Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition: Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry

Editor/Author Lelieveld, H. L. M., Holah, John and Gabric, Domagoj
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology

Single-User Purchase Price: $330.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $495.00
ISBN: 978-0-08-100197-4
Category: Food, Drink, Nutrition
Image Count: 304
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Handbook of Hygiene Control in the Food Industry, Second Edition, continues to be an authoritative reference for anyone who needs hands-on practical information to improve best practices in food safety and quality.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • The Starting Point: What Is Food Hygiene?
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 What Is Food Hygiene?
  • 1.3 Historical Developments
  • 1.4 Concept of Food Safety and Its Definition
  • 1.5 Management of Food Safety and Hygiene: A Shared Responsibility
  • 1.6 Food Hygiene Today and Outlook
  • References
  • Part I Management of Hazards and Risks
  • Consumer Perceptions of Risks From Food
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Risk Perceptions of Consumers Are Not the Same as Technical Risk Assessments
  • 2.3 Risk Perception and Barriers to Effective Risk Communication
  • 2.4 Developing an Effective Risk Communication Strategy
  • 2.5 Application of Combined Consumer Behavior: Food Safety Studies
  • 2.6 The Need for More Intensive Cooperation Between Natural and Social Scientists
  • 2.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • HACCP
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 HACCP and FSMS
  • 3.3 HACCP in Practice: Development, Implementation, and Maintenance
  • 3.4 HACCP and the Law: Meeting Legal Requirements and Responsibilities
  • 3.5 Benefits and Opportunities: Using HACCP Techniques for Improvement
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • The Range of Microbial Risks in Food Processing
  • 4.1 Introduction: The Risk of Microbial Foodborne Disease
  • 4.2 Microorganisms Responsible for Foodborne Diseases
  • 4.3 Related Products
  • 4.4 The Control of Food Safety
  • 4.5 Using Food Safety Objectives to Manage Microbial Risks
  • 4.6 Cooperation in the Supply Chain to Achieve Food Safety Objectives
  • 4.7 Quantitative Methods
  • 4.8 Quantification of Recontamination
  • 4.9 Conclusions
  • References
  • Biofilm Risks
  • 5.1 Biofilm Formation and Detection
  • 5.2 Pathogens in Biofilms
  • 5.3 Persistent and Nonpersistent Microbial Contamination in Food Processing
  • 5.4 Prevention of Biofilm Formation and Biofilm Removal
  • 5.5 Future Trends and Advice in Biofilm Control for the Food Industry
  • References
  • Aerosols as a Contamination Risk
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Important Factors
  • 6.3 Aerosol Generation
  • 6.4 Aerosol Dispersal
  • 6.5 Ways to Reduce the Risk from Airborne Contamination
  • 6.6 Future Trends
  • 6.7 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Chemical Hazards
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Risk Management of Chemical Hazards: Principles
  • 7.3 Inherent Toxicants
  • 7.4 Contaminants of Natural Origin
  • 7.5 Primary Production
  • 7.6 Contaminants Arising During Food Manufacture
  • 7.7 Issues Associated with Criminally Related Activities
  • 7.8 Discussion
  • References
  • Food Safety Management State of the Art
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Food Safety Definition and Concept
  • 8.3 Management of Food Safety in Food Industry Operations
  • 8.4 Change Management
  • 8.5 Management Commitment, Human Resource Management, and Organizational Culture
  • 8.6 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Risk Assessment in Hygiene Management
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Quality Management and Risk Assessment
  • 9.3 Examples of Risk Assessments
  • 9.4 Future Trends
  • 9.5 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Managing Risks from Allergenic Residues
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Food Allergy and Product Safety
  • 10.3 Management of Food Allergy Risks
  • 10.4 Role of Allergen Detection and Other Considerations
  • 10.5 Future Trends
  • References
  • Managing Contamination Risks From Packaging Materials
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Interactions Between FP, Foods, and the Environment
  • 11.3 Main Contamination Hazards in Food Due to FP
  • 11.4 Regulatory Aspects
  • 11.5 FP Hygiene and Safety Management Systems
  • 11.6 Conclusions and Trends
  • Websites of Interest
  • References
  • Improving the Control of Insects in Food Processing
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 The Grain Bulk as an Ecosystem
  • 12.3 Moisture Migration in the Grain Bulk
  • 12.4 Dry- and Wet-Grain Heating
  • 12.5 Insects in Stored Products
  • 12.6 Inspection and Monitoring
  • 12.7 Physical and Chemical Control Measures
  • 12.8 Reducing the Time of Phosphine Treatment by Using Speedbox
  • 12.9 Future Trends
  • Bibliography
  • Managing the Risks of Food Intended for Consumption by Religious Consumers
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Food Safety and Hygiene in the Context of Religion
  • 13.3 Risks
  • 13.4 Risk Management
  • 13.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Further Reading
  • Food Hygiene and Food Workers: From Complacency to Compliance
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Food Hygiene Training: Limitations of a Knowledge-Provision Approach
  • 14.3 Employing a Psychological Perspective to Understand Food Hygiene Behavior
  • 14.4 The Role of Workplace Environment and Culture in Complacency and Compliance
  • 14.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Hygiene Requirements in Food Service
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Hazard Control Plan
  • 15.3 Barriers
  • 15.4 Harborage
  • 15.5 Cross-Contamination Vectors
  • 15.6 Cleaning and Disinfection
  • References
  • The Use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Components of SOPs and SOP Programs
  • 16.3 SOP Requirements Under Regulatory Programs
  • 16.4 Common Problems in Implementing SOPs Effectively
  • 16.5 Sources of Further Information
  • References
  • Part II. Plant and Equipment
  • Preface
  • Global Overview of Legislation, Statutes, Standards, and Guidelines Impacting Hygienic Design
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Leading International Standards Organizations
  • 17.3 Leading Regional Standards Organizations
  • 17.4 Leading National Governmental Organizations
  • 17.5 Leading Industry Organizations
  • 17.6 Leading Hygienic Design Standards Organizations
  • 17.7 Conclusion
  • 17.8 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • The Hygienic Design of Closed Equipment
  • 18.1 Introduction: The Hygienic Performance of Closed Equipment
  • 18.2 The Importance of Flow Parameters in Hygienic Performance
  • 18.3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Optimizing Hygiene
  • 18.4 Applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Improved Hygienic Design
  • 18.5 Future Trends
  • 18.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Hygienic Design of Heating Equipment
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Heat Exchanger Design
  • 19.3 Developments in Heat Exchanger Design
  • 19.4 Future Trends
  • 19.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Hygienic Design of Air-Blast Freezing Systems
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Industrial Air-Blast Freezing Systems
  • 20.3 Types of Air-Blast Freezers
  • 20.4 Legislation, Standards, and Guidelines Covering Hygienic Design
  • 20.5 Materials of Construction
  • 20.6 Basic Hygienic Design Requirements
  • 20.7 Hygienic Design of Freezer Equipment Components
  • 20.8 Defrosting
  • 20.9 Cleaning
  • 20.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Hygienic Design of Equipment in Handling Dry Materials
  • 21.1 Introduction: Principles of Hygienic Design
  • 21.2 Dry Particulate Materials
  • 21.3 Cleaning
  • 21.4 Some Design Principles
  • 21.5 Typical Equipment in the Dry Material Handling Area
  • 21.6 Improving Hygiene in Processing Powders
  • References
  • Hygienic Design of Packaging Equipment
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 Definitions
  • 22.3 Choice of a Packaging Machine
  • 22.4 Hygienic Design of the Packaging Machine
  • 22.5 Conclusion
  • Sources
  • Improving the Hygienic Design of Valves
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Valve Types
  • 23.3 Hygienic Aspects of Valve Design
  • 23.4 Current Guidelines and Standards
  • Further Reading
  • Improving the Hygienic Design of Pipes
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 Piping Design: Good Practice
  • 24.3 Materials of Construction
  • 24.4 Product Recovery
  • 24.5 Microbial Growth in Piping Systems
  • 24.6 Future Plant Design
  • References
  • The Hygienic Design of Pumps
  • 25.1 Introduction: Types of Pump Used in Food Processing
  • 25.2 Components Used in Pumps
  • 25.3 Cleanability, Surface Finish, and Other Requirements
  • 25.4 Materials and Motor Design
  • 25.5 Summary
  • References
  • Hygienic Design of Fish Processing Equipment
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Steps and Aspects of Fish Processing
  • 26.3 Equipment
  • 26.4 Conclusion
  • 26.5 Sources of Further Information and Future Trends
  • References
  • Conveyors Used in the Food Industry
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 General Design Rules
  • 27.3 Materials of Construction
  • 27.4 Hygienic Design for Conveyor Belts and Accessories Thereto
  • 27.5 Belting Typology
  • 27.6 General Profile of Food-Grade Conveyor Belts
  • 27.7 Cleanability
  • 27.8 Service/Maintenance
  • 27.9 Scrapers
  • 27.10 Mechanical Joints
  • 27.11 Bearing Surfaces
  • 27.12 Belt Lifters and Swivel-Mounted Rollers
  • 27.13 Drum Motors
  • References
  • Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 Legislation
  • 28.3 Implementation of the Current Legislation
  • 28.4 Examples
  • 28.5 Temperature Management
  • 28.6 Avoiding Cross-Contamination
  • 28.7 Future Trends
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Specific Requirements for Equipment for Aseptic Processing
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Specific Requirements for Disinfection
  • 29.3 Specific Equipment Requirements to Prevent Recontamination
  • 29.4 Aseptic Packaging
  • 29.5 Package Integrity
  • References
  • Novel Materials of Construction in the Food Industry
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 Antimicrobial Materials
  • 30.3 Biopassive Polymer Materials/Coating
  • 30.4 Coatings with Biopassive and Bioactive Properties
  • 30.5 Ceramics
  • 30.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Part III. Cleaning and Disinfection
  • Preface
  • Cleaning of Surfaces
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 Food-contact Surfaces
  • 31.3 Cleaning Efficiency
  • 31.4 Investments
  • References
  • Improving the Cleaning of Heat Exchangers
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Processing Effects on Fouling
  • 32.3 Cleaning Food Fouling
  • 32.4 Novel Approaches to Cleaning
  • 32.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Ozone for Food Decontamination: Theory and Applications
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Ozone
  • 33.3 Microbial Inactivation Mechanism
  • 33.4 Applications of Ozone
  • 33.5 Applications of Ozone on Foods at Industrial Scales
  • 33.6 Health and Safety Considerations
  • 33.7 Limitations
  • 33.8 Conclusion and Future Trends
  • 33.9 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water for Food and Equipment Decontamination
  • 34.1 Introduction
  • 34.2 EO Water Generation Mechanism
  • 34.3 Mechanism of Cleaning and Disinfecting Effect of Using EO Water
  • 34.4 Applications of EO Water on Food Products
  • 34.5 Applications of EO Water on Food-Processing Equipment
  • 34.6 Limitations of EO Water Technology
  • 34.7 Conclusions and Future Trends
  • References
  • Cleaning and Disinfection in Dry Food Processing Facilities
  • 35.1 Introduction
  • 35.2 Cleaning of Process Equipment and Process Areas Handling Dry Food Products: Objectives
  • 35.3 Wet Cleaning of Dry Food-Processing Equipment
  • 35.4 Wet Cleaning of Dry Material Handling Areas in the Food Factory
  • 35.5 Dry Cleaning of Dry Food-Processing Equipment
  • 35.6 Dry Cleaning of Dry Material Handling Areas in the Food Factory
  • 35.7 Hygiene Practices During Dry Cleaning of Dry Food-Processing Equipment
  • 35.8 Brushing
  • 35.9 Vacuum Cleaning
  • 35.10 Scraping
  • 35.11 Sweeping
  • 35.12 Blowing With Compressed Air
  • 35.13 Cleaning With Solid Carbon Dioxide (Dry Ice Blasting)
  • 35.14 Cleaning With Dry Food Products
  • 35.15 Dry Cleaning by Means of Plastic or Rubber Components
  • 35.16 Dry Cleaning by Applying Pigs
  • 35.17 Dry Disinfection Methods
  • 35.18 Conclusions
  • References
  • Enzymatic Cleaning in Food Processing
  • 36.1 Introduction
  • 36.2 Enzyme-Based Cleaning Procedures
  • 36.3 Laboratory Trials of Enzyme-Based Cleaning
  • 36.4 Field Trials
  • 36.5 Risks
  • 36.6 Future Trends
  • References
  • Testing the Effectiveness of Disinfectants and Sanitizers
  • 37.1 Introduction
  • 37.2 Types of Biocidal Products
  • 37.3 Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Biocides/Biocidal Products/Sanitizers
  • 37.4 Criteria for Testing Biocidal Action
  • 37.5 Tests for Disinfectants and Sanitizers
  • 37.6 Test Limitations and Scope for Improvement
  • 37.7 Future Trends
  • 37.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Validating Cleaning Systems
  • 38.1 Introduction
  • 38.2 Cleaning Validation Process
  • 38.3 Methods for Validation and Verification of Cleaning
  • 38.4 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Bacterial Resistance to Biocides
  • 39.1 Introduction: Pathogen Resistance to Biocides in the Food Industry and Why It Is so Important to Avoid It
  • 39.2 Cleaning and Disinfection
  • 39.3 Biocide Target Sites
  • 39.4 Factors Influencing Biocide Efficiency
  • 39.5 Resistance in Bacteria
  • 39.6 Biocide Antibiotic Cross-Resistance and Coresistance
  • 39.7 Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 39.8 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Traceability of Cleaning Agents and Disinfectants
  • 40.1 Introduction
  • 40.2 Detergents and Disinfectants
  • 40.3 General Issues in Tracing of Hygiene Solutions and Hygiene Products
  • 40.4 The Challenge of Analyzing Detergents and Disinfectants
  • 40.5 Future Trends
  • References
  • Selection, Use, and Maintenance of Manual Cleaning Equipment
  • 41.1 Introduction
  • 41.2 Selection of Cleaning Equipment
  • 41.3 Cleaning Equipment Use
  • 41.4 Cleaning Equipment Maintenance
  • 41.5 Likely Future Trends
  • 41.6 Further Information and Advice
  • References
  • Part IV. Monitoring and Verification
  • Preface
  • Testing Surface Cleanability in Food Processing
  • 42.1 Introduction
  • 42.2 Microorganisms
  • 42.3 Hygienic Surfaces
  • 42.4 Organic Soil
  • 42.5 Future Trends
  • 42.6 Sources of Further Information and Advice
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Monitoring of Fouling, Cleaning, and Disinfection in Closed Processing Plants
  • 43.1 Introduction
  • 43.2 Background
  • 43.3 Current Approaches to Monitoring
  • 43.4 Laboratory-/Pilot-Scale Studies
  • 43.5 Industry Requirements and Potential Benefits
  • 43.6 Future Trends
  • 43.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Surface Sampling and the Detection of Contamination
  • 44.1 Introduction
  • 44.2 Managing Cleaning and the Role of Surface Sampling
  • 44.3 Nonmicrobiological Surface Sampling
  • 44.4 Microbiological Surface Sampling
  • 44.5 Surface Sampling and Cleanliness: Guidelines and Integrated Protocols
  • 44.6 Future Trends
  • References
  • Air Sampling
  • 45.1 Introduction
  • 45.2 Microbial Viability in the Air
  • 45.3 Why, How, and What to Sample
  • 45.4 Bioaerosols and Bioaerosol Samplers
  • 45.5 Air Sampling Methods
  • 45.6 Bioaerosol Assay Methods
  • 45.7 Interpretation of Bioaerosol Results
  • 45.8 Future Trends
  • References
  • Improving Hygiene Auditing
  • 46.1 Introduction
  • 46.2 Why Have a Hygiene Improvement Audit in the First Place?
  • 46.3 Auditing and the Hierarchy of a Controlled System
  • 46.4 Purposes of an Auditing System
  • 46.5 Designing a System for Improvement Audits
  • 46.6 Performing the Audit
  • References