Science Encyclopedia: Encyclopedia of Chemistry

Editor/Author Rittner, Don and Bailey, Ronald A.
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Facts On File

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-4381-6316-1
Category: Science - Chemistry
Image Count: 59
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Encyclopedia of Chemistry, Revised Edition is the definitive reference to this vast subject area. Hundreds of chemistry-related entries, thought-provoking essays, leading discoveries, and biographies of notable chemists throughout history provide academic and early college students with the most complete information available.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • A
  • [2Fe-2S]
  • [4Fe-4S]
  • ABO blood group system
  • abscisic acid (ABA)
  • absolute configuration
  • absolute entropy
  • absolute zero
  • absorption spectrum
  • abstraction (chemistry)
  • abyssal zone
  • abzyme
  • acceptor number (AN)
  • accessory pigment
  • acclimatization
  • acetyl CoA
  • acetylcholine (ACh)
  • acid
  • acid anhydride
  • acid-labile sulfide
  • acid precipitation
  • acidic salt
  • acidity
  • acidity constant
  • acidity function
  • aconitase
  • acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  • actinides
  • action potential
  • activated complex
  • active center
  • active metal
  • active transport
  • activity series
  • actual yield
  • acyl group
  • addition (chemistry)
  • addition reaction
  • additivity principle
  • address-message concept
  • adduct
  • adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP)
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • adenyl cyclase
  • adhesive forces
  • ADME
  • adrenodoxin
  • Adrian, Edgar Douglas
  • adsorption
  • aerobe
  • aerobic
  • affinity
  • agonist
  • agostic
  • albumin
  • alcohol
  • aldehydes
  • alkali metals
  • alkaline battery
  • alkaline earth metals
  • alkenes
  • alkyl group
  • alkylbenzene
  • alkynes
  • allosteric binding sites
  • allosteric effector
  • allosteric enzyme
  • allosteric regulation
  • allosteric site
  • allotrope
  • alloy
  • allozyme
  • allylic substitution reaction
  • alpha (α) addition
  • alpha (α) effect
  • alpha (α) elimination
  • alpha (α) helix
  • alpha (α) particle
  • alternant
  • alums
  • ambident
  • ambidentate
  • amicyanin
  • amide
  • amine
  • amine complex
  • amino acid residue (in a polypeptide)
  • amino acids
  • amino group
  • amorphous solid
  • ampere
  • amphipathic molecule
  • amphiphilic
  • amphiprotic solvent
  • amphoteric
  • amphoterism
  • anabolism
  • anaerobe
  • anaerobic
  • analog (chemistry)
  • anation
  • anemia
  • anion
  • anionotropic rearrangement
  • anisotropy
  • annelation
  • annulation
  • annulene
  • anode
  • antagonist
  • antarafacial, suprafacial
  • anti
  • anti-Markownikoff addition antigen
  • antibody
  • antibonding orbital
  • antigen
  • antimetabolite
  • antisense molecule
  • aphotic zone
  • apoprotein
  • aprotic solvent
  • aquation
  • aqueous solution
  • Archaea
  • aromatic, aromaticity
  • aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Arrhenius, Svante August
  • artificial transmutation
  • aryl group
  • aryne
  • assimilation
  • associated ions
  • association (chemistry)
  • asymmetric carbon
  • asymmetric induction
  • asymmetric synthesis
  • asymmetry parameter
  • atmosphere
  • atom
  • atomic mass unit (amu)
  • atomic nucleus
  • atomic number
  • atomic orbital
  • atomic radius
  • atomic weight or mass
  • ATP synthase
  • attachment
  • aufbau (“building up”) principle
  • autacoid
  • autocatalytic reaction
  • autoionization
  • autophytic
  • autoprotolysis
  • autoprotolysis constant
  • autoreceptor
  • autotrophic organism
  • auxins
  • auxotroph
  • Avogadro's law
  • Avogadro's number
  • azurin
  • B
  • background radiation
  • bacteria
  • Baldwin's rules
  • Balmer series
  • band theory of metals
  • Banting, Frederick Grant
  • bar (unit of pressure)
  • barometer
  • basalt
  • base
  • base-pair substitution
  • base pairing
  • basic anhydride
  • basic oxide
  • basic salt
  • basic solution
  • bathochromic shift
  • bathyal zone
  • bauxite
  • Beer-Lambert law
  • Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle
  • benthic zone
  • benzyne
  • Berg, Paul
  • beta (β) particle
  • beta (β) sheet
  • beta (β) strand
  • beta (β) turn
  • beta decay
  • bifunctional catalysis
  • bifunctional ligand
  • bimolecular reaction
  • binary acid
  • binary compound
  • binary fission
  • binding energy
  • binding site
  • binomial
  • binuclear
  • bioaccumulation
  • bioassay
  • bioavailability
  • biocatalyst
  • bioconjugate
  • bioconversion
  • biodegradability
  • biodiversity
  • bioenergetics
  • biogeochemical cycles (chemistry)
  • biogeography
  • bioisostere
  • bioleaching
  • biological half-life
  • biological magnification
  • biological oxygen demand (BOD)
  • bioluminescence
  • biomass
  • biomembrane
  • biomimetic
  • biomineralization
  • biopolymers
  • bioprecursor prodrug
  • biosensor
  • biosphere
  • biotechnology
  • biotic
  • biotransformation
  • biradical
  • black smoker
  • bleomycin (BLM)
  • blood
  • blotting
  • blue copper protein
  • body-centered unit cell
  • Bohr model
  • boiling point
  • boiling-point elevation
  • Boltzmann distribution
  • bomb calorimeter
  • bond
  • bond-dissociation energy
  • bond energy
  • bond number
  • bond order
  • bonding orbital
  • bonding pair
  • bone imaging
  • borderline mechanism
  • Born-Haber cycle
  • boron hydrides
  • Bovet, Daniele
  • Boyle's law
  • Bragg equation
  • brain imaging
  • Bredt's rule
  • breeder reactor
  • bremsstrahlung
  • bridged carbocation
  • bridging ligand
  • Brønsted acid
  • Brønsted base
  • Brønsted relation
  • Brownian movement
  • buckminsterfullerene
  • buffer
  • buffer capacity
  • bulk flow
  • Bunnett-Olsen equations
  • buret
  • C
  • cage
  • cage compound
  • calmodulin
  • calorie
  • calorimeter
  • calpain
  • Calvin cycle
  • Calvin, Melvin
  • capillary
  • capillary action
  • captodative effect
  • carbanion
  • carbene
  • carbenium center
  • carbenium ion
  • carbenoid
  • carbocation
  • carbohydrate
  • carbon-14 dating
  • carbon cycle
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbon fixation
  • carbon monoxide
  • carbon monoxide dehydrogenases
  • carbon sequestration
  • carbonates
  • carbonic anhydrase
  • carbonium ion
  • carbonyl group
  • carboplatin
  • carboxyl group
  • carboxylic acid
  • carbyne
  • carcinogen
  • cardiotech
  • Carnot cycle
  • carotenoids
  • carrier-linked prodrug
  • cascade prodrug
  • catabolic pathway
  • catabolism
  • catabolite
  • catabolite activator protein (CAP)
  • catalase (chemistry)
  • catalysis
  • catalyst
  • catalytic antibody
  • catalytic coefficient
  • catenation
  • cathode
  • cathode-ray tube
  • cathodic protection
  • cation
  • cation exchange (chemistry)
  • cell
  • cellular respiration
  • cellulose
  • Celsius, Anders
  • Celsius scale
  • central atom
  • ceramic
  • ceruloplasmin
  • Chain, Ernst Boris
  • chain reaction (chemistry)
  • chain transfer
  • chalcogen
  • channels (chemistry)
  • chaperonin
  • charge population
  • charge-transfer complex
  • charge-transfer transition
  • Charles’ law
  • chelation (chemistry)
  • chelation therapy
  • cheletropic reaction
  • chelotropic reaction
  • chemical bond
  • chemical change
  • chemical decomposition
  • chemical equation
  • chemical equilibrium
  • chemical equilibrium
  • chemical flux
  • chemical formula
  • chemical kinetics
  • chemical periodicity
  • chemical property
  • chemical reaction
  • chemical relaxation
  • chemical shift
  • chemical species
  • chemical weight
  • chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP)
  • chemiluminescence
  • chemiosmosis
  • chemistry
  • chemoautotroph
  • chemoheterotroph
  • chemoreceptor
  • chemoselectivity, chemoselective
  • chemotherapy
  • chi-square test
  • chirality
  • chitin
  • chloralkali cell
  • chlorin
  • chlorofluorocarbon
  • chlorophyll
  • chloroplast
  • cholesterol
  • chromatin
  • chromatography
  • chromophore
  • chromosome
  • cine-substitution
  • circular dichroism (CD)
  • cis
  • cis-trans isomerism
  • cisplatin
  • class (a) metal ion
  • class (b) metal ion
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  • clay
  • clone
  • close packing
  • cloud chamber
  • cluster (chemistry)
  • coagulation (chemistry)
  • coal
  • cobalamin
  • codon
  • coefficient of variation
  • coenzyme
  • cofactor
  • cohesion
  • cohesive force
  • coke
  • collagen
  • colligation
  • colligative properties
  • collision theory
  • colloid
  • combination reaction
  • combinatorial library
  • combinatorial synthesis
  • combustible
  • combustion (chemistry)
  • common-ion effect
  • comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA)
  • compensation effect
  • competitive exclusion principle
  • competitive inhibitor
  • complementary DNA (cDNA)
  • complex (chemistry)
  • complex ions
  • composite reaction
  • composition stoichiometry
  • compost
  • compound
  • compressed gas
  • comproportionation
  • computational chemistry
  • computer-assisted drug design (CADD)
  • concanavalin A
  • concentration
  • concerted process
  • condensation
  • condensation polymer
  • condensation reaction
  • condensed phases
  • conduction band
  • confidence limits
  • configuration
  • configuration (electronic)
  • configuration (molecular)
  • conformation
  • congener
  • conjugate acid-base pair
  • conjugated double bonds
  • conjugated system
  • connectivity (chemistry)
  • consensus sequence
  • constitution
  • consumer
  • contact process
  • continuous spectrum
  • contrast agent
  • contributing structure
  • control rod
  • control test
  • convection
  • cooperativity
  • coordinate covalent bond
  • coordination
  • coordination compound
  • coordination isomers
  • coordination number
  • coordination sphere
  • coordinatively saturated
  • coordinatively unsaturated
  • copolymer
  • Cori, Carl Ferdinand
  • Cori, Gerty Theresa
  • corphin
  • corrected/uncorrected
  • correlation analysis
  • corrin
  • corrosion
  • cotransport
  • coulomb
  • Coulomb's law
  • countercurrent exchange
  • coupled system
  • coupling constant
  • covalent bond
  • covalent compounds
  • Cox-Yates equation
  • cracking
  • crime labs and chemistry
  • critical mass
  • critical micelle concentration (CMC)
  • critical point
  • critical pressure
  • critical temperature
  • cross conjugation
  • cross reactivity
  • crown (chemistry)
  • cryoscopy
  • cryptand
  • crystal
  • crystal classes
  • crystal field theory
  • crystal lattice
  • crystal lattice energy
  • crystal systems
  • crystalline solid
  • crystallization (chemistry)
  • cubic close packing
  • curie (Ci)
  • Curie, Marie
  • Curtin-Hammett principle
  • cyanobacteria
  • cybernetics
  • cybotactic region
  • cyclic AMP (cAMP)
  • cyclic electron flow
  • cyclin
  • cyclin-dependent kinase
  • cyclization
  • cycloaddition
  • cycloalkane
  • cycloelimination
  • cyclotron
  • cytochrome
  • cytochrome P-450
  • cytochrome-c oxidase
  • cytokine
  • cytoplasm
  • d orbitals
  • D
  • Dale, Henry Hallett
  • dalton
  • Dalton's law
  • Dam, Henrik
  • Daniel cell
  • data
  • daughter nuclide
  • De-nol
  • de novo design
  • debye
  • Debye, Peter
  • decant
  • decay constant
  • decomposers
  • decomposition
  • degenerate
  • degenerate rearrangement
  • degree
  • dehydration reaction
  • dehydrogenase
  • delocalization
  • demodulation
  • denaturation
  • denatured
  • denitrification
  • density
  • denticity
  • deoxyribose
  • depolarization
  • deposition (chemistry)
  • derivative (chemistry)
  • dermal toxicity
  • desferrioxamine (DFO)
  • detachment
  • detector
  • detergent
  • detonate
  • deuterium
  • dextrorotatory
  • diagonal similarities
  • diamagnetic
  • diamagnetism
  • diastereoisomerism
  • diastereoisomers
  • diatom
  • diatomic
  • dielectric constant
  • dienophile
  • differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)
  • differential thermal analysis (DTA)
  • differential thermometer
  • diffraction
  • diffusion
  • digestion
  • digital
  • dihydrofolate
  • dilution
  • dimer
  • dimerization
  • Dimroth-Reichardt ET parameter
  • dioxygenase
  • dipolar aprotic solvent
  • dipolar bond
  • dipole
  • dipole–dipole interaction
  • dipole moment
  • diprotic acid
  • disaccharide
  • dismutase
  • dispersed phase
  • dispersing medium
  • displacement reaction
  • disproportionation
  • dissimilatory
  • dissociation (chemistry)
  • dissociation energy
  • distillation
  • distomer
  • distonic radical cation
  • DNA
  • DNA ligase
  • DNA methylation
  • DNA polymerase
  • DNA probe
  • Dobson unit
  • docking studies
  • Doisy, Edward Adelbert
  • Domagk, Gerhard Johannes Paul
  • domain
  • donor number (DN)
  • donor-atom symbol
  • Doppler radar
  • dosimeter
  • double-blind study
  • double bond
  • double helix
  • double prodrug
  • double salt
  • Downs cell
  • DP number
  • driving force
  • drug
  • drug disposition
  • drug latentiation
  • drug targeting
  • dry cells
  • dry ice
  • d-transition elements
  • dual-action drug
  • dual substituent-parameter equation
  • ductile
  • Dumas method
  • dynamic equilibrium
  • dynein
  • dyotropic rearrangement
  • E
  • EC nomenclature for enzymes
  • ecosystem
  • educt
  • effective atomic number
  • effective charge
  • effective collisions
  • effective molarity
  • effective nuclear charge
  • efficacy
  • effusion
  • EF-hand
  • eighteen-electron rule
  • Eijkman, Christiaan
  • Einthoven, Willem
  • electrical conductivity
  • electrical resonance
  • electrochemical gradient
  • electrochemistry
  • electrocyclic reaction
  • electrode
  • electrode potential
  • electrofuge
  • electrogenic pump
  • electrolysis
  • electrolyte
  • electromagnetic radiation
  • electromagnetic spectrum
  • electromagnetic wave
  • electromeric effect
  • electron
  • electron acceptor
  • electron affinity
  • electron attachment
  • electron capture
  • electron density
  • electron detachment
  • electron donor
  • electron microscope (EM)
  • electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR)
  • electron-pair acceptor
  • electron-pair donor
  • electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • electron spin quantum number
  • electron spin-echo spectroscopy
  • electron transfer
  • electron-transfer catalysis
  • electron-transfer protein
  • electron-transport chain
  • electron-deficient bond
  • electron-donor-acceptor complex
  • electronegativity
  • electroneutrality principle
  • electronic effect of substituents: symbols and signs
  • electrophile
  • electrophilicity
  • electrophoresis
  • element
  • element effect
  • elementary process
  • elementary reaction
  • elimination (chemistry)
  • empirical formula
  • emulsifying agent
  • emulsion
  • enantiomer
  • encounter complex
  • encounter-controlled rate
  • endergonic reaction
  • endogenous
  • endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)
  • endotherm
  • endothermal reaction
  • endothermic
  • ene reaction
  • energy
  • energy of activation
  • enforced concerted mechanism
  • enhanced greenhouse effect
  • entatic state
  • entering group
  • enterobactin
  • enthalpy
  • enthalpy of activation
  • enthalpy of formation
  • entropy
  • entropy of activation
  • environment
  • enzyme
  • enzyme induction
  • enzyme repression
  • epimer
  • epimerization
  • epitope
  • epoch
  • equatorial bonds
  • equilibrium
  • equivalent (chemistry)
  • equivalent weight
  • Erlanger, Joseph
  • ester
  • ethanol
  • ether
  • ethylene
  • euchromatin
  • eudismic ratio
  • eukaryote
  • eutomer
  • eutrophic lake
  • eutrophication
  • evaporation
  • evaporative cooling
  • evapotranspiration
  • excimer
  • exciplex
  • excited state
  • exclusion principle
  • exegetic reaction
  • exogenous
  • exon
  • exosphere
  • exothermic
  • exotoxin
  • expression (chemistry)
  • extended Hammett equation
  • extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS)
  • extinct species
  • extrusion transformation
  • F
  • F-430
  • face-centered cubic
  • facilitated diffusion
  • facultative anaerobe
  • facultative organism
  • Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel
  • fallout
  • faraday
  • Faraday's law of electrolysis
  • fast-atom bombardment mass spectroscopy
  • fast neutron
  • fat (general)
  • fat (triacylglycerol)
  • fatty acid
  • feedback inhibition
  • FeMo cofactor
  • Fenton reaction
  • fermentation
  • ferredoxin
  • ferriheme
  • ferritin
  • ferrochelatase
  • ferroheme
  • ferromagnetic
  • ferrous metal
  • field effect
  • filter
  • filtration (chemistry)
  • first law of thermodynamics
  • Fischer, Emil Hermann
  • flammable (chemistry)
  • flash point
  • flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP)
  • flavin
  • flocculation (chemistry)
  • flotation
  • fluids
  • fluorescence
  • fluorination
  • flux (chemistry)
  • fluxional
  • foam
  • folate coenzymes
  • force constant
  • formal charge
  • formula (chemistry)
  • formula unit
  • formula weight
  • fossil fuel
  • fractional distillation
  • fractional precipitation
  • fragmentation (chemistry)
  • Frasch process
  • free energy
  • free radical
  • free-energy change
  • freezing-point depression
  • frequency
  • frontier orbitals
  • fuel cell
  • fullerene
  • functional group (chemistry)
  • fur (chemistry)
  • fused-ring compound
  • fusion
  • G
  • galvanizing
  • gamma ray
  • gangue
  • gap junction
  • gas
  • gas chromatography
  • gas-phase acidity
  • gas-phase basicity
  • gated ion channel
  • GC-MS
  • Geiger counter
  • gel
  • gel electrophoresis
  • gem-dimethyl group
  • geminate pair
  • geminate recombination
  • gene
  • general acid catalysis
  • general base catalysis
  • genetic code
  • genome
  • geological time
  • geometrical isomers
  • geothermal energy
  • geotropism
  • Gibbs energy diagram
  • Gibbs energy of activation
  • Gibbs free energy
  • Gilbert, Walter
  • glass
  • glass electrode
  • glass transition temperature
  • glycogen
  • glycoprotein
  • gold drugs
  • Graham's law
  • Greek letters used
  • greenhouse effect
  • ground state
  • group (chemistry)
  • group theory
  • growth factor
  • Grunwald-Winstein equation
  • guanylate cyclase
  • guest (chemistry)
  • gypsum
  • H
  • Haber, Fritz
  • Haber process
  • Haber-Weiss reaction
  • Hahn, Otto
  • half-cell (chemistry)
  • half-life
  • half-reaction
  • Hall process
  • halocarbon
  • halochromism
  • halogens
  • haloperoxidase
  • Hammett equation
  • Hammond principle
  • Hansch analysis
  • Hansch constant
  • hapten
  • hapto
  • hard acid
  • hard base
  • hard drug
  • hard water
  • heat
  • heat capacity
  • heat capacity of activation
  • heat of atomization
  • heat of condensation
  • heat of crystallization
  • heat of fusion
  • heat of reaction
  • heat of solution
  • heat of sublimation
  • heat of vaporization
  • heat-shock proteins
  • heavy atom isotope effect
  • heavy water
  • Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  • helium
  • helix (chemistry)
  • heme
  • hemerythrin
  • hemochromatosis
  • hemocyanin
  • hemoglobin
  • Henderson-Hasselbach equation
  • Henry's law
  • herbicide
  • hertz
  • Herzberg, Gerhard
  • Hess's law of heat summation
  • heterobimetallic complex
  • heteroconjugation
  • heterocyclic amine
  • heterocyclic compound
  • heterogeneous catalyst
  • heterogeneous equilibrium
  • heterogeneous mixture
  • heteroleptic
  • heterolysis
  • heterolytic bond-dissociation energy
  • heteronuclear
  • heteroreceptor
  • heterotrophic organisms
  • hexagonal close packing (HCP)
  • Heyrovsky, Jaroslav
  • high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
  • high-density polyethylene (HDPE) (chemistry)
  • highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)
  • high-temperature superconductor
  • Hildebrand parameter
  • Hill, Archibald Vivian
  • HiPIP
  • hirudin
  • histamine
  • histone
  • Hodgkin, Dorothy Crowfoot
  • Hofmann rule
  • holoenzyme
  • HOMO
  • homoaromatic
  • homoconjugation
  • homogeneous catalyst
  • homogeneous equilibrium
  • homogeneous mixture
  • homoleptic
  • homologous series
  • homologue
  • homolysis
  • homonuclear
  • Hopkins, Frederick Gowland
  • hormone
  • host (chemistry)
  • Hückel (4n + 2) rule
  • humic acid
  • Hund's rule
  • hybridization
  • hydrate
  • hydration
  • hydration energy
  • hydride (chemistry)
  • hydrocarbon
  • hydrogen bond
  • hydrogen ion
  • hydrogenase
  • hydrogenation
  • hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell
  • hydrolase
  • hydrolysis
  • hydrolysis constant
  • hydrometallurgy
  • hydrometer
  • hydron
  • hydronium ion
  • hydrophilic
  • hydrophilic colloids
  • hydrophilicity
  • hydrophobic
  • hydrophobic interaction
  • hydrophobicity
  • hydroxyl group
  • hydroxyl ion
  • hydroxyl radical
  • hyperconjugation
  • hyperpolarization (chemistry)
  • hypertonic solution
  • hypoosmotic solution
  • hypothesis
  • hypotonic solution
  • hypsochromic shift
  • I
  • ideal gas
  • ideal gas law
  • ideal solution
  • identity reaction
  • igneous rock
  • imaging (medicine)
  • imbalance
  • immiscibility
  • immune response
  • immunoglobulin (Ig)
  • immunogold
  • inclusion compound
  • indicators
  • induced dipole moment
  • induction period
  • inductive effect
  • inductomeric effect
  • inert
  • inert s-pair effect
  • infrared radiation
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • inhibition (chemistry)
  • inhibitor
  • inhibitory catalyst
  • inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)
  • initiation (chemistry)
  • inner-sphere electron transfer
  • inorganic chemistry
  • insertion (chemistry)
  • insertion reaction
  • insoluble compound
  • insulator
  • insulin
  • integrated rate laws
  • inter-
  • intercalation compounds
  • interferon
  • intermediate (chemistry)
  • intermolecular
  • intermolecular forces
  • internal conversion (chemistry)
  • internal energy
  • interstitial
  • intra-
  • intramolecular
  • intramolecular catalysis
  • intramolecular isotope effect
  • intrinsic activity
  • intrinsic barrier
  • intron
  • inverse agonist
  • inverse isotope effect
  • inverted micelle
  • investigational new drug (IND)
  • ion
  • ion channel
  • ion exchange
  • ion pair
  • ion pump
  • ionic bond
  • ionic bonding
  • ionic compounds
  • ionic radius
  • ionic strength
  • ionization
  • ionization constant
  • ionization energy
  • ionizing power
  • ionizing radiation
  • ionophore
  • ion-pair return
  • ion-selective electrode
  • ipso attack
  • iron-responsive element
  • iron-responsive protein (IRP)
  • iron-sulfur cluster
  • iron-sulfur protein
  • ischemia
  • isobacteriochlorin
  • isochore
  • isodesmic reaction
  • isoelectronic
  • isoentropic
  • isoenzymes
  • isoequilibrium relationship
  • isokinetic relationship
  • isolobal
  • isomerase
  • isomerization
  • isomers
  • isomorphous
  • isosbestic point
  • isoselective relationship
  • isosteres
  • isotonic solutions
  • isotope
  • isotope effect
  • isotope exchange
  • isotopic fractionation factor
  • isotopic scrambling
  • isotopologue
  • isotopomer
  • isotropy
  • J
  • Joliot-Curie, Irène
  • Jones reductor
  • Josephson junction
  • joule
  • Joule-Thompson effect
  • K
  • K capture
  • Kamlet-Taft solvent parameters
  • Kekulé structure (for aromatic compounds)
  • Kelvin
  • Kendall, Edward Calvin
  • keratin
  • ketone
  • kilocalorie
  • kilogram
  • kinetic control (of product composition)
  • kinetic electrolyte effect
  • kinetic energy
  • kinetic equivalence
  • kinetic isotope effect
  • kinetic-molecular theory
  • kingdom
  • klinotaxis
  • Koppel-Palm solvent parameters
  • Kossel, Albrecht
  • Krebs cycle
  • Krebs, Sir Hans Adolf
  • L
  • labeled compound
  • labile
  • laccase
  • lactate
  • lactoferrin
  • Landsteiner, Karl
  • Langmuir, Irving
  • lanthanide contraction
  • lanthanides
  • laser
  • latex
  • lattice (chemistry)
  • lattice energy
  • law of combining volumes
  • law of conservation of energy
  • law of conservation of matter
  • law of conservation of matter and energy
  • law of definite proportions
  • law of partial pressures
  • Le Châtelier's principle
  • lead discovery
  • lead generation
  • lead optimization
  • lead storage battery
  • leaving group
  • Leclanché cell
  • left-to-right convention
  • leghemoglobin
  • Leloir, Louis F.
  • leveling effect
  • levorotatory
  • Lewis acid
  • Lewis acidity
  • Lewis adduct
  • Lewis base
  • Lewis formula
  • Libby, Willard Frank
  • lifetime
  • ligand
  • ligand field
  • ligand field splitting
  • ligand-gated ion-channel receptor
  • ligase
  • light microscope
  • light reactions
  • light water reactor
  • lignin
  • limestone
  • limewater
  • limiting law
  • limiting reactant
  • line formula
  • line spectrum
  • linear accelerator
  • linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO)
  • linear free-energy relation
  • linear solvation energy relationships
  • line-shape analysis
  • linkage isomers
  • lipid
  • Lipmann, Fritz Albert
  • lipophilic
  • lipophilicity
  • lipoprotein
  • lipoxygenase
  • liquefaction
  • liquid aerosol
  • liquid crystal
  • liquid drop model (of the nucleus)
  • littoral zone
  • Loewi, Otto
  • London forces
  • lone (electron) pair
  • low spin
  • lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)
  • luminescent
  • luster
  • lyase
  • lyate ion
  • Lyman series
  • lyonium ion
  • M
  • macromolecule
  • macrophage
  • Madelung constant
  • magnetic circular dichroism (MCD)
  • magnetic equivalence
  • magnetic moment
  • magnetic quantum number
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • magnetic susceptibility
  • magnetization transfer
  • magnetotactic
  • main group
  • malleability
  • manometer
  • marble
  • Marcus equation
  • Markownikoff rule
  • mass
  • mass action law
  • mass number
  • mass spectrometer
  • mass-law effect
  • matrix isolation
  • matter
  • McMillan, Edwin Mattison
  • mean bond energy
  • mechanism (chemistry)
  • mechanism-based inhibition
  • mechanoreceptor
  • mediator modulator
  • medicinal chemistry
  • medium (chemistry)
  • megapascal
  • Meisenheimer adduct
  • melting point
  • membrane potential
  • meniscus (chemistry)
  • Menkes disease
  • mercury battery
  • mesolytic cleavage
  • mesomeric effect
  • mesomerism
  • mesophase
  • messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • met-
  • metabolism
  • metabolite
  • metal
  • metallic bonding
  • metallic conduction
  • metalloenzyme
  • metalloid
  • metalloids
  • metallo-immunoassay
  • metallothionein
  • metallurgy
  • metathesis
  • meter
  • methane hydrate
  • methane monooxygenase
  • methanogen
  • method of isotopic perturbation
  • me-too drug
  • Meyerhof, Otto Fritz
  • mica
  • micellar catalysis
  • micelle
  • Michaelis-Menten kinetics
  • micronutrient
  • microscopic diffusion control
  • microstate
  • microwave
  • microwave spectrum
  • migration (chemistry)
  • migratory aptitude
  • migratory insertion
  • mineral
  • miscibility
  • mitochondria
  • mitosis
  • mixed valency
  • mixing control
  • mixture
  • mobile phase
  • Möbius aromaticity
  • model (chemistry)
  • moderator
  • moiety
  • molality
  • molar solubility
  • molarity
  • mole
  • mole fraction
  • molecular entity
  • molecular equation
  • molecular formula
  • molecular geometry
  • molecular graphics
  • molecular mechanics calculation
  • molecular metal
  • molecular modeling
  • molecular modeling
  • molecular orbital
  • molecular orbital theory
  • molecular rearrangement
  • molecular solid
  • molecular weight
  • molecularity
  • molecule
  • molybdenum cofactor (Moco)
  • molybdopterin
  • monoamine
  • monomer
  • monooxygenase
  • monoprotic acid
  • monosaccharide
  • morphogen
  • morphometrics
  • Mössbauer effect
  • mother nuclide
  • motif
  • mu (chemistry)
  • Müller, Paul Hermann
  • Mulliken, Robert S.
  • multicenter bond
  • multicenter reaction
  • multicopper oxidases
  • multienzyme
  • multiheme
  • multiple bond
  • mutagen
  • mutagenesis
  • mutation
  • mutual prodrug
  • myoglobin
  • N
  • NAD+
  • NADH
  • NADP+
  • NADPH
  • nanoparticle
  • nanotube
  • narcissistic reaction
  • native state
  • natural gas
  • natural product
  • natural radioactivity
  • natural versus synthetic compounds
  • neighboring-group participation
  • Nernst equation
  • net ionic equation
  • neuron
  • neurotransmitter
  • neutralization
  • neutron
  • new chemical entity
  • new drug application (NDA)
  • nickel-cadmium cell
  • nif
  • NIH shift
  • nitrate reductase
  • nitrene
  • nitrenium ion
  • nitrite reductase
  • nitrogen cycle
  • nitrogen fixation
  • nitrogenase
  • noble gases
  • nonbonding orbital
  • nonclassical carbocation
  • nonclassical isostere
  • noncyclic electron flow
  • noncyclic photophosphorylation
  • nonelectrolyte
  • nonpolar covalent bond
  • normal mode (of vibration)
  • n-σ delocalization
  • n-to-pi-star transition
  • n-type semiconductor
  • nuclear binding energy
  • nuclear decay
  • nuclear fission
  • nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • nuclear radiation
  • nuclear reaction
  • nuclear reactor
  • nuclearity
  • nucleation (chemistry)
  • nucleic acids
  • nucleofuge
  • nucleons
  • nucleophile
  • nucleophilic catalysis
  • nucleophilicity
  • nucleoside
  • nucleotide
  • nuclide
  • nuclide symbol
  • nylon
  • O
  • obligate aerobe
  • obligate anaerobe
  • ocean thermal vents
  • oceanic zone
  • octahedral
  • octahedral hole
  • octane number
  • octet rule
  • oil
  • oil shale
  • olefin
  • olfaction
  • oligonucleotide
  • oligopeptide
  • oligotrophic lake
  • onium ion
  • open sextet
  • open system
  • operon
  • optical activity
  • optical isomers
  • optical yield
  • optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
  • orbital steering
  • orbital symmetry
  • order of reaction
  • ore
  • organic chemistry
  • organism
  • organochlorine compounds
  • organophosphorus compound
  • orphan drug
  • osmoconformer
  • osmolarity
  • osmoregulation
  • osmoregulator
  • osmosis
  • osmotic pressure
  • Ostwald process
  • outer orbital complex
  • outer-sphere electron transfer
  • overlap
  • overpotential
  • ovotransferrin
  • oxidase
  • oxidation (chemistry)
  • oxidation number
  • oxidation-reduction reactions
  • oxidation state
  • oxidative addition
  • oxidative coupling
  • oxidative phosphorylation
  • oxide
  • oxidizing agent
  • oxidoreductase
  • oxygen
  • oxygen-evolving complex (OEC)
  • ozone
  • ozonolysis
  • p orbital
  • P
  • pairing energy
  • paraffin
  • paramagnetic
  • parent ion
  • partial agonist
  • partial pressure
  • partial rate factor
  • particulate matter
  • pascal
  • passivation
  • passive transport
  • pattern recognition
  • Pauli exclusion principle
  • Pauling, Linus
  • p-block element
  • peptide bond
  • peptidoglycan
  • peptidomimetic
  • peptoid
  • percent by mass
  • percent composition
  • percent ionic character
  • percent purity
  • percentage ionization
  • perfect gas
  • perfluorocarbon (PFC)
  • pericyclic reaction
  • period
  • periodic law
  • periodic table of elements
  • periodicity
  • periselectivity
  • peroxidase
  • peroxide
  • petroleum
  • Pfeiffer's rule
  • pH scale
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacophore
  • pharmacophoric descriptors
  • phase diagram
  • phase rule
  • phase-transfer catalysis
  • phenol
  • pheromone
  • phosphatase
  • phosphate group
  • phospholipase A
  • phospholipases
  • phospholipids
  • phosphorylation
  • photic zone
  • photoautotroph
  • photochemical oxidants
  • photochemical smog
  • photochemistry
  • photodissociation
  • photoelectric effect
  • photoheterotroph
  • photolysis
  • photon
  • photoperiodism
  • photophosphorylation
  • photosynthesis
  • photosystem
  • photovoltaic cell
  • pH-rate profile
  • physical change
  • phytoalexin
  • phytochelatin
  • phytochrome
  • pi (π) adduct
  • pi (π) bond
  • pi (π) electron acceptor, π-electron donor group
  • pi (π) orbital
  • picket-fence porphyrin
  • piezoelectric effect
  • placebo
  • Planck's constant
  • plasma
  • plasmid
  • plastic
  • plasticize
  • plasticizer
  • plastocyanin
  • plutonium
  • p-n junction
  • pOH
  • poikilotherm
  • polar covalent bond
  • polar effect
  • polar molecule
  • polarimeter
  • polarity
  • polarizability
  • pollen
  • polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)
  • polycyclic
  • polydent
  • polyene
  • polyester
  • polyethylene
  • polyhedral symbol
  • polymer
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • polymerization
  • polymorphous
  • polypeptide
  • polyprotic acid
  • polysaccharide
  • porins
  • porphyrin
  • positron
  • potency
  • potential energy
  • potential-energy (reaction) surface
  • potential-energy profile
  • potentiometer
  • potentiometry
  • Pourbaix diagram
  • power saturation
  • pre-association
  • precipitate
  • predominance area diagram
  • pre-equilibrium
  • Prigogine, Ilya
  • primary isotope effect
  • primary standard (chemistry)
  • primary structure
  • primary voltaic cell
  • primer
  • primitive change
  • principle of detailed balancing
  • principle of least nuclear motion
  • principle of microscopic reversibility
  • probability
  • prodrug
  • product-determining step
  • product-development control
  • promoter
  • prosthetic group
  • protein
  • protein phosphatase
  • proteoglycan
  • proteomics
  • protogenic solvent
  • protolysis
  • proton
  • proton affinity
  • proton motive force
  • proton pump
  • protonation
  • proton-transfer reaction
  • protophilic solvent
  • protoplasm
  • protoporphyrin IX
  • pseudobinary ionic compounds
  • pseudocatalysis
  • pseudomolecular rearrangement
  • pseudopericyclic
  • pseudo-unimolecular
  • pterin
  • p-type semiconductor
  • pyrolysis
  • Q
  • quantitative analysis
  • quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)
  • quantum mechanics
  • quantum numbers
  • quantum yield
  • quartz
  • quaternary ammonium salts
  • quaternary nitrogen
  • quaternary structure
  • R
  • racemic
  • radiation
  • radical center
  • radical (chemistry)
  • radical ion
  • radical pair
  • radioactive isotope (chemistry)
  • radioactive tracer
  • radioactivity
  • radiocarbon dating
  • radiolysis
  • radiometric dating
  • radionuclide
  • radius ratio
  • radon
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Raoult's law
  • rate law
  • rate of reaction
  • rate-controlling step
  • rate-determining step
  • reactants
  • reacting bond rules
  • reaction coordinate
  • reaction path
  • reaction ratio
  • reaction stage
  • reaction step
  • reactive, reactivity
  • reactivity index
  • reactivity-selectivity principle (RSP)
  • real gas
  • rearrangement stage
  • Réaumur, René-Antoine Ferchault de
  • receptor
  • receptor mapping
  • receptor potential
  • receptor-mediated endocytosis
  • redox potential
  • reducing agent
  • reduction
  • reductive elimination
  • refractory material/metal
  • regioselectivity, regioselective
  • regulation (chemistry)
  • Reichstein, Tadeus
  • relative configuration
  • relaxation
  • releaser
  • reorganization energy
  • residence time
  • resolving power
  • resonance
  • resonance effect
  • resonance energy
  • resonance Raman spectroscopy
  • respiration
  • resting potential
  • restriction enzyme
  • reverse osmosis (chemistry)
  • reversible reaction
  • Rh blood types
  • rho (ρ) value
  • rhodopsin
  • ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • ribonucleotide reductases
  • ribose
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  • ribosomes
  • ribozyme
  • ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase
  • Rieske iron-sulfur protein
  • Ritchie equation
  • roentgen
  • role of chemistry
  • rotamer
  • rotational energy
  • rotational spectrum
  • rubredoxin
  • rubrerythrin
  • ruby
  • rusticyanin
  • Rutherford, Sir Ernest
  • Rydberg series
  • S
  • s electron
  • s orbital
  • sacrificial anode
  • saline
  • salinity
  • salt
  • salt bridge
  • sandwich compound
  • saponification
  • saprobe
  • saturated fatty acid
  • saturated hydrocarbons
  • saturated solution
  • scanning electron microscope
  • scavenger (chemistry)
  • Schiff base
  • Schroedinger equation (wavefunction)
  • scientific method
  • scientific notation
  • second law of thermodynamics
  • second messenger
  • secondary alcohol
  • secondary compound
  • secondary isotope effect
  • secondary productivity
  • secondary standard
  • secondary structure
  • secondary voltaic cell
  • second-order reaction
  • selective permeability
  • selectivity
  • selectivity factor
  • semiconductor
  • semipermeable
  • sensory neuron
  • sensory receptor
  • sequence
  • serotonin
  • shell (of electrons)
  • shielding effect
  • shielding (NMR spectroscopy)
  • side chain
  • siderophore
  • sigma, pi
  • sigma (σ) adduct
  • sigma (σ) bond
  • sigma (σ) constant
  • sigma (σ) orbital
  • sigmatropic rearrangement
  • signal peptide
  • signal transduction pathway
  • silica, silicon dioxide
  • silicate
  • silicones
  • silylene
  • single covalent bond
  • single-electron transfer mechanism (SET)
  • single-step reaction
  • siroheme
  • site-specific delivery
  • Slater-type orbital
  • smectic phase
  • smelting
  • smog
  • SN1/SN2 reactions
  • soap
  • Soddy, Frederick
  • sodium-potassium pump
  • soft drug
  • sol
  • solar energy
  • solar radiation
  • sol-gel process
  • solid solution
  • solubility product constant
  • solubility product principle
  • solute
  • solution
  • solvation
  • solvatochromic relationship
  • solvatochromism
  • solvent
  • solvent extraction
  • solvent isotope effect
  • solvent parameter
  • solvolysis
  • solvophobicity parameter
  • SOMO
  • sonication
  • soret band
  • special salt effect
  • speciation (chemistry)
  • specific catalysis
  • specific gravity
  • specific heat
  • spectator ion
  • spectator mechanism
  • spectral line
  • spectrochemical series
  • spectrograph
  • spectrophotometer
  • spectrum
  • spin density
  • spin label
  • spin-orbit coupling
  • spin trapping
  • spin-spin coupling
  • spontaneous fission
  • spontaneous reaction
  • square planar
  • square planar complex
  • stability constant
  • stable
  • standard electrode potential
  • standard molar enthalpy of formation
  • standard molar volume
  • starch
  • state function
  • steady state (chemistry)
  • stellacyanin
  • stepwise reaction
  • stereochemical
  • stereoelectronic
  • stereoelectronic control
  • stereoisomeric
  • stereoisomers
  • stereoselectivity, stereoselective
  • stereospecificity, stereospecific
  • steric effect
  • steric hindrance
  • steric isotope effect
  • steric-approach control
  • steroid hormone
  • stimulus
  • stochastic
  • stoichiometry
  • stopped flow
  • strain (chemistry)
  • stratosphere
  • strict aerobe
  • strong acid
  • strong base
  • strong electrolyte
  • strong-field ligand
  • structural formula
  • structural isomers
  • structure-activity relationship (SAR)
  • structure-based design
  • structure-property correlations (SPC)
  • subjacent orbital
  • sublimation
  • substance
  • substituent
  • substitution reaction
  • substrate
  • substrate-level phosphorylation
  • subunit
  • successor complex
  • sugar
  • sulfite reductase
  • superacid
  • superconductivity
  • superconductor
  • supercooled liquids
  • supercritical fluid
  • superoxide dismutases (SOD)
  • supersaturated solution
  • supramolecular chemistry
  • supramolecule
  • surface tension
  • surfactant
  • suspension
  • sustainable
  • sustainable agriculture
  • sustainable development
  • Sutherland, Earl W., Jr.
  • Swain-Lupton equation
  • Swain-Scott equation
  • symbiosis (chemistry)
  • symproportionation
  • synapse
  • synaptic terminal
  • synchronization
  • synchronous (chemistry)
  • synchrotron
  • synchrotron radiation
  • synergism
  • synthase
  • Szent-Györgyi, Albert von
  • T
  • Taft equation
  • tautomerism
  • tautomerization
  • taxon
  • tele-substitution
  • telomerization
  • temperature
  • termination
  • ternary acid
  • terpenes
  • tertiary structure
  • tetrahedral
  • tetrahedral hole
  • tetrahedral intermediate
  • tetrahydrofolate
  • thalassemia
  • Theorell, Hugo
  • theoretical chemistry
  • theoretical yield
  • therapeutic index
  • thermal analysis
  • thermal cracking
  • thermal neutron
  • thermal pollution
  • thermodynamic control (of product composition)
  • thermodynamic isotope effect
  • thermodynamics
  • thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)
  • thermoluminescence
  • thermolysin
  • thermolysis
  • thermonuclear energy
  • third law of thermodynamics
  • thorium-lead dating
  • three-center bond
  • three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR)
  • thylakoid
  • titration
  • topliss tree
  • torquoselectivity
  • torr
  • torsion angle, dihedral angle
  • total energy
  • total ionic equation
  • toxicity
  • toxin
  • trace elements
  • tracer
  • trans-
  • transcription
  • transduction
  • transferability
  • transferase
  • transferrin
  • transformation (chemistry)
  • transient (chemical) species
  • transition coordinate
  • transition element
  • transition state
  • transition structure
  • transition-state analog
  • transpiration
  • transuranium element
  • trapping (chemistry)
  • triboluminescence
  • triple bond
  • triple point
  • tritium
  • trophic structure
  • tropism
  • troposphere
  • Trouton's rule
  • tunneling
  • turgor pressure
  • Tyndall effect
  • type 1,2,3 copper
  • tyrosinase
  • tyrosine kinase
  • tyrosine kinase receptor
  • U
  • ultrasound
  • ultraviolet radiation
  • ultraviolet (UV) spectrum
  • umpolung
  • unified atomic mass unit
  • unit cell
  • unreactive
  • unsaturated fatty acids
  • unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • unsaturated solution
  • unstable
  • urea
  • urease
  • Urey, Harold
  • uric acid
  • V
  • valence
  • valence bond theory
  • valence electrons
  • valence isomer
  • valence shell
  • valence tautomerization
  • valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR)
  • A value
  • van der Waals equation
  • van der Waals forces
  • van der Waals radius
  • vapor
  • vapor pressure
  • ventilation
  • visible light
  • vitamin
  • volt
  • voltage
  • voltage-gated channel
  • voltaic cells
  • volume of activation
  • VSEPR
  • W
  • Waksman, Selman Abraham
  • Warburg, Otto Heinrich
  • water
  • water cycle
  • water equivalent
  • water of crystallization
  • water potential
  • water table
  • water vapor
  • Watson-Crick model
  • wave function
  • wavelength
  • weak acid/base
  • weak electrolyte
  • wetting agent
  • Whipple, George Hoyt
  • Wilson's disease
  • work
  • work function
  • X
  • X ray
  • X-ray diffraction
  • xenobiotic
  • Y
  • yeast
  • yield (chemistry)
  • ylide
  • Yukawa-Tsuno equation
  • Z
  • zeolite (chemistry)
  • zero-order reaction
  • zero-point energy
  • Ziegler-Natta catalyst (ZNC)
  • zinc finger
  • zone refining
  • Zucker-Hammett hypothesis
  • Z-value
  • zwitterionic compound
  • Bibliography