Challenges in Water Management Series: Urban Water Security

Editor/Author Brears, Robert C.
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 978-1-119-13172-4
Category: Science - Marine sciences
Image Count: 11
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: March 2019
Table of Contents

This book provides readers with a series of in-depth case studies of leading developed cities, of differing climates, incomes and lifestyles from around the world, that have used demand management tools to modify the attitudes and behaviour of water users in an attempt to achieve urban water security.

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Table of Contents

  • Series Editor Foreword – Challenges in Water Management
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • Water 101
  • Introduction
  • What is water?
  • Hydrological cycle
  • Precipitation
  • Runoff
  • Evaporation
  • Groundwater
  • How old is water?
  • Natural variations to water quantity
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • Natural variations to water quality
  • Temperature
  • Dissolved oxygen
  • pH
  • Dissolved and suspended solids
  • Turbidity
  • Minerals
  • Salinity
  • Inorganic and organic chemicals
  • Nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorus
  • Impacts of urbanisation on water resources
  • Point source pollution
  • Non-point source pollution
  • Damage to aquatic ecosystems
  • Impervious surfaces modifying hydrological cycles
  • Impervious surfaces lowering water quality
  • Impervious surfaces affecting groundwater recharge
  • Water and wastewater treatment processes
  • Ensuring drinking water safety
  • What is urban water security?
  • Introduction
  • Non-climatic challenges to achieving urban water security
  • Population growth and demographic changes
  • Rapid urbanisation
  • Rapid economic growth and rising income levels
  • Increased demand for energy
  • Increased demand for food
  • Climatic challenges to achieving urban water security
  • Impacts of climate change on water quality and quantity
  • Socioeconomic risks of climate change
  • Reducing non-climatic and climatic risks to urban water security
  • Managing water sustainably to achieve urban water security
  • Introduction
  • What is sustainability?
  • Urban sustainability
  • Approaches to sustainability
  • Environmental pillar of strong sustainability
  • Economic pillar of strong sustainability
  • Social pillar of strong sustainability
  • Urban resilience and sustainability
  • What does sustainability mean in urban watermanagement?
  • Environmental pillar in strong sustainable urban water management
  • Economic pillar in strong sustainable urban water management
  • Social pillar in strong sustainable urban water management
  • Sustainable water resources management frameworks
  • Integrated water resources management
  • Origins of IWRM principles
  • Benefits of managing water in an integrated manner
  • Agenda 21 and IWRM
  • The role of efficiency in IWRM
  • Concepts of water efficiency
  • Management instruments in IWRM
  • Framework for managing urban water sustainably: Integrated urban water management
  • IUWM maximising pillars of sustainability
  • IUWM: balancing demand for water with supply
  • IUWM: introducing demand management
  • Other frameworks for managing urban water sustainably
  • Water sensitive urban design
  • Low impact development
  • Low impact urban design and development
  • Demand management to achieve urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Purpose of demand management
  • Types of demand management strategies and instruments
  • Regulatory and technological demand management instruments
  • Pricing of water
  • What is the right price?
  • Water meters
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Temporary ordinances and regulations
  • Permanent ordinances and regulations
  • Source protection
  • Developing alternative supplies
  • Subsidies and rebates
  • Product labelling and retrofits
  • Service innovation
  • Communication and information demand management instruments
  • Education and public awareness
  • Competition between water users
  • Corporate social responsibility
  • Portfolio of demand management tools
  • Transitions
  • Introduction
  • What is a transition?
  • What types of transitions are there?
  • Transitions occur over multiple dimensions
  • The transition process
  • Multilevel drivers of transitions
  • Forces in transitions
  • Operationalisation of transitions
  • Approaches in decision-making
  • Diffusion strategies
  • Diffusion mechanisms
  • Direct diffusion mechanisms
  • Indirect diffusion mechanisms
  • The diffusion process
  • Lock-in and barriers to diffusion
  • Transition management
  • Transition management levels
  • Coordination of activities across the levels
  • Transition management cycle
  • Transitions towards managing natural resources and water
  • Introduction
  • Transitions in natural resource management
  • Adaptation towards climate change
  • Types of adaptations: green and soft
  • Managing resource scarcity
  • What is a transition in urban water management?
  • Drivers of transitions in urban water management
  • Transitioning from supply-side to demand-side management
  • Types of transitions in third-order scarcity
  • Operationalising transitions in third-order scarcity
  • Setting the macro-level strategic goal
  • Micro-level demand management tools
  • Transition management cycle in third-order scarcity
  • Analysing transition management cycles: SWOT analysis
  • Barriers to transitions towards urban water security
  • External barriers
  • Internal barriers
  • Psychological barriers
  • Social barriers
  • Amsterdam transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: Amsterdam's Definitely Sustainable 2011–2014
  • Drivers of water security
  • Corporate rebranding
  • Protecting good quality raw water and human health
  • Political and economic
  • Carbon neutrality
  • Population growth
  • Climate change
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Drinking water and wastewater tariffs
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Protecting the quality of source water
  • Reducing energy costs in wastewater treatment
  • Alternative water supplies
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • School programmes: sight visits and education programmes
  • Public education: determining the message
  • Promotion of water-efficient devices
  • Billing inserts
  • Promoting water-efficient technologies
  • Non-domestic water efficiency advice
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Berlin transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: using water wisely
  • Berlin Water Act
  • Drivers of water security
  • Protecting water supply fromwastewater contamination
  • Reducing energy costs and carbon emissions
  • Climate change impacting water availability
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Tariff for drinking water and wastewater
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Source protection: reducing treatment costs
  • Alternative water supplies
  • Reducing energy costs
  • Reducing treatment costs: separate systems
  • Water-efficient technologies
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Water awareness in the past
  • Today: using water in the right way and reducing carbon emissions
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Copenhagen transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: water supply plan (2012–2016)
  • Drivers of water security
  • 1980s: quantity of water
  • 1990s: quality of water
  • 2000s: political and quality of water
  • 2010 onwards: quality and quantity of water
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Pricing of water and wastewater
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Source protection: new forests and reducingpesticide use
  • Developing alternative water supplies
  • Reducing energy costs and carbon emissions
  • Subsidies for toilets and water meters
  • Consultants and water conservation advice
  • Water-saving devices
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Education and awareness in schools
  • Public education
  • Challenges of public awareness campaigns
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Denver transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Recycled water
  • Customer segments
  • Strategic vision: Denver Water's 22 percent water target
  • Denver Water environmental stewards
  • Drivers of water security
  • Climate change
  • Economic demand
  • Population growth
  • Political
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Treated water fixed charges
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Protecting the quality of source water
  • Water restrictions
  • Restrictions on alternative water supplies
  • Rebates for promoting WaterSense-labelled products
  • Water audits
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • School education
  • Denver Metro Water Festival
  • Public education and awareness: use only what you need
  • Polling customers on water conservation
  • Cultural change: outdoor water use
  • Commercial partnerships to achieve cultural change in water usage
  • Targeted messaging
  • Billing inserts
  • Framing water conservation messages
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Hamburg transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: the HAMBURG WATER Cycle
  • Drivers of water security
  • Reducing the volume of imported water
  • Climate change
  • Population growth
  • Rising energy costs
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Pricing of water and sewage
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Drinking water restrictions for public institutions
  • Developing alternative systems: HAMBURG WATER Cycle
  • Source protection and reducing energy costs
  • Developing water-efficient technologies
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Education and awareness in schools: AQUA AGENTS
  • Public education
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • London transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: reducing consumption
  • Drivers of water security
  • Demand outstripping supply
  • Population growth
  • Climate change
  • Rising energy prices
  • Reducing carbon emissions
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Pricing of water and wastewater
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Reducing energy costs in wastewater treatment
  • Partnerships to install water-saving devices
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Promoting water-saving devices
  • Promoting plumber visits
  • Targeting demographic groups
  • The future: demographic water conservationcampaigns
  • Save Water Swindon project
  • Education
  • Framing of water conservation
  • Water audits
  • In-house water efficiency
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weakness
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Singapore transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: balancing supply with rising demand
  • Drivers of water security
  • Climate change
  • Rising energy costs
  • Rising population and urbanisation
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Price of potable and used water
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Developing alternative water supplies
  • Water Efficiency Fund
  • Water Efficiency Labelling Scheme
  • Water Efficient Building Certification
  • Water Efficiency Management Plans
  • Code of Practice
  • Water Efficient Homes programme
  • Water efficiency in new towns
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • School programmes: Time to Save water
  • Public education: Fostering the emergence of a water-saving culture
  • Water Volunteer Group programme
  • Water Conservation Awareness Programme
  • Ten Percent Challenge for non-domestic customers
  • Watermark Award
  • Water efficiency certificates for building owners
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Toronto transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: Toronto's Water Efficiency Plan
  • Drivers of water security
  • Previously: meeting specific water conservation targets
  • Today: using water efficiently
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Water rate for water, stormwater and sewer
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Capacity Buy Back programme
  • Industrial Water Rate programme
  • Sewer Surcharge Rebate programme
  • Assistance for eligible low-income seniors and disabled persons
  • Partnering with retailers to sell water-efficient technologies and devices
  • Toronto's own water-labelling scheme
  • Distributing water-saving kits
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • School education and public awareness in the past
  • Education and awareness today
  • Promoting tap water: water trailers
  • Billing inserts
  • Internet and social media
  • Sharing lessons with other water utilities
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Vancouver transitioning towards urban water security
  • Introduction
  • Brief company background
  • Water supply and water consumption
  • Strategic vision: clean water and lower consumption
  • Drivers of water security
  • Population growth
  • Infrastructure: lack of storage
  • Climate change
  • Regulatory and technological demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • Price of water
  • Metering
  • Reducing unaccounted-for water
  • Alternative water sources
  • Water restrictions on residential lawn sprinkling
  • Rebates for laundry machines
  • Subsidised indoor water-saving kits
  • Installing water- and energy-efficient fixtures in restaurants
  • Pilot toilet retrofit project
  • Water audits for ICI customers
  • Communication and information demand management tools to achieve urban water security
  • School programmes: H2 Whoa!
  • Public education: promoting ‘water-wise’ gardening practices
  • Case study SWOT analysis
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • Opportunities
  • Threats
  • Transitioning towards urban water security summary
  • Sharing the journey: Best practices and lessons learnt
  • Introduction
  • Best practices
  • Pricing water to promote conservation while ensuring revenue stability
  • Universal metering key to water conservation
  • Investments in the water distribution system key to lowering UFW
  • Reducing energy and carbon emissions
  • Source protection: reducing treatment costs
  • Targeted subsidies
  • Promoting water efficiency
  • Water conservation becoming a way of life
  • Demographic-targeted messaging
  • Nondomestic water-saving plans
  • Recognising water savings
  • Lessons learnt
  • Pricing water too cheaply
  • Lack of universal metering
  • Inability to develop alternative sources
  • Not fully utilising subsidies
  • Limited education and public awareness
  • Lack of funding
  • Lack of online presence
  • Unsuitable infrastructure
  • Lack of political will
  • Moving forwards
  • Manipulation of utility calculations
  • Legal and physical coercion
  • Socialisation
  • Persuasion
  • Competition/emulation/mimicry