Encyclopedia of Free Blacks and People of Color in the Americas

Editor/Author King, Stewart R.
Publication Year: 2012
Publisher: Facts On File

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-4381-3630-1
Category: History - United States -- History
Image Count: 154
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

When Columbus arrived in 1492, the first free black person --a sailor -- set foot in the Americas. Over the next 400 years, as slavery spread and became entrenched in the Western Hemisphere, free blacks built communities throughout North and South America, playing a critical role in every region, colony, and country. From Canada to the Caribbean to Chile, they established vital economic and social institutions, championed the cause of abolition, and formed a bridge between the worlds of free whites and enslaved blacks.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Documents
  • List of Maps
  • List of Tables
  • About the Editors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • List of Contributors
  • Chronology
  • Entries A-Z
  • A
  • ABOLITIONISM AND RESISTANCE TO SLAVERY
  • ADAMS, JOHN (1735-1826)
  • ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY (1767-1848)
  • AFRICA
  • AFRICAN AND SYNCRETIC RELIGIONS
  • AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH (A.M.E. Church)
  • ALABAMA
  • ALLEN, RICHARD (1760-1831)
  • AMERICAN CIVIL WAR (U.S. Civil War) (1861-1865)
  • AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY
  • AMERICAN REVOLUTION
  • AMISTAD CASE
  • ANGOLA
  • ARDOUIN, BEAUBRUN (1796-1865)
  • ARGENTINA
  • ARKANSAS
  • ARMY
  • ARTISANS
  • AUSTRALIA
  • B
  • BAKER, MOSES (17307-1823?)
  • BAPTISTS AND PIETISTS
  • BARBADOS
  • BARBOUR, CONWAY (ca. 1820-1876)
  • BECKWOURTH, JAMES (JAMES BECKWITH) (ca. 1798-1866)
  • BELIZE
  • BELLANTON, ZABEAU (ELIZABETH) (ca. 1751 –?)
  • BELLEY, JEAN-BAPTISTE (1748 or 1749-1806?)
  • BIDEAU, JEAN-BAPTISTE (ca. 1780-1817)
  • BIGODE, FRANCISCO XAVIER (?-1838)
  • BISSETTE, CYRILLE-CHARLES (1795-1858)
  • BLACK CAESAR (JOHN CAESAR) (ca. 1760s-1796)
  • BLACK CARIB (Garifuna)
  • BLACK CODES IN THE UNITED STATES
  • BLACK LAWS IN THE MIDWEST
  • BLACK PRESS IN THE UNITED STATES
  • BLACK SEMINOLE
  • BLAND, JAMES A. (1854-1911)
  • BLANKE, JOHN (unknown)
  • BOLIVIA
  • THE BONDWOMAN’S NARRATIVE
  • BOSTON
  • BOWSER, MARY ELIZABETH (1839-?)
  • BOYER, JEAN-PIERRE (1776-1850)
  • BRAGANÇA, ISABEL OF.
  • BRAGANÇA, PEDRO I OF.
  • BRAGANÇA, PEDRO II OF.
  • BRAZIL
  • BRAZIL, ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT IN
  • BRAZIL, LAWS ON RACE AND SLAVERY
  • BRAZILIAN MAROONS (QUILOMBOLAS)
  • BRITAIN
  • BRITAIN, ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENTS IN
  • BRITISH ANTI-SLAVERY ACTS
  • BRITISH LESSER ANTILLES
  • BROWN, HENRY “BOX” (ca. 1815-?)
  • BUCHANAN, JAMES (1791-1868)
  • BUSH, GEORGE WASHINGTON (ca. 1779-1863)
  • C
  • CAESAR, JOHN.
  • CALIFORNIA
  • CANADA
  • CAP-FRANÇAIS/CAP-HAÏTIEN (Le Cap, Cap-François)
  • CAP-HAÏTIEN.
  • CAPTAIN CUDJOE (dates of birth and death uncertain, active 1690-1739)
  • CARTAGENA
  • CASTA
  • CATHOLIC CONFRATERNITIES
  • CÉDULAS DE GRACIAS AL SACAR
  • CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA
  • CHAVANNES, JEAN-BAPTISTE (1748-1791)
  • CHAVIS, JOHN (ca. 1763-1838)
  • CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
  • CHILE
  • CHRISTIANA RIOT
  • CIVIL RIGHTS LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES AFTER 1865
  • CLARK, ALEXANDER (1826-1891)
  • CLARKSON, JOHN (1764-1828)
  • COARTACIÓN UNDER SPANISH LAW
  • CODE NOIR IN FRENCH LAW
  • COFFEE CULTIVATION
  • COLOMBIA
  • COLONIZATION.
  • COMMERCE AND TRADE
  • COMMONWEALTH V. JENNISON
  • CONCEIÇÂO, ROSA MARIA DA (?-1843)
  • CONCEPCIÓN VALDÉS, GABRIEL DE LA (PLÁCIDO) (1809-1844)
  • CONGO AND ANGOLA
  • CONNECTICUT
  • CORNISH, SAMUEL E. (ca. 1795-1858)
  • CORNWALLIS, COUBA (17??-1848)
  • CORREA, JUAN (1646-1716)
  • COSTA RICA
  • COTTON CULTIVATION
  • CRAFTS, HANNAH (dates unknown)
  • CREOLE
  • CROWTHER, SAMUEL AJAYI (ca. 1809-1891)
  • CRUMMELL, ALEXANDER (1819-1898)
  • CUBA
  • CUDJOE
  • CUFFE, PAUL (1759-1817)
  • CUGOANO, QUOBNA OTTOBAH
  • D
  • DANISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
  • DÉDÉ, EDMOND (1827? 1829? -1903)
  • DELANY, MARTIN (1812-1885)
  • DELAWARE
  • DELGRÈS, LOUIS (1766-1802)
  • DIALLO, AYUBA SULEIMAN (JOB BEN SOLOMON) (ca. 1701-ca. 1773)
  • DIAS, HENRIQUE (?-ca. 1662)
  • DOMINICA
  • DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
  • DOMINICANS, THE
  • DORANTES, ESTEBAN DE (ca. 1500-1539)
  • DOS REIS, MARIA FIRMINA
  • DOUGLAS, SIR JAMES (1803-1877)
  • DOUGLASS, FREDERICK (1818-1895)
  • DUMAS, THOMAS-ALEXANDRE (THOMASALEXANDRE DAVY DE LA PAILLETERIE) (1762-1806)
  • DUNMORE, JOHN MURRAY, EARL OF (1732-1809)
  • DURÁN, DIEGO (1721-1795)
  • DU SABLE, JEAN-BAPTISTE POINTE (ca. 1745-1814 or 1818)
  • DUTCH CARIBBEAN ISLANDS
  • E
  • ECUADOR
  • EDUCATION AND LITERACY
  • ELLISON, WILLIAM “APRIL” (1790-1861)
  • EL SALVADOR
  • EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  • EMIGRATION AND COLONIZATION
  • ENCYCLOPÉDIE
  • ENRIQUEZ, MIGUEL (1672-1743)
  • EQUIANO, OLAUDAH (Gustavus Vassa) (17457-1797)
  • ESCALERA PLOT
  • EXODUSTER MOVEMENT
  • F
  • FAMILY
  • FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS WITH SLAVES
  • FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS WITH WHITES
  • FÉDON’S REBELLION (1795-1796)
  • FENIX
  • FILLMORE, MILLARD (1800-1874)
  • FIVE AFRICANS BROUGHT TO ENGLAND IN 1555
  • FLEETWOOD, CHRISTIAN ABRAHAM
  • FLORIDA
  • FONSECA GALVÂO, CÀNDIDO DA (DOM OBÁ II) (ca. 1845-1890)
  • FORD, WEST (early 1780s-1863)
  • FORTEN FAMILY
  • FRANCE
  • FREEDMEN’S BUREAU
  • FREEMASONRY
  • FRENCH CARIBBEAN
  • FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • FREYRE, GILBERTO (1900-1987)
  • FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT OF 1850 (Fugitive Slave Law)
  • G
  • GANNIBAL, ABRAM PETROVICH (1696-1781)
  • GARNET, HENRY HIGHLAND (1815-1882)
  • GARRIDO, JUAN (active 1501-1538)
  • GENDER ATTITUDES
  • GEORGIA
  • GIBBS, MIFFLIN WISTAR (1823-1915)
  • GILL, ANN (1781-1865)
  • GONÇALVES TEIXEIRA E SOUSA, ANTONIO (1812-1861)
  • GORDON, GEORGE WILLIAM (1820-1865)
  • GRAND UNITED ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS
  • GRANT, ULYSSES S. (1822-1885)
  • GRÉGOIRE, HENRI (ABBÉ GRÉGOIRE) (1750-1831)
  • GUATEMALA
  • GUERRERO slave ship
  • GUERRERO SALDAÑA, VICENTE (1782-1831)
  • GUYANA
  • H
  • HAITI
  • HAITIAN REVOLUTION
  • HALL, PRINCE (ca. 1735-1807)
  • HARRISON, WILLIAM HENRY (1773-1841)
  • HAYNES, LEMUEL (1753-1833)
  • HEALERS
  • HEALY FAMILY
  • HEMINGS, SALLY, CHILDREN OF
  • HIGHER EDUCATION
  • HONDURAS
  • HOUSE, CALLIE (1861-1928)
  • HOUSEKEEPERS
  • HUGUES, VICTOR (1764-1826)
  • HULL, AGRIPPA (1759-1848)
  • I
  • IBN SORI, ABDUL-RAHMAN IBRAHIM (ca. 1762-1829)
  • ILLINOIS
  • INDIANA
  • INDIAN WARS, UNITED STATES
  • INDIGO CULTIVATION
  • INLAND WEST OF THE UNITED STATES
  • INTERRACIAL MARRIAGE
  • IOWA
  • ISABEL OF BRAGANÇA (PRINCESS IMPERIAL)
  • ISLAM
  • J
  • JACKSON, ANDREW (1767-1845)
  • JACOBS, HARRIET (1813-1897)
  • JAMAICA
  • JEFFERSON, THOMAS (1743-1826)
  • JESUITS
  • JESÚS, URSULA DE (1604-1666)
  • JOHNSON, ANDREW (1808-1875)
  • JONES, ABSALOM (1746-1818)
  • JONES, JEHU, JR. (1786-1852)
  • JORDON, EDWARD (1801-1869)
  • JOSEPH, JOHN (ca. 1831-1858)
  • JOURNALISM
  • K
  • KANSAS
  • KENTUCKY
  • KINGSLEY, ANNA (ANTA MAJIGEEN NJAAY) (ca. 1793-1870)
  • KU KLUX KLAN
  • L
  • LA ESCALERA PLOT
  • LANGSTON, JOHN MERCER (1829-1897)
  • LAS SIETE PARTIDAS
  • LAVEAU, MARIE (1801-1881)
  • LAWS OF FREE BIRTH
  • LECESNE AND ESCOFFERY CASE
  • LEE, WILLIAM (ca. 1750-1828)
  • LEGAL DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE
  • LEMBA, SEBASTIÁN (unknown-1547)
  • LIBERIA
  • LINCOLN, ABRAHAM (1809-1865)
  • LISBOA, ANTÔNIO (O ALEIJADINHO)
  • LIVING “AS FREE”
  • LONDON, ENGLAND
  • LORD DUNMORE
  • LOUISIANA
  • LOUVERTURE, TOUSSAINT (ca. 1746-1803)
  • LYNCHING
  • M
  • MACEO Y GRAJALES, ANTONIO (1845-1896)
  • MACHADO DE ASSIS, JOAQUIM MARÍA (1839-1908)
  • MACKANDAL, FRANÇOIS (ca. 1720-1758)
  • MADIOU, THOMAS (1814-1884)
  • MADISON, JAMES (1751-1836)
  • MAINE
  • MANUMISSION
  • MAROONS
  • MARRIAGE BETWEEN FREE AND SLAVE
  • MARTÍN DE PORRES, SAINT (1579-1639)
  • MARYLAND
  • MASSACHUSETTS
  • McCABE, EDWIN P. (1850-1920)
  • MELUNGEON
  • MERCHANT SEAMEN
  • MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR (1846-1848)
  • MEXICO
  • MEXICO, ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN (1821-1829)
  • MEXICO, CENTRAL AND NORTHERN
  • MEXICO, PACIFIC COAST
  • MICHIGAN
  • MIDWIVES AND TRADITIONAL HEALERS
  • MIGRATION
  • MILITIA
  • MINNESOTA
  • MIRANDA, FRANCISCO DE (1750-1816)
  • MISCEGENATION
  • MISSISSIPPI
  • MISSOURI
  • MOBILE, ALABAMA
  • MONROE, JAMES (1758-1831)
  • MONTEZUMA, FRANCISCO GÊ ACAIABA DE (VISCOUNT OF JEQUmNHONHA) (1794-1870)
  • MOREAU DE ST-MÉRY, MÉDÉRIC-LOUIS-ÉLIE (1750-1819)
  • MORELOS, JOSÉ MARÍA (1765-1815)
  • MULATTO
  • N
  • NAVY
  • NEBRASKA
  • NEGRO CONVENTION MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES
  • NEW HAMPSHIRE
  • NEW JERSEY
  • NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
  • NEW YORK CITY DRAFT RIOTS (1863)
  • NEW YORK STATE
  • NICARAGUA
  • NORTH CAROLINA
  • O
  • OGÉ, VINCENT (ca. 1750-1791)
  • OHIO
  • OKLAHOMA
  • OLIVIER, VINCENT (ca. 1680-1781)
  • “ONE DROP RULE” OF RACIAL IDENTITY
  • OREGON
  • P
  • PADILLA, JOSÉ PRUDENCIO (1784-1828)
  • PANAMA
  • PANAMA CITY (PANAMÁ CITY)
  • PARAGUAY
  • PARDO
  • PATROCÌNIO, JOSÉ CARLOS DO (1853-1905)
  • PAULA BRITO, FRANCISCO DE (1809-1861)
  • PAYNE, DANIEL A. (1811-1893)
  • PEASANTS
  • PEDRO I (1798-1834)
  • PEDRO II (1825-1891)
  • PÉLAGE, MAGLOIRE (ca. 1766-1813)
  • PENNSYLVANIA
  • PERSONAL LIBERTY LAWS
  • PERU
  • PÉTION, ALEXANDRE SABÈS (1770-1818)
  • PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
  • PIAR, MANUEL (1774-1817)
  • PIERCE, FRANKLIN (1804-1869)
  • PINTO DA GAMA, LUIS GONZAGA (1830-1882)
  • PIRACY
  • PITTSBURGH, PENNSYLVANIA
  • PLANTERS AND PLANTER AGENTS
  • POLICE
  • POLK, JAMES (1795-1849)
  • PORT-AU-PRINCE
  • PORTUGAL
  • PROSTITUTES AND COURTESANS
  • PROTESTANT MAINLINE CHURCHES
  • PROTTEN, REBECCA (ca. 1718-ca. 1779)
  • PROVISION GROUND FARMING
  • PUERTO RICO
  • PURVIS, ROBERT (1810-1898)
  • Q
  • QUOCK WALKER CASE (COMMONWEALTH V. JENNISON)
  • R
  • RACE AND CAPITALISM
  • RACISM AND RACIAL PREJUDICE
  • RAIMOND, JULIEN (1744-1801)
  • RANCHING
  • RAPIER, JAMES T. (1837-1883)
  • RAYNAL, GUILLAUME (1711-1796)
  • REASON, CHARLES L. (1818-1893)
  • REBOUÇAS, ANDRÉ (1838-1898)
  • REBOUÇAS, ANTÔNIO PEREIRA (1798-1880)
  • RECONSTRUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES
  • RE-ENSLAVEMENT
  • REGULAR ARMY
  • REIS, MARIA FIRMINA DOS (1825-1917)
  • REVELS, HIRAM (1827-1901)
  • RHODE ISLAND
  • RIGAUD, ANDRÉ (1761-1811)
  • RIVADAVIA, BERNARDINO (1780-1845)
  • ROBERTS, JOSEPH JENKINS (1809-1876)
  • ROCHA VIEIRA, FRANCISCO SABINO ÁLVARES DA (1796-1846)
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
  • ROSSIGNOL, ANNE (flourished 1770-1790)
  • RUNAWAY SLAVES
  • RUSSWURM, JOHN (1799-1851)
  • S
  • SAINT-DOMINGUE (HAITI)
  • SAINT-GEORGES, JOSEPH BOLOGNE, CHEVALIER DE (1745-1799)
  • SALEM, PETER (1750-1816)
  • SALVADOR, BAHIA, BRAZIL
  • SÁNCHEZ, FRANCISCO DEL ROSARIO (1817-1861)
  • SANCHO, IGNATIUS (1729-1780)
  • SANTANA, JOAQUIM FELIX DE (unknown-1814)
  • SANTO DOMINGO
  • SCOTT, DRED (1799-1858)
  • SEACOLE, MARY (1805-1881)
  • SEGREGATION
  • SENEGAMBIA
  • SEVEN YEARS’ WAR (1756-1763)
  • SHARP, GRANVILLE (1735-1813)
  • SIERRA LEONE
  • SILVA, CHICA DA (ca. 1730-1796)
  • SLAVE COAST, BENIN, AND THE BIGHT OF BIAFRA
  • SLAVE OWNERS
  • SMALLS, ROBERT (1839-1915) American naval officer and politician
  • SMITH, VENTURE (1729-1805)
  • SOMERSET V. STEWART (SOMERSETT V. STEUART)
  • SOUTH AMERICAN WARS OF LIBERATION (1809-1824)
  • SOUTH CAROLINA
  • SPAIN
  • STEWART, MARIA W. (1803-1879)
  • STRONG, JONATHAN (ca. 1747/8-1773)
  • SUGAR CULTIVATION
  • SURINAM
  • T
  • TANNENBAUM HYPOTHESIS
  • TAYLOR, SUSIE BAKER KING (1848-1912)
  • TAYLOR, ZACHARY (1784-1850)
  • TENNESSEE
  • TEN YEARS’ WAR (GREAT WAR OF CUBA)
  • TEXAS (TEJAS, LONE STAR STATE)
  • TOLTON, AUGUSTINE (1854-1897)
  • TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
  • TRUTH, SOJOURNER (ca. 1797-1883)
  • TUBMAN, HARRIET (ARAMINTA ROSS) (ca. 1822-1913)
  • TYE, COLONEL (TITUS CORNELIUS) (1753-1780)
  • TYLER, JOHN (1790-1862)
  • U
  • UNITED STATES, ABOLITION MOVEMENTS IN
  • URUGUAY
  • U.S. ELECTION OF 1876
  • U.S. PRESIDENTS AND FREE BLACKS
  • V
  • VALDÉS, JOSÉ MANUEL (1767-1843)
  • VAN BUREN, MARTIN (1782-1862)
  • VASHON FAMILY
  • VENEZUELA
  • VENEZUELAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
  • VERACRUZ, MEXICO
  • VERMONT
  • VESEY, DENMARK (TELEMAQUE) (1767-1822)
  • VIRGINIA AND WEST VIRGINIA
  • VOTING BEFORE GENERAL ABOLITION, UNITED STATES
  • W
  • WALKER, DAVID (1785-1830)
  • WAR OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE (1775-1783)
  • WAR OF MEXICAN INDEPENDENCE (1810-1821)
  • WASHINGTON, D.C. (DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, UNITED STATES TERRITORY)
  • WASHINGTON, GEORGE (1732-1799)
  • WASHINGTON, GEORGE (OF CENTRALIA, WASHINGTON) (1818-1905)
  • WASHINGTON, HARRY (dates of birth and death unknown, active 1763-1800)
  • WASHINGTON TERRITORY
  • WEDDERBURN, ROBERT (1762-1835)
  • WEST VIRGINIA
  • WHEATLEY, PHILLIS (1753-1784)
  • “WHITENING” AND RACIAL PROMOTION
  • WILLIAMSBURG, VIRGINIA
  • WISCONSIN
  • WOODSON, LEWIS (1806-1878)
  • Z
  • ZAMBO
  • ZUMBI (ca. 1655-1695)