Encyclopedia of Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Editor/Author Gates, Alexander E., Ph.D.
Publication Year: 2015
Publisher: Facts On File

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-4381-6318-5
Category: Science - Geology
Image Count: 34
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This comprehensive A-to-Z resource explains the specific terms, concepts, people, and organizations associated with the sciences of catastrophe --seismology and volcanology --and covers the places in the world where these destructive phenomena have occurred, as well as key environmental issues, economic dilemmas, ethical concerns, and current advances in research and technology.

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • A
  • accelerogram
  • accelerograph
  • active fault
  • active volcano
  • Adana earthquake
  • Adatara
  • Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS)
  • aftershocks
  • Agadir earthquake
  • agglomerate
  • Agnano
  • Agua de Pau
  • Agung
  • Aira
  • Akan
  • Akutan
  • Alban Hills
  • Alcedo
  • Aleppo 2 earthquake
  • Alexandria earthquake
  • Algiers earthquake
  • Alkalic basalt
  • Allahbund
  • Amatitlán
  • Ambrim
  • Amukta
  • amygdaloidal
  • Anatolia earthquake
  • Anatolia earthquake
  • Ancash earthquake
  • Andalusia earthquake
  • Andaman Islands earthquake
  • Andijan earthquake
  • Aniakchak
  • Ansei Tokai earthquake
  • Antioch earthquake
  • Aoba
  • Apache tears
  • aphanitic
  • Apoyo
  • applied seismology
  • Arenal
  • Arica earthquake and tsunamis
  • Armenia earthquake
  • Armenia earthquake
  • Arunachal Pradesh earthquake
  • Asamayama
  • Asawa
  • Ascension Island
  • aseismic
  • ashfall
  • ashfall tuff
  • ash-flow eruption
  • ash-flow tuff
  • Ashgabat earthquake
  • Askja
  • Aso
  • asperity
  • Assam earthquake
  • Ata
  • Atitlán
  • Atlantis
  • Augustine
  • auxiliary fault plane
  • Avezzano earthquake
  • aviation and volcanoes
  • B
  • backarc
  • Baitoushan
  • Bam earthquake
  • Banda Aceh earthquake and tsunamis
  • Banda Api
  • Bandai-San eruption
  • Bandelier Tuff
  • Bantul earthquake
  • Barcena
  • Bardarbunga
  • barranco
  • Barren Island
  • The Barrier
  • barrier (fault)
  • basal wreck
  • base isolation
  • Basel earthquake
  • Batur
  • Bayonnaise
  • Bekaa Valley earthquake
  • Bengkulu earthquake
  • Bezymianny
  • Bhuj earthquake
  • Bihar earthquake
  • Birjand-Qã-yen earthquake
  • Bishop Tuff
  • blind fault
  • block
  • body wave magnitude
  • Bogoslof
  • Bolu-Duzce earthquake
  • Bonneville Slide
  • Boquerón
  • bradyseism
  • branching fault
  • bread-crust bomb
  • brittle-ductile boundary
  • brittleness (geology)
  • Bucharest earthquake
  • Bulusan
  • Buyin-Zahra earthquake
  • b-value
  • C
  • Cairo earthquake
  • Calaveras Fault
  • Calbuco
  • Calcutta earthquake
  • caldera
  • caldera complex
  • Campania earthquake
  • Campo Bianco
  • capable fault
  • Cape Ann
  • Cape Verde Islands
  • Cap-Haitien earthquake
  • capillarity (volcanoes)
  • Caracas earthquake
  • Cascadia earthquake and tsunami
  • Cascadia Subduction Zone
  • cataclasite
  • Catania
  • Catania earthquake
  • cauldron
  • Cecchi seismoscope
  • Cerro Azul
  • Cerro Negro
  • Cerro Rico
  • Cha
  • Chang Heng seismoscope
  • Chaos Craigs
  • Charleston earthquake
  • Chiginagak
  • Chihli earthquake
  • Chilean earthquake
  • Chillán earthquake
  • Chios earthquake
  • Chirpoi
  • Christchurch earthquake
  • Cinder Cone
  • Cinque Dente
  • Clarion Fracture Zone
  • clinker (Earth science)
  • clinopyroxene
  • Coast Mountains
  • Coatepeque
  • Cocos crustal plate
  • coda
  • Colima
  • Colombian earthquake
  • Colorado Plateau
  • Columbia Plateau
  • columnar joints
  • Comoro Islands
  • compressional stress
  • Concepción
  • conduit
  • cone-in-cone structure
  • contact metamorphism
  • continent
  • continental crust
  • continuous deformation
  • converted wave
  • Copahué
  • Cordillera Nevada
  • Cos earthquake
  • Cotopaxi
  • coulee
  • cow-pie bomb
  • Craters of the Moon Monument
  • Creede
  • Crescent City tsunami
  • Crystal Ice Cave
  • crystalline (Earth science)
  • crystallization (geology)
  • Cucuta earthquake
  • Cumbre Vieja
  • D
  • dacite
  • Daisetsu-Tokachi
  • Dakataua
  • Damghan earthquake
  • Dasht-e Bayaz earthquake
  • dead fault
  • Death Valley
  • Debal earthquake
  • debris avalanche
  • debris slide
  • decade volcanoes
  • Deccan Plateau
  • Deception Island
  • Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) program
  • deep-focus earthquake
  • Denali Fault
  • Deriba
  • destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum
  • Devils Tower
  • dextral fault
  • Dhamar earthquake
  • Diamante
  • Dieng Plateau
  • dilatancy
  • Dinar earthquake
  • dip-slip fault
  • directivity (geology)
  • ductile deformation
  • Dukono
  • Dvin earthquake
  • E
  • earthquake frequency
  • earthquake hazard
  • earthquake intensity
  • earthquake light
  • earthquake reduction technologies
  • earthquake risk
  • earthquake swarm
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Alaska
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in California
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Central America
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Chile
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Colombia
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Europe
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Japan
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Nicaragua
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in North America
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Russia
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in the Basin and Range Province
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in the United States
  • earthquakes and volcanoes in Washington
  • earthquakes in Los Angeles
  • earthquakes in San Francisco
  • earthquakes in Tabriz
  • earthquakes in the Bible
  • earthquakes, volcanoes, and the Earth's crust
  • East Pacific Rise
  • Edo earthquake and tsunamis
  • Egon
  • El Asnam earthquake
  • El Chichón
  • elastic strain
  • embryonic volcano
  • Emmons Lake
  • Emperor Seamounts
  • emplacement
  • erosion caldera
  • eruption
  • eruption cycle
  • Erzincan earthquake
  • explosive eruption
  • extinct volcano
  • extrusion tectonics
  • Eyjafjallajökull volcano
  • F
  • Falcon Island
  • Fantale
  • Farallon crustal plate
  • fault
  • fault creep
  • fault plane solution
  • fault rocks
  • fault trace
  • felsic
  • Fernandina
  • ferromagnesian
  • fiamme
  • first arrival
  • first motion
  • Fisher
  • fissure eruption
  • flank eruption
  • foreshock
  • Fort Tejon earthquake
  • fractional fusion
  • Friuli earthquake
  • Fuego
  • Fukui earthquakes
  • fumarole
  • Furnas
  • G
  • Galeras volcano
  • Galilee earthquake
  • Galunggung
  • Gamalama
  • Gansu earthquake
  • Gaua Island
  • Geger Halang
  • Gemini Seamount
  • generation and rise of magma
  • geology
  • geophysical monitoring
  • geothermal energy
  • Gilan earthquake
  • Good Friday earthquake
  • Gorely Khrebet
  • Grand Banks earthquake
  • Grand Coulee
  • granitization
  • Great Rift
  • Great Rift Valley
  • Grimsvötn
  • ground failure
  • Guagua Pichincha
  • H
  • Haicheng earthquake
  • Hakkoda
  • Hakone
  • Harem-Armanaz earthquake
  • harmonic tremor
  • Haroharo
  • Hayward Fault
  • Hebgen Lake earthquake
  • Hector Mine earthquake
  • Heimaey eruption
  • Hekla
  • Herdubreid
  • Hibok-hibok
  • holohaline
  • Hooke's law (seismology)
  • hornito
  • horse (geology)
  • horst
  • hot, dry rock
  • Huaraz earthquake
  • Huascarán avalanche
  • hydrothermal activity
  • hypocenter
  • I
  • Idaho Batholith
  • igneous breccia
  • igneous complex
  • igneous rocks
  • ignimbrite
  • Ijen
  • Iliamna
  • Ilopango
  • impact of volcanic eruptions on climate
  • impact structure
  • Imperial Valley earthquake
  • incandescent
  • Indo-Australian crustal plate
  • injection (geology)
  • intensity of recent earthquakes
  • intermediate rock
  • interplate coupling
  • interstice
  • intraplate
  • intrusion
  • Irazu
  • Irian Jaya earthquake
  • Ischia
  • isoseismal map
  • Iturup earthquake
  • Iwo Jima
  • Izalco
  • Izmit earthquake
  • Izu Peninsula
  • Izu-óshima
  • J
  • Jawa
  • Jerusalem earthquake
  • jökulhlaup
  • Jorullo
  • Juan de Fuca crustal plate
  • K
  • Kakuto
  • Kamchatka Peninsula
  • Kangra earthquake
  • Kanto earthquake
  • Karkar
  • Karymsky
  • Kashmir earthquake
  • Katla
  • Kelud
  • Kemin earthquake
  • Kerinici
  • Kern County earthquake
  • K-feldspar
  • Khait earthquake
  • Kikai
  • Kilauea
  • Killari earthquake
  • Kirishima
  • Kliuchevskoi
  • Kobe earthquake
  • Komaga-take
  • K’one
  • Koryaksky
  • Kotlugja eruption
  • Krafla
  • Krakatau
  • Krasheninnikov
  • Kronotsky
  • Kuril Islands
  • Kuril Lake
  • Kusatsu-Shirane
  • Kutcharo
  • Kverkfjöll
  • Kwangtung earthquake
  • K-wave
  • L
  • Lake Missoula
  • Laki eruption
  • Land of the Giant Craters
  • landslide hazard reduction
  • Laodicia earthquake
  • lapilli
  • L’Aquila earthquake
  • Larderello
  • Las Cañadas
  • Lassen Peak
  • lateral blast
  • lateral spread and flow
  • latite
  • lava
  • lava dome
  • lava field
  • lava tube
  • left-lateral fault
  • Lehmann discontinuity
  • Lipari Islands
  • liquefaction
  • Lisbon earthquake
  • lithology
  • Little Sitkin
  • littoral cone
  • Lituya Bay tsunami
  • Liwa earthquake
  • local magnitude
  • locked fault
  • Loihi Seamount
  • Lokon
  • Loma Prieta earthquake
  • Long Island
  • Long Valley caldera
  • long-period wave
  • Love wave
  • low velocity zone
  • Luzon earthquake
  • M
  • maar
  • Macdonald Seamount
  • mafic
  • magmatic arc
  • magnitude (seismology)
  • main shock
  • major earthquake
  • Makian
  • Makran coast earthquake and tsunami
  • Malazgirt earthquake
  • Mammoth Hot Springs
  • Managua earthquake
  • Manam
  • Maninjau
  • Masaya
  • Mascara earthquake
  • Matsushiro
  • Maule earthquake
  • Mauna Kea
  • Mauna Loa
  • Mayon
  • Mazama
  • Mazar-e Sharif earthquake
  • McDonald Island
  • Medicine Lake Volcano
  • medium-rate ridge
  • Medvezhii
  • megathrust
  • megatsunami
  • meizoseismal region
  • Mendeleev
  • Merapi
  • Mesa de los Hornitos
  • Messina earthquake
  • Metis Shoal
  • Mexico City earthquake
  • microearthquake
  • microzonation
  • Mino-Owari earthquake
  • moment magnitude
  • Momotombo
  • Mono Lake
  • Monowai Seamount
  • Montenegro earthquake
  • Montserrat
  • Moro Gulf earthquake and tsunami
  • Motagua Fault
  • Mount Baker
  • Mount Cameroon
  • Mount Erebus
  • Mount Etna
  • Mount Fuji
  • Mount Garibaldi
  • Mount Hood
  • Mount Karangetang
  • Mount Katmai
  • Mount Kilimanjaro
  • Mount Lamington
  • Mount Pelée
  • Mount Pinatubo
  • Mount Rainier
  • Mount Saint Helens
  • Mount Shasta
  • Mount Trident
  • Mount Unzen
  • mud volcano
  • Muradiye earthquake
  • Muzaffarabad earthquake
  • Myozin-Syo
  • N
  • Nanao earthquake
  • Napier earthquake
  • Nasu
  • natural frequency (seismology)
  • neotectonics
  • Nepal earthquake
  • Nevado del Ruiz
  • Nevados de Chilian
  • Nevados Huascarán earthquake
  • New Madrid Fault Zone
  • Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone
  • Ngaurahoe
  • Ngorongoro
  • Niigata earthquake
  • Niuafo’ou Island
  • North Pagan
  • Northridge earthquake
  • nuée ardente
  • Nyamuragira
  • Nyiragongo
  • Nyos toxic gas eruption
  • Nysiros
  • O
  • obsidian
  • offset (seismology)
  • Okmok
  • Okushiri earthquake and tsunami
  • Old Faithful
  • Olympus Mons
  • Onikobe
  • On-Take
  • Opala
  • Oran earthquake
  • origin time
  • Örœfajökull
  • Osaka earthquakes
  • Owens Valley earthquake
  • P
  • Pacaya
  • Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS)
  • Padang earthquake
  • Pagan
  • paleoseismicity
  • paleovolcanic
  • palisade
  • Papandayan
  • Paphlu earthquake
  • parasitic cone
  • parental magma
  • Paricutín
  • Patan earthquake
  • Pavlof
  • Pele's tears
  • Pelileo earthquake
  • period oscillations
  • Permian extinction
  • phaneritic
  • Phlegraean Fields
  • phreatic eruption
  • Piton de la Fournaise
  • plagioclase
  • plate tectonics
  • Plinian eruption
  • plug (geology)
  • pluton
  • Poás
  • Popocatépetl
  • porphyritic
  • Port Royal earthquake
  • Port-au-Prince earthquake
  • precursor (seismology)
  • predicting earthquakes
  • predicting volcanic eruptions
  • pressure ridge
  • primary effects
  • Puracé
  • Puu Oo
  • pyrometamorphism
  • Q
  • Quchan earthquake
  • Quetta earthquake
  • Quito earthquake
  • R
  • Rabaul
  • Ranau
  • Rasshua
  • Rayleigh waves
  • Raymond Fault
  • Redoubt
  • reflected wave
  • refracted wave
  • Reventador
  • reverse fault
  • Rhodos earthquake
  • right-lateral fault
  • Rincón de la Vieja
  • ring dikes
  • Ring of Fire
  • Rio Grande Rift
  • Riviera earthquake
  • Roccamonfina
  • rock avalanche
  • rockfall
  • rockslide
  • Rodinia
  • role of water in seismic and volcanic activity
  • Rostaq earthquake
  • Rotorua
  • Ruapehu
  • Ruby Seamount
  • rupture
  • rupture front
  • S
  • sag
  • sag pond
  • Saint Lawrence Valley
  • Sakhalin earthquake
  • Sakurajima
  • San Cristobal
  • San Fernando earthquake
  • San Jacinto Fault Zone
  • sand boil
  • Sangay
  • Sanriku earthquake and tsunami
  • Santa María
  • Santorini
  • scoria
  • secular changes (seismology)
  • Segara Anak
  • segmentation (geology)
  • seismic moment
  • seismic tomography
  • seismic velocity
  • seismogram
  • seismology
  • Semeru
  • Semisopochnoi
  • Serravalle di Chienti earthquake
  • Sete Cidades
  • Shaanxi earthquake
  • shadow zone
  • ShakeMap
  • shallow-focus
  • Shemakha earthquake
  • Sheveluch
  • shield volcano
  • Shikotsu
  • Ship Rock
  • Shiraz earthquake
  • Shishaldin
  • Sichuan earthquake
  • Sierra Negra
  • Sierra Nevada
  • Sinano earthquake
  • Sissano earthquake
  • Skaptarjökull
  • Skopje earthquakes
  • slip model
  • Snake River Plain
  • societal response to disasters
  • Socorro
  • soil amplification
  • solfatara
  • Sonoran earthquake
  • Soufrière 1
  • Soufrière 2
  • Soufrière Hills
  • South Sandwich Islands
  • Sparta earthquake
  • spatter cone
  • spectral acceleration
  • spectrum (seismology)
  • splay
  • Srinagar earthquake
  • stick-slip
  • stock (geology)
  • strain rate
  • stratovolcano
  • stress drop
  • strike-slip fault
  • Stromboli
  • sturzstrom
  • submarine earthquake
  • submarine eruption
  • Sukaria
  • summit eruption
  • Sunda
  • Suoh depression
  • supervolcano
  • surface faulting
  • Surtsey
  • T
  • Taal
  • Tabas earthquake
  • table mountain
  • Tai-Ching earthquake
  • talus
  • Tambora eruption
  • Tanaga
  • Tancheng earthquake
  • Tango earthquake
  • Tangshan earthquake
  • Tao-Rusyr
  • Tarawera
  • Tarumai
  • Taupo
  • Taupo Fault Zone
  • tectonics
  • teleseismic
  • teletsunami
  • Tengger
  • thermal gradient
  • Thira
  • tholeiite
  • Three Rivers earthquake
  • Three Sisters
  • tidal wave
  • Tien-Chi
  • Toba
  • Tofua
  • Tohoku earthquake
  • Tokachi
  • Tokaido earthquake and tsunami
  • Tolbachik
  • Toledo
  • Tondano
  • Tongariro
  • Tonghai earthquake
  • topographic monitoring
  • Torfajökull
  • Toribio earthquake
  • Towada
  • Toya
  • T-phase
  • trajectory (seismology)
  • transition zone (Earth science)
  • Transverse Ranges
  • triple junction
  • Tristan de Cunha
  • tsunami
  • tsunami run-up
  • tsunamigenic
  • Tungurahua
  • tuya
  • U
  • ultramafic
  • V
  • Vaiont Dam
  • Valles
  • Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes
  • Van earthquake
  • Vayoc Jor earthquake
  • velocity structure
  • Veniaminof
  • Vestmann Islands
  • Vesuvius
  • Villarrica
  • vog
  • volcanic activity in Hawaii
  • volcanic ash
  • volcanic cone
  • volcanic crater
  • volcanic dome
  • volcanic dust
  • Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
  • volcanic hazards
  • volcanic ice cap
  • volcanic rock
  • volcanism
  • volcano
  • volcano geotourism
  • volcanoes in the Canary Islands
  • volcanoes on Io
  • volcanologist
  • Vrancea earthquake
  • Vulcanian-type eruption
  • Vulcano
  • Vulsini
  • W
  • Wasatch Mountains
  • Watchung Mountains
  • welded tuff
  • Westdahl
  • Whakatane Fault
  • White Island
  • White Mountains
  • White Terrace
  • Witori
  • Wizard Island
  • Wolf
  • Wrangell Mountains
  • wrench fault
  • X
  • Xichang earthquake
  • Xingtai earthquakes
  • Xining earthquake
  • Y
  • Yake-dake
  • Yangjiang earthquake
  • “year without a summer”
  • Yellowstone National Park
  • Yogyakarta earthquake
  • Further Resources
  • Internet Resources