Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences

Editor: Cochran, J. Kirk, Bokuniewicz, Henry and Yager, Patricia
Publication Year: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-0-12-813081-0
Category: Science - Marine sciences
Image Count: 2781
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface, and are critical components of Earth's climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field.

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Table of Contents

  • Editors in Chief
  • Editorial Board
  • Preface to Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences, Third Edition
  • Permission Acknowledgement
  • Volume 1 Marine Biogeochemistry
  • Upper Ocean Processes
  • Air–Sea Interaction: Heat and Momentum Fluxes
  • Penetrating Shortwave Radiation
  • Sea Surface Exchanges of Momentum, Heat, and Freshwater Determined by Satellite Remote Sensing
  • Shelf Sea and Shelf Slope Fronts
  • Submesoscale Processes
  • Surface Films
  • Upper Ocean Heat and Freshwater Budgets
  • Upper Ocean Mean Horizontal Structure
  • Upper Ocean Mixing
  • Upper Ocean Structure: Ekman Transport and Pumping
  • Upper Ocean Structure: Responses to Strong Atmospheric Forcing Events
  • Upper Ocean Vertical Structure
  • Wave-Driven Upper Ocean Processes
  • Wind- and Buoyancy-Forced Upper Ocean
  • Elemental Distribution
  • Elemental Distribution: Overview
  • Anthropogenic Trace Elements in the Ocean
  • Artificial Radionuclides
  • Conservative Elements
  • Metalloids and Oxyanions
  • Oxygen
  • Platinum Group Elements and Their Isotopes in the Ocean
  • Rare Earth Elements and Their Isotopes in the Ocean
  • Refractory Metals
  • Trace Metal Nutrients
  • Transition Metals and Heavy Metal Speciation
  • Ocean Process Tracers
  • CFCs and SF6 as Tracers of Ocean Processes
  • Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Measurements
  • Radiocarbon-Based Insights into the Biogeochemical Cycles of Marine Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon
  • Cosmogenic Isotopes
  • Nitrogen Isotopes in the Ocean
  • Noble Gases and the Cryosphere
  • Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Related Discharges
  • Modeling of Ocean Carbon System
  • Open Ocean Distribution and Applications of Natural and Bomb-Produced Δ14C
  • Oxygen Isotopes in the Ocean
  • Redox-Sensitive Metals
  • The Stable Carbon Isotopic Composition of the Oceans
  • Tracer Release Experiments
  • Tracers of Ocean Productivity
  • Tritium–Helium Dating
  • Uranium-Thorium Decay Series in the Oceans: Overview
  • Uranium-Thorium Radionuclides in Ocean Profiles
  • Volcanic Helium
  • Nutrient Cycling
  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Cycle
  • Nitrogen Cycle
  • Ocean Carbon Cycle
  • Ocean Iron Fertilization
  • Phosphorus Cycle
  • Redfield Ratio
  • The Global Marine Silica Budget: Sources and Sinks
  • Primary Production
  • Approaches to Measuring Marine Primary Production
  • Aquatic Flow Cytometry
  • Bacterioplankton
  • Bioluminescence
  • Cephalopods
  • Continuous Plankton Recorders
  • Copepods
  • Dynamics of Bacteria and Phytoplankton in the Surface Ocean
  • Krill
  • Marine Algal Genomics and Evolution
  • Marine Cyanobacteria: Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus
  • Marine Plankton Communities
  • Nekton
  • Pelagic Biogeography
  • Phytoplankton Size Structure
  • Phytoplankton, Calcareous Nanoplankton—The Coccolithophores
  • Plankton
  • Plankton Viruses
  • Plankton: Gelatinous Zooplankton
  • Primary Production Distribution
  • Primary Production Processes
  • Protozoa, Planktic Foraminifera
  • Protozoa, Radiolarians
  • Small-Scale Physical Processes and Plankton Biology
  • Ecosystems & Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics (Food Webs)
  • Artificial Reefs
  • Coastal Ocean Acidification: Carbonate Chemistry and Ecosystem Effects
  • Cold-Water Coral Reefs
  • Corals and Human Disturbance
  • Diversity of Marine Species
  • Food Webs
  • Large Marine Ecosystems
  • Mesocosms: Enclosed Experimental Ecosystems in Ocean Science
  • Microbial Loops
  • Network Analysis of Food Webs
  • Ocean Gyre Ecosystems
  • Omics Techniques in Marine Microbiology
  • Patch Dynamics
  • Polar Ecosystems
  • Population Genetics of Marine Organisms
  • Upwelling Ecosystems
  • Volume 2 Marine Life
  • Birds
  • Seabirds: An Overview
  • Alcidae
  • Gulls
  • Laridae, Sternidae, and Rynchopidae
  • Phalaropes
  • Procellariiformes
  • Seabird Conservation
  • Seabird Foraging Ecology
  • Seabird Migration
  • Seabird Population Dynamics
  • Seabird Reproductive Ecology
  • Seabird Responses to Climate Change
  • Seabirds and Fisheries Interactions
  • Seabirds as Indicators of Ocean Pollution
  • Sphenisciformes
  • The Pelecaniform Birds
  • Fish Biology
  • Fish: General Review
  • Antarctic Fishes
  • Coral Reef Fishes
  • Deep-Sea Fishes
  • Eels
  • Fish Ecophysiology
  • Fish Feeding and Foraging
  • Fish Larvae
  • Fish Locomotion
  • Fish Migration, Horizontal
  • Fish Migration, Vertical
  • Fish Predation and Mortality
  • Fish Reproduction
  • Fish Vision
  • Fish: Demersal Fish (Life Histories, Behavior, Adaptations)
  • Fish: Hearing, Lateral Lines (Mechanisms, Role in Behavior, Adaptations to Life Underwater)
  • Intertidal Fishes
  • Mesopelagic Fish
  • Pelagic Fishes
  • Salmonids
  • Fisheries & Mariculture
  • Fisheries Overview
  • Challenges for Future Salmonid Farming
  • Coral Reef and Other Tropical Fisheries
  • Crustacean Fisheries
  • Dynamics of Exploited Marine Fish Populations
  • Ecosystem Effects of Fishing
  • Fisheries Economics
  • Fisheries: Pacific Salmon Fisheries
  • Fisheries: Multispecies Dynamics
  • Fishery Management, Human Dimension
  • Fishery Manipulation Through Stock Enhancement or Restoration
  • Fishing Methods and Fishing Fleets
  • Luxury Seafood Trade: Extinction vs. Lavishness
  • Mariculture Overview
  • Mariculture, Economic, and Social Impacts
  • Marine Fishery Resources, Global State of
  • Mediterranean Mariculture
  • Molluskan Fisheries
  • Ocean Ranching
  • Open Ocean Fisheries for Deep-Water Species
  • Open Ocean Fisheries for Large Pelagic Species
  • Oysters: Shellfish Farming
  • Seaweeds and their Mariculture
  • Small Pelagic Species Fisheries
  • Southern Ocean Fisheries
  • Marine Mammals
  • Baleen Whales
  • Bioacoustics
  • Dolphins and Porpoises
  • Marine Mammal Diving Physiology
  • Marine Mammal Evolution and Taxonomy
  • Marine Mammal Migrations and Movement Patterns
  • Marine Mammal Overview
  • Marine Mammal Social Organization and Communication
  • Marine Mammal Trophic Levels and Trophic Interactions
  • Marine Mammals and Ocean Noise
  • Marine Mammals: History of Exploitation
  • Marine Mammals: At the Intersection of Ice, Climate Change, and Human Interactions
  • Marine Mammals: Sperm Whales and Beaked Whales
  • Sea Otters
  • Seals
  • Sirenians
  • Benthos
  • Benthic Organisms Overview
  • Benthic–Pelagic Coupling: Linkages Between Benthic Ecology and Biogeochemistry and Pelagic Ecosystems and Process
  • Bioirrigation
  • Bioturbation
  • Cold Seep Ecosystems
  • Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera
  • Deep-Sea Fauna
  • Hydrothermal Vent Fauna
  • Macrofauna
  • Megafauna
  • Meiobenthos
  • Microphytobenthos
  • Sampling Techniques for the Marine Benthos
  • Seaweeds and Seagrasses
  • Volume 3 Ocean dynamics
  • Convection
  • Deep Convection
  • Double-Diffusive Convection
  • Non-Rotating Gravity Currents
  • Open Ocean Convection
  • Overflows and Cascades
  • Rotating Gravity Currents
  • Circulation
  • Ocean Circulation
  • Flows in Straits and Channels
  • Flow through Deep Ocean Passages
  • Indonesian Throughflow
  • Island Wakes
  • Langmuir Circulation and Instability
  • Meddies and Sub-Surface Eddies
  • Mesoscale Eddies
  • Neutral Surfaces in the Ocean, and the Equation of State of Seawater
  • Ocean Circulation: Meridional Overturning Circulation
  • Ocean Subduction
  • Topographic Eddies
  • Water Types and Water Masses
  • Wind Driven Circulation
  • Currents
  • Abyssal Currents
  • Current Systems in the Atlantic Ocean
  • Current Systems in the Indian Ocean
  • Current Systems in the Mediterranean Sea
  • Current Systems in the Southern Ocean
  • Agulhas Current
  • Antarctic Circumpolar Current
  • Arctic Ocean Circulation
  • Atlantic Ocean Equatorial Currents
  • Baltic Sea Circulation
  • Benguela Current
  • Black Sea Circulation
  • California and Alaska Currents
  • Canary and Portugal Currents
  • East Australian Current
  • Florida Current, Gulf Stream, and Labrador Current
  • Indian Ocean Equatorial Currents
  • Intra-Americas Sea
  • Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents
  • Leeuwin Current
  • North Sea Circulation
  • Ocean Currents: Atlantic Western Boundary—Brazil Current/Falkland (Malvinas) Current
  • Okhotsk Sea Circulation
  • Pacific Ocean Equatorial Currents
  • Peru–Chile Current System
  • Red Sea Circulation
  • Seas of Southeast Asia
  • Somali Current
  • Weddell Sea Circulation
  • Turbulence & Diffusion
  • 3D Turbulence
  • Differential Diffusion
  • Dispersion and Diffusion in the Deep Ocean
  • Energetics of Ocean Mixing
  • Estimates of Mixing
  • Internal Solitary Waves and Mixing
  • Internal Tidal Mixing
  • Internal Wave Breaking Dynamics and Associated Mixing in the Coastal Ocean
  • Intrusions
  • Laboratory Studies of Turbulent Mixing
  • Mixing Associated with Submesoscale Processes
  • Turbulence in the Benthic Boundary Layer
  • Wind-Driven Mixing Under the Earth Rotation
  • Waves
  • Breaking Waves and Near-Surface Turbulence
  • Coastal-Trapped Waves
  • Equatorial Waves
  • Internal Gravity Waves
  • Internal Tides
  • Rogue/Freak Waves
  • Rossby Waves
  • Seiches
  • Storm Surges
  • Surface Gravity and Capillary Waves
  • Tides
  • Tsunami
  • Vortical Motion
  • Wave Generation by Wind
  • Waves on Beaches
  • Whitecaps and Foam
  • Volume 4 Seafloor Processes
  • Geophysics
  • Geophysical Heat Flow
  • Glacial Crustal Rebound, Sea Levels, and Shorelines
  • Gravity
  • Magnetics
  • Seismic Structure
  • Sediments
  • Bathymetry
  • Calcium Carbonates
  • Chemical Processes in Estuarine Sediments
  • Clay Mineralogy
  • Deep Sea Sediment: Pore Water Chemistry
  • Deep-Sea Bottom Currents: Their Nature and Distribution
  • Deep-Sea Contourites Drifts, Erosional Features and Bedforms
  • Deep-Sea Contourites: Sediments and Cycles
  • Deep-Sea Sediment: Authigenic Deposits
  • Determining Marine Sediment Chronologies With Radionuclides
  • Floc Layers
  • In Situ Planar Optical Sensors for Sediment Diagenesis Study
  • Marine Mats
  • Marine Snow
  • Nepheloid Layers
  • Ocean Margin Sediments
  • Oceanic Particle Flux
  • Particle Aggregation Dynamics
  • Phosphorous Fluxes From Marine Sediments—Implications for the Near and Far-Future of Ocean “Dead Zones”
  • Reverse Weathering Reactions in Marine Sediments
  • Slides, Slumps, Debris Flows, Turbidity Currents, Hyperpycnal Flows, and Bottom Currents
  • The Sedimentary Deep Subseafloor Biosphere
  • Ridges & Hydrothermal Systems
  • Accretionary Prisms
  • Chemistry of Hydrothermal Vent Fluids
  • Deep-Sea Ridges, Microbiology
  • Dispersion From Hydrothermal Vents
  • Hydrothermal Vent Biota
  • Hydrothermal Vent Ecology
  • Physiology of Hydrothermal Vent Fauna
  • Large Igneous Provinces
  • Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Vents: Geochemistry
  • Marine Shallow-Water Hydrothermal Vents: Microbiology
  • Methane Hydrate and Submarine Slides
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Vent Deposits
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Seismicity
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Tectonics, Volcanism, and Geomorphology
  • Mid-Ocean Ridges: Mantle Convection and Formation of the Lithosphere
  • Propagating Rifts and Microplates
  • Seamounts and Off-Ridge Volcanism
  • Tectonics: Seismic Structure at Mid-Ocean Ridges
  • Paleoceanography
  • Paleoceanography
  • Cenozoic Climate: Oxygen Isotope Evidence
  • Determination of Past Sea Surface Temperatures
  • Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale
  • Holocene Climate Variability
  • Methane Hydrates and Climatic Effects
  • Millennial-Scale Ocean Climate Variability
  • Monsoons, History of
  • Climate Models in Paleoceanography
  • Paleo-Oceanography: Orbitally Tuned Time Scales
  • Plio-Pleistocene Glacial Cycles and Milankovitch Variability
  • Scientific Ocean Drilling
  • Sea Level Variations Over Geologic Time
  • Sedimentary Record, Reconstruction of Productivity from the
  • Volume 5 Technology, Instrumentation
  • Instruments
  • CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, Depth) Profiler
  • Seismic Reflection Methods for Study of the Water Column
  • Vehicles for Deep-Sea Exploration
  • Platforms
  • Oceanographic Sampling and Measurements
  • Absorbance Spectroscopy for Chemical Sensors
  • Deep Submergence, Science of
  • Drifters and Floats
  • Electrical Properties of Sea Water: Theory and Applications
  • Expendable Sensors
  • Fluorometry for Biological Sensing
  • Fluorometry for Chemical Sensing
  • Gliders
  • Inherent Optical Properties and Irradiance
  • IR Radiometers
  • Moorings
  • Optical Particle Characterization
  • Platforms: Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
  • Platforms: Benthic Flux Landers
  • Sensors for Mean Meteorology
  • Sensors for Micrometeorological and Flux Measurements
  • Ships
  • Single Point Current Meters
  • Transmissometry and Nephelometry
  • Turbulence Sensors
  • Wet Chemical Analyzers
  • Acoustics
  • Acoustic Measurement of Near-Bed Sediment Transport Processes
  • Acoustic Noise
  • Acoustic Scattering by Marine Organisms
  • Acoustic Scintillation Thermography
  • Acoustics in Marine Sediments
  • Acoustics, Deep Ocean
  • Acoustics, Shallow Water
  • Sonar Systems
  • Tomography
  • Satellite Remote Sensing
  • Satellite Oceanography—History and Introductory Concepts
  • Aircraft Remote Sensing
  • Optical Remote Sensing of Coastal Waters
  • Radiative Transfer in the Ocean
  • Remote Sensing Coral Reefs
  • Satellite Altimetry
  • Satellite Passive Microwave Observations of Sea Ice
  • Satellite Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Temperatures
  • Satellite Remote Sensing SAR
  • Satellite Remote Sensing: Ocean Color
  • Models
  • Bio-Optical Models
  • Coastal Circulation Models
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation Models
  • Forward Problem in Numerical Models
  • General Circulation Models
  • Inverse Modeling of Tracers and Nutrients
  • Inverse Problems, Inverse Methods, and Inverse Models
  • Lagrangian Biological Analysis
  • Marine Biogeochemical Data Assimilation
  • Modeling the Combined Effects of Physiological Flexibility and Micro-Scale Variability for Plankton Ecosystem Dynamics
  • Models of Plankton Patchiness
  • Modeling of Ocean Biogeochemistry and Ecology
  • One-Dimensional Models
  • Plankton: Population Dynamics Models
  • Regional and Shelf Sea Models
  • Science of Ocean Climate Models
  • Energy Resources
  • Carbon Sequestration via Direct Injection into the Ocean
  • Manganese Nodules
  • Marine Biotechnology
  • Marine Chemical and Medicine Resources
  • Mineral Extraction, Authigenic Minerals
  • Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  • Ocean Wave-Energy Conversion
  • Offshore Sand and Gravel Mining
  • Tidal Energy
  • Volume 6 Ocean Interfaces & Human Impacts
  • Air-Sea Interaction
  • Air-Sea Gas Exchange
  • Air–Sea Gas Transfer: Nitrous Oxide and Methane
  • Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Particulate Matter to the Oceans
  • Bubbles
  • Evaporation and Humidity
  • Photochemical Processes
  • The Role of Surfactants in Air-Sea Exchange
  • Land-Sea Interactions
  • Eolian Inputs
  • Estuarine Circulation
  • Fiord Circulation
  • Gas Exchange in Estuaries
  • Land–Sea Global Transfers
  • River Inputs
  • Submarine Groundwater Discharge
  • High Latitude Systems & Cryosphere
  • Bottom Water Formation
  • Ice Shelf Stability
  • Icebergs
  • Ice-Induced Plowing of the Seafloor
  • Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer. Part 1: Structure
  • Ice-Ocean Boundary Layer—Part 2: Variability
  • Polynyas
  • Sea Ice: Overview
  • Sea Ice Dynamics
  • Sea Ice in Coupled Climate Models
  • Sub Ice-Shelf Circulation and Processes
  • Sub-sea Permafrost
  • Marine Pollution
  • Global Marine Pollution—A Brief History
  • Antifouling Materials
  • Atmospheric Input of Pollutants
  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbons
  • Contamination of Our Oceans by Plastics
  • Eutrophication
  • Exotic Species, Introduction of
  • Geochemistry of Mercury in the Marine Environment
  • Harmful Algal Blooms
  • Loss of Coral Reefs
  • Marine Bioinvasions
  • Metal Pollution
  • Oil Pollution
  • Pollution, Solids
  • Pollution: Approaches to Pollution Control
  • Pollution: Effects on Marine Communities
  • Radioactive Wastes
  • Thermal Discharges and Pollution
  • Viral and Bacterial Contamination of Beaches
  • Climate & Climate Change
  • Abrupt Climate Change
  • Economics of Sea Level Rise
  • Effects of Climate Change on Marine Mammals
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  • Fisheries and Climate
  • Heat Transport and Climate
  • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
  • Past Climate From Corals
  • Plankton and Climate
  • Regime Shifts, Ecological Aspects
  • Regime Shifts, Physical Forcing
  • Regime Shifts: Methods of Analysis
  • Sea Level Change
  • Policy
  • Coastal Zone Management
  • Deep-Sea Mining and Environmental Management
  • History of Ocean Sciences
  • International Organizations
  • Law of the Sea
  • Marine Policy Overview
  • Marine Protected Areas
  • Maritime Archeology
  • Ocean Zoning
  • Origin of the Oceans
  • Shipping and Ports