Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology

Editor/Author Henderson, Harry
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: Facts On File

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-4381-6317-8
Category: Technology & Engineering - Technology
Image Count: 96
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Provides overviews of hundreds of applications of computer technology and the fundamental design, economics and social impacts of the information society.

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Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • A
  • 3D printing
  • acceptable use policy
  • Active Server Pages (ASP)
  • Ada
  • addressing
  • Adobe Systems
  • Advanced Micro Devices (AMD)
  • agent-based programming
  • Agile software development
  • Aiken, Howard (b. 1900–d. 1973)
  • ALGOL
  • algorithms in computer science
  • Amazon.com
  • Amdahl, Gene M. (b. 1922–)
  • America Online (AOL)
  • analog and digital
  • analog computer
  • Andreessen, Marc (b. 1971–)
  • Android (operating system)
  • anonymity and the Internet
  • APL
  • app
  • Apple Corporation
  • applet
  • application programming interface (API)
  • application service provider (ASP)
  • application software
  • application suite
  • Arduino
  • arithmetic logic unit (ALU)
  • array
  • art and the computer
  • artificial intelligence (AI)
  • artificial life (AL)
  • assembler
  • Association for Computing Machinery
  • Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (Ajax)
  • AT&T
  • auditing in data processing
  • augmented reality
  • authentication
  • authoring systems
  • automatic programming
  • awk
  • B
  • backup and archive systems
  • Backus-Naur form (BNF)
  • banking and computers
  • BASIC
  • Basic Input-Output System (BIOS)
  • Bayesian analysis
  • Bell, C. Gordon (b. 1934–)
  • Bell Laboratories
  • Bezos, Jeffrey P. (b. 1964–)
  • big data
  • binding (computer science)
  • bioinformatics
  • biometrics
  • bitmapped image
  • bits and bytes
  • BitTorrent
  • bitwise operations
  • blockchain
  • blogs and blogging
  • Bluetooth
  • Boolean operators
  • boot sequence
  • botnet
  • branching statements
  • Breazeal, Cynthia (b. 1968–)
  • Brin, Sergey (b. 1973–)
  • broadband
  • Brooks, Rodney (b. 1954–)
  • buffering
  • bugs and debugging
  • bulletin board systems (BBS)
  • business applications of computers
  • C
  • C
  • C++
  • C#
  • cable modem
  • cache
  • calculator
  • cars and computing
  • cascading style sheets (CSS)
  • CD-ROM and DVD-ROM
  • cellular automata
  • censorship and the Internet
  • central processing unit (CPU)
  • Cerf, Vinton D. (b. 1943–)
  • certification of computer professionals
  • characters and strings
  • chatterbots
  • chess and computers
  • chipset
  • Chrome OS and Chromebooks
  • Chrome (web browser)
  • Cisco Systems
  • class
  • client-server computing
  • clock speed
  • cloud computing
  • codec
  • cognitive science and computers
  • color in computing
  • Comcast
  • Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL)
  • common gateway interface (CGI)
  • Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
  • compatibility and portability
  • compiler
  • computability and complexity
  • computer animation
  • computer bus
  • computer chip
  • computer crime and security
  • computer engineering
  • computer forensics
  • computer games
  • computer graphics
  • computer industry
  • computer industry benchmarks
  • computer industry in Asia
  • computer industry in Europe
  • computer literacy
  • computer music
  • computer science
  • computer terminal
  • computer virus
  • computer vision
  • computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM)
  • computer-aided instruction (CAI)
  • computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
  • computerized typography
  • computers and disaster planning and recovery
  • concurrent programming
  • conferencing systems
  • constants and literals
  • container (software)
  • content management
  • cooperative processing
  • copy protection
  • counterterrorism and computers
  • Craigslist
  • crowdfunding
  • crowdsourcing
  • CRT monitor
  • Cunningham, Howard (b. 1949–)
  • customer relationship management (CRM)
  • cyberlaw
  • cybernetics
  • cyberspace advocacy groups
  • cyberspace and cyber culture
  • cyberstalking and harassment
  • cyberterrorism
  • D
  • data
  • data abstraction
  • data acquisition
  • data breach
  • data communications
  • data compression
  • data conversion
  • data dictionary
  • data mining
  • information security
  • data structures
  • data types
  • data warehouse
  • database administration
  • database management system (DBMS)
  • decision support system
  • Dell, Inc.
  • demon (computer science)
  • design patterns
  • desktop publishing (DTP)
  • developing nations and computing
  • device driver
  • Diffie, Bailey Whitfield (b. 1944–)
  • digital bandwidth
  • digital cash and cryptocurrency
  • digital certificate
  • digital convergence
  • digital dashboard
  • digital divide
  • digital music and video players
  • digital photography
  • digital rights management (DRM)
  • digital subscriber line (DSL)
  • digital video editing
  • digital video recorder (DVR)
  • disabled persons and computing
  • distance education
  • distributed computing
  • Doctorow, Cory (b. 1971–)
  • document model
  • Document Object Model (DOM)
  • documentation of program code
  • domain name system (DNS)
  • Dreyfus, Hubert (b. 1929–)
  • drone
  • Drupal
  • E
  • e-readers
  • eBay
  • e-books and digital libraries
  • e-commerce
  • education and computers
  • education in the computer field
  • e-government
  • Eiffel
  • Electronic Arts
  • electronic voting systems
  • email
  • embedded computer system
  • emoticons and emoji
  • employment in the computer field
  • emulation
  • encryption
  • Engelberger, Joseph (b. 1925–)
  • enterprise computing
  • entrepreneurs in computing
  • enumerations and sets
  • ergonomics of computing
  • error correction
  • error handling
  • ethics of computing
  • expert systems
  • extensible markup language (XML)
  • F
  • Facebook
  • facial recognition
  • fault tolerance
  • Feigenbaum, Edward (b. 1936–)
  • fiber optics
  • file (computer science)
  • file server
  • file transfer protocols
  • file-sharing and P2P networks
  • motion picture industry and computing
  • financial software
  • finite-state machine
  • Firefox
  • firewall
  • FireWire
  • flag (computer science)
  • flash and smart mobs
  • USB flash drive
  • flat-panel display
  • floppy disk
  • flowchart (computer science)
  • font
  • Forth
  • Fortran
  • fractals in computing
  • functional languages
  • fuzzy logic in computer science
  • G
  • game consoles
  • gamification
  • Gates, Bill (b. 1955–)
  • genetic algorithms
  • geographic information system (GIS)
  • Gibson, William (b. 1948–)
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • globalization and the computer industry
  • Go (Golang)
  • Google
  • Google Drive
  • government funding of computer research
  • graphics card
  • graphics formats
  • graphics tablet
  • green computing
  • grid computing
  • groupware
  • Grove, Andrew S. (b. 1936–)
  • H
  • hackers and hacking
  • Hadoop
  • handwriting recognition
  • haptic interfaces
  • hard disk
  • hashing
  • Haskell
  • heap
  • help systems
  • hexadecimal system
  • history of computing
  • Hollerith, Herman (b. 1860–d. 1929)
  • home media center
  • home office
  • Hopper, Grace Murray (b. 1906–d. 1992)
  • HTML, DHTML, and XHTML
  • hypertext and hypermedia
  • I
  • IBM PC
  • IBM Watson computer
  • identity in the online world
  • identity theft
  • IEEE Computer Society
  • image processing
  • information design
  • information retrieval
  • information warfare
  • input/output (I/O)
  • installation of software
  • Intel Corporation
  • intellectual property and computing
  • International Business Machines (IBM)
  • internationalization and localization
  • Internet
  • Internet applications programming
  • Internet cafés and “hot spots”
  • Internet hosting service
  • Internet of Things
  • Internet organization and governance
  • Internet radio
  • Internet service provider (ISP)
  • interpreter
  • iOS
  • iPhone
  • iRobot Corporation
  • iTunes
  • J
  • Java
  • JavaScript
  • job control language (JCL)
  • Jobs, Steve (b. 1955–d. 2011)
  • journalism and computers
  • journalism and the computer industry
  • Joy, Bill (b. 1954–)
  • K
  • Kay, Alan (b. 1940–)
  • kernel
  • keyboard
  • Kleinrock, Leonard (b. 1934–)
  • knowledge base
  • knowledge representation
  • Knuth, Donald (b. 1938–)
  • Kurzweil, Ray (b. 1948–)
  • L
  • language translation software
  • Lanier, Jaron (b. 1960–)
  • laptop computer
  • law enforcement and computers
  • legal software
  • Lessig, Lawrence (b. 1961–)
  • libraries and computing
  • Licklider, J. C. R. (b. 1915–d. 1990)
  • light emitting diode (LED)
  • linguistics and computing
  • Linux
  • LISP
  • list processing
  • local area network (LAN)
  • Logo
  • loop (computer science)
  • Lua
  • M
  • Macintosh
  • macro
  • Maes, Pattie (b. 1961–)
  • mainframe
  • maker movement
  • management information system (MIS)
  • map information and navigation systems
  • marketing of software
  • markup languages
  • mashups
  • mathematics of computing
  • mathematics software
  • Mauchly, John William (b. 1907–d. 1980)
  • McCarthy, John (b. 1927–d. 2011)
  • measurement units used in computing
  • medical applications of computers
  • memory (computer science)
  • memory management
  • memristor
  • message passing
  • metadata
  • microprocessor
  • Microsoft Corporation
  • Microsoft .NET
  • Microsoft Office
  • Microsoft Windows
  • middleware
  • military applications of computers
  • mind-mapping software
  • minicomputer
  • Minsky, Marvin Lee (b. 1927–)
  • MIT Media Lab
  • Mitnick, Kevin D. (b. 1963–)
  • mobile communications
  • modeling languages
  • modem
  • molecular computing
  • Moore, Gordon Earle (b. 1929–)
  • motherboard
  • motion picture industry and computing
  • Motorola Corporation
  • mouse (computer)
  • MS-DOS
  • multimedia
  • multiprocessing
  • multitasking (computer science)
  • N
  • nanotechnology
  • natural language processing
  • near field communication (NFC)
  • Negroponte, Nicholas (b. 1943–)
  • net neutrality
  • etiquette in the digital world
  • netnews and newsgroups
  • network (computer science)
  • networked storage
  • Neumann, John von (b. 1903–d. 1957)
  • neural interfaces
  • neural network
  • nonprocedural languages
  • numeric data
  • O
  • object-oriented programming (OOP)
  • office automation
  • office suites (software)
  • Omidyar, Pierre (b. 1967–)
  • online advertising
  • online auctions
  • online chat
  • online frauds and scams
  • online gambling
  • online games
  • online investing
  • online job searching and recruiting
  • online music and video distribution
  • online reputation
  • online research
  • online services
  • online trust and reputation systems
  • ontologies and data models
  • open-source movement
  • operating system (OS)
  • operators and expressions
  • optical character recognition (OCR)
  • optical computing
  • Oracle Corporation
  • OS X
  • P
  • Page, Larry (b. 1973–)
  • Papert, Seymour (b. 1928–)
  • parallel port
  • parsing
  • Pascal
  • pattern recognition
  • penetration testing
  • Perl
  • personal computer (PC)
  • personal digital assistant (PDA)
  • personal health information management
  • personal information manager (PIM)
  • philosophical and spiritual aspects of computing
  • phishing and spoofing
  • PHP
  • PL/I
  • plug and play
  • plug-in
  • podcasting
  • pointers and indirection
  • political activism and the Internet
  • popular culture and computing
  • portable document format (PDF)
  • Posthumanism and Transhumanism
  • PostScript
  • presentation software
  • printers
  • privacy in the digital age
  • privacy policy
  • procedures and functions
  • program library
  • programming as a profession
  • programming environment
  • programming languages
  • project management software
  • projector, digital
  • Prolog
  • pseudocode
  • psychology of computing
  • punched cards and paper tape
  • Python
  • Q
  • quantum computing
  • queue
  • R
  • radio frequency identification (RFID)
  • random number generation
  • Raspberry Pi
  • Raymond, Eric (b. 1957–)
  • real-time processing
  • recursion
  • reduced instruction set computer (RISC)
  • redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID)
  • regular expression
  • representational state transfer (REST)
  • research laboratories in computing
  • reverse engineering
  • Rheingold, Howard (b. 1947–)
  • Rich Text Format (RTF)
  • risks of computing
  • Ritchie, Dennis (b. 1941– d. 2011)
  • robotics
  • RPG
  • RSS
  • Ruby
  • S
  • SAP
  • satellite Internet service
  • scanner
  • scheduling and prioritization in computing
  • science fiction and computing
  • scientific computing applications
  • scripting languages
  • search engine
  • semantic web
  • senior citizens and computing
  • serial port
  • service-oriented architecture (SOA)
  • Shannon, Claude E. (b. 1916–d. 2001)
  • shareware and freeware
  • sharing economy
  • shell (computer science)
  • Simonyi, Charles (b. 1948–)
  • Simula
  • simulation
  • Smalltalk
  • smart buildings and homes
  • smart card
  • smart TV
  • smartphone
  • Snowden, Edward (b. 1983–)
  • SOAP
  • social impact of computing
  • social networking
  • social network games
  • social sciences and computing
  • software agent
  • software engineering
  • software piracy and counterfeiting
  • software quality assurance
  • solid state drive
  • Sony
  • sorting and searching
  • sound file formats
  • space exploration and computers
  • Spafford, Eugene H. (b. 1956–)
  • spam
  • speech recognition and synthesis
  • spreadsheet
  • spyware and adware
  • stack
  • Stallman, Richard (b. 1953–)
  • standards in computing
  • statistics and computing
  • Stoll, Clifford (b. 1950–)
  • streaming (computer science)
  • Stroustrup, Bjarne (b. 1950–)
  • structured programming
  • structured query language (SQL)
  • Sun Microsystems
  • supercomputer
  • supply chain management
  • surveillance technologies
  • Sutherland, Ivan Edward (b. 1938–)
  • Swartz, Aaron (b. 1986–d. 2013)
  • Swift (programming language)
  • system administrator
  • systems analyst
  • systems programming
  • tablet (computer)
  • tape drives
  • T
  • Tcl
  • technical support
  • technical writing in the computer industry
  • technological singularity
  • technology policy
  • telecommunications and computers
  • telecommuting
  • telepresence
  • template (computer science)
  • text editor
  • texting and instant messaging
  • Thunderbolt
  • Torvalds, Linus (b. 1969–)
  • touchscreen
  • transaction processing
  • transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP)
  • transportation network companies
  • tree
  • trends in computer science and emerging technologies
  • Turing, Alan Mathison (b. 1912–d. 1954)
  • Turkle, Sherry (b. 1948–)
  • Twitter
  • Internet of Things
  • T
  • universal serial bus (USB)
  • UNIX
  • user documentation
  • user groups
  • user interface (UI)
  • user-created content
  • V
  • variable (computer science)
  • version control
  • videoconferencing
  • virtual community
  • virtual organization
  • virtual reality
  • virtualization
  • Visual Basic
  • Visual Basic Scripting (VBScript)
  • voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)
  • W
  • Wales, Jimmy (b. 1966–)
  • wearable computers
  • Web 2.0 and beyond
  • Web analytics
  • web browser
  • web cookies
  • web filter
  • web portal
  • web server
  • web services
  • webcam
  • webmaster
  • web design
  • Weizenbaum, Joseph (b. 1923–d. 2008)
  • Wiener, Norbert (b. 1894–d. 1964)
  • wikis and Wikipedia
  • wireless computing
  • Wirth, Niklaus (b. 1934–)
  • wizard
  • Wolfram, Stephen (b. 1959–)
  • women and minorities in computing
  • word processing
  • WordPress
  • workstation
  • World Wide Web (WWW)
  • Wozniak, Steve (b. 1950–)
  • Y
  • Y2K problem
  • Yahoo! Inc.
  • Yelp
  • young people and computing
  • YouTube
  • Z
  • Zuckerberg, Mark (b. 1984–)
  • Further Resources