmaceutical Alternative?
  • 24.3.10 Summary: Connecting the Dots
  • References
  • Animal-Assisted Occupational Therapy: Guidelines for Standards, Theory, and Practice
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.1.1 Occupational Therapy Domain and Process
  • 25.2 Resource Building
  • 25.3 Preparatory Phase
  • 25.3.1 Occupation-Centered Models
  • 25.3.2 Ecological Models
  • 25.3.3 Practice Models That Address Specific Client Factors, Skills, and Areas of Intervention
  • 25.3.4 Mental Health
  • 25.3.5 Sensory Integration
  • 25.3.6 Cognitive
  • 25.3.7 Physical Rehabilitation
  • 25.4 Volunteer Visiting
  • 25.5 Implementation of Animal-Assisted Therapy
  • 25.6 Animal-Assisted Therapy Within Occupational Therapy
  • 25.6.1 Intake, Screening, and Initial Evaluation for OT and AAT
  • 25.6.2 Treatment Planning
  • 25.6.3 OT and AAT Implementation Methods
  • 25.6.4 Measuring and Evaluating Outcomes
  • References
  • Developing Community-Based AAI Programs: Supporting PAWS on the Ground
  • Part A: San Francisco’s Pets Are Wonderful Support: Our Story and What We Learned
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 A Brief History: The First 15Years
  • 26.3 The Middle Years
  • 26.4 The Merger
  • 26.5 Yamina, a PAWS Client
  • 26.6 A Generation Later
  • 26.7 Lessons Learned From the PAWS Movement
  • 26.7.1 Never Give Up on Your Ambitions and Dreams
  • 26.7.2 Concluding Remarks
  • Part B: Editorial: Considerations Toward Organizational Sustainability in Human–Animal Interaction Programs
  • 26.8 Introduction
  • 26.9 From Vision to Program Reality
  • 26.9.1 Seeing Through a Dual Lens
  • 26.9.2 What Is the Take Away?
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Special Topics in Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • Research, Practice, Science, and Public Policy – How They Fit Together in the Context of AAI
  • 27.1 Practical Considerations/Risk Management
  • 27.2 Research-Informed Practice
  • 27.3 The Value of Implementation Science
  • 27.4 Driving Public Policy
  • 27.5 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Global Best Practices in Applying AAI: Snapshots of Unique Treatments
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • Snapshot One: Animal Care at the Center of a Human–Animal Interaction Program: Building Character With a Focus on Animal Welfare
  • 28.2 Brief Overview of Treatment and Programs at Green Chimneys
  • 28.3 Activity Terminology and Intent
  • 28.4 Animal Care as a Foundation of Human–Animal Interactions
  • 28.5 Animal Welfare in the Animal Care–Centered Program
  • 28.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Snapshot Two: AAI and Eating Disorders
  • 28.7 Rationale for Using AAI With Eating Disorders: Theoretical Bases and Preliminary Research Findings
  • 28.8 AAI and Eating Disorder Facilities: Brief Highlights
  • 28.9 Concluding Thoughts: Recommendations for AAI and ED
  • References
  • Snapshot Three: Teacher’s Pet: Dogs and Kids Learning Together: Pairing At-Risk Youth With Hard-to-Adopt Shelter Dogs
  • 28.10 Population Served
  • 28.11 Animals in the Program
  • 28.12 The Program and Its Impact
  • 28.13 Curriculum
  • 28.14 Training
  • 28.15 Graduation
  • Reference
  • Snapshot Four: Integrating Animals Into Neurorehabilitation
  • 28.16 Introduction
  • 28.17 Working With Patients With Brain Injury
  • 28.18 An Example From the Practice
  • 28.19 Current State of Evidence
  • 28.20 Conclusion
  • References
  • Snapshot Five: A Model of AAI in Pediatric Settings – From MRI Scan to Neuropsychiatry, Passing by PICU, Special Needs Dentistry, and Neurosurgery
  • References
  • Snapshot Six: Bringing Animal-Assisted Intervention Into the Mainstream – Case Study From Dogs for Good, UK
  • 28.21 Dogs for Good’s Community Dog Service
  • 28.22 Understanding the Health Benefits of AAI
  • 28.23 The Role of Standards
  • 28.24 Making an Economic Case
  • 28.25 Case Study
  • 28.26 Case Study (Intervention Period: 6months)
  • 28.26.1 Profile
  • 28.27 Conclusions
  • References
  • Snapshot Seven: Therapeutic Doga: Yoga and Human–Animal Interactions
  • 28.28 Conclusion
  • References
  • Snapshot Eight: Horses Touch More Than Our Skin: An Example of Equine-Assisted Palliative Care
  • 28.29 Introduction
  • 28.30 Creating a Safe Environment
  • 28.31 Horses Touch Our Relationships
  • 28.32 Ensuring Animal Welfare
  • 28.33 Horses Touch Our Physiology
  • 28.34 Conclusion
  • References
  • Snapshot Nine: The PATH to Success Program
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Methodological Standards and Strategies for Establishing the Evidence Base of Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 29.1 Conceptualizing the Study and Its Focus
  • 29.1.1 Small Theory: The Investigator’s View of Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 29.1.2 Confusion and Mismatch of Etiology and Change
  • 29.1.3 Questions to Guide Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 29.2 Common Methodological Challenges
  • 29.2.1 Sampling Issues
  • 29.2.2 Codifying the Intervention
  • 29.2.3 Outcome Assessment
  • 29.3 Research Standards and Guidelines for Clinical Trials
  • 29.3.1 General Comments
  • 29.4 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Animal-Assisted Interventions With in an International Perspective: Trends, Research, and Practices
  • 30.1 Overview of Human–Animal Interaction Globally: Progress and Challenges in Diverse Parts of the World
  • 30.1.1 Growth of Professional Organizations
  • 30.1.2 Certification of Education Programs
  • 30.1.3 Quality Assurance in Animal-Assisted Intervention Practice
  • 30.1.4 New Programs
  • 30.2 Developments in the Area of Animal-Assisted Education
  • 30.2.1 School Dogs and School Visiting Dogs
  • 30.2.2 Enhancing Reading Skills With Dogs
  • 30.2.3 Animal Keeping in the Classroom and School Zoos
  • 30.2.4 Animals in Special Education
  • 30.3 Trends in Research
  • 30.4 Animal Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions
  • 30.4.1 Animal Welfare/Animal Protection or Animal Rights?
  • 30.4.2 Why Is Animal Welfare So Important to Animal-Assisted Interventions?
  • 30.4.3 What Have International Organizations Done to Promote Animal Welfare in Animal-Assisted Interventions?
  • 30.4.3.1 What Is Still Needed?
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • The Research Challenge: Threats to the Validity of Human–Animal Interaction Intervention Studies and Suggestions for Improvement
  • 31.1 How Good Is the Evidence That Human–Animal Interaction Interventions Work?
  • 31.2 Common Problems in Human–Animal Interaction Intervention Research
  • 31.3 Basic Design Problems
  • 31.4 Is It Really About the Animals?
  • 31.5 Sources of Inconsistency
  • 31.6 Researcher Bias
  • 31.7 The File Drawer Problem
  • 31.8 Spinning Research Results
  • 31.9 Increasing the Quality of Human–animal Interaction Intervention Studies
  • References
  • Strengthening the Foundation of Human–Animal Interaction Research: Recent Developments in a Rapidly Growing Field
  • 32.1 Introduction: A Call to Action
  • 32.2 Answering the Call
  • 32.3 Methodological Rigor and Study Design
  • 32.4 Characterizing Connections Between Humans and Animals
  • 32.5 Renewing the Call
  • 32.6 Building Multidisciplinary Teams
  • 32.7 Ensuring the Welfare of Participants
  • 32.8 Standardization and Validation of Measures
  • 32.9 Incorporating New Technologies
  • 32.10 Adapting to National and Global Population Change
  • 32.11 Meeting the Needs of Aging Populations
  • 32.12 Meeting the Needs of Special Populations
  • 32.13 A Promising Future
  • References
  • The IAHAIO Definitions for Animal Assisted Intervention and Guidelines for Wellness of Animals Involved in AAI