Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: From Neurobiology to Treatment

Editor/Author Bremner, J. Douglas
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 978-1-118-35611-1
Category: Psychology
Image Count: 42
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: March 2019
Table of Contents

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: From Neurobiology to Treatment presents a comprehensive look at this key neuropsychiatric disorder. The text examines the neurobiological basis of post-traumatic stress and how our understanding of the basic elements of the disease have informed and been translated into new and existing treatment options.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Illustrations
  • List of Tables
  • List of contributors
  • Introduction
  • Reference
  • Section I: Preclinical sciences of stress
  • Chapter 1: Posttraumatic stress disorder: from neurobiology to clinical presentation
  • 1.1 PTSD: prevalence, risk factors, and etiology
  • 1.2 Neurobiology of PTSD
  • 1.3 Synthesis of findings: from neurobiology to treatment of PTSD
  • References
  • Chapter 2: The epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: a critical review
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Studies involving general population surveys
  • 2.3 Prevalence of exposure to traumatic events in youth populations
  • 2.4 Community surveys assessing child-adolescent PTSD prevalence
  • 2.5 Childhood/adolescent PTSD rates according to type of trauma
  • 2.6 Child-adolescent PTSD and comorbid disorders
  • 2.7 Risk factors associated with child-adolescent PTSD
  • 2.8 Summary
  • 2.9 Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Early life stress and development: preclinical science
  • 3.1 Overview
  • 3.2 Early life stress and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis
  • 3.3 Rodent models of early life stress/trauma
  • 3.4 Non-human primate models of early life stress/trauma
  • 3.5 Impact of early life stress on prefrontal-limbic brain circuits across species: biological and evolutionary mechanisms
  • 3.6 Conclusions
  • 3.7 Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Amygdala contributions to fear and safety conditioning: insights into PTSD from an animal model across development
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Stress and defensive responding
  • 4.3 Fear conditioning
  • 4.4 Safety conditioning
  • 4.5 Ontogeny of fear and safety conditioning
  • 4.6 Implications for PTSD
  • 4.7 Conclusion
  • 4.8 Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Preclinical evidence for benzodiazepine receptor involvement in the pathophysiology of PTSD, comorbid substance abuse, and alcoholism
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Stress and the Benzodiazepine Receptor
  • 5.3 Interaction of Stress, Alcohol Intake and the Benzodiazepine Rector
  • 5.4 Stress, Drug Abuse and the Benzodiazepine Receptor
  • 5.5 Translation from Neurobiology to PTSD
  • 5.6 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Psychosocial predator stress model of PTSD based on clinically relevant risk factors for trauma-induced psychopathology
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 General characteristics of PTSD
  • 6.3 Preclinical models of PTSD
  • 6.4 Psychosocial predator stress model of PTSD
  • 6.5 Summary: the challenge of modeling PTSD in animals
  • 6.6 Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Coping with stress in wild birds – the evolutionary foundations of stress responses
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Physiological changes associated with chronic stress in wild birds
  • 7.3 Lessons from wild birds
  • 7.4 Conclusions
  • 7.5 Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Stress, fear, and memory in healthy individuals
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Time-dependent effects of stress on episodic memory in healthy humans
  • 8.3 Stress and fear conditioning in humans
  • 8.4 Stress-induced modulation of multiple memory systems
  • 8.5 Stress and memory in healthy subjects: implications for PTSD
  • References
  • Section II: Neurobiology of PTSD
  • Chapter 9: Neurotransmitter, neurohormonal, and neuropeptidal function in stress and PTSD
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Noradrenergic system
  • 9.3 HPA axis
  • 9.4 PTSD and inflammation
  • 9.5 Acetylcholine and vagal nerve function
  • 9.6 Dopaminergic system
  • 9.7 NMDA
  • 9.8 Serotonin
  • 9.9 GABA/benzodiazepine system
  • 9.10 Opioid peptides
  • 9.11 Neurotensin
  • 9.12 Somatostatin
  • 9.13 Cholecystokinin
  • 9.14 Neuropeptide Y
  • 9.15 Galanin
  • 9.16 Ghrelin
  • 9.17 Substance P
  • 9.18 Vasoactive intestinal peptide
  • 9.19 Vasopressin and oxytocin
  • 9.20 Neurosteroids and neurohormones
  • 9.21 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Genomics of PTSD
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Genetic studies in PTSD
  • 10.3 Gene–environment interaction studies in PTSD
  • 10.4 Epigenetic and gene expression studies in PTSD
  • 10.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal Axis in PTSD
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 HPA axis and the stress response
  • 11.3 HPA axis alterations in PTSD
  • 11.4 HPA feedback functioning and GR sensitivity
  • 11.5 Gender, PTSD, and HPA axis activity
  • 11.6 HPA alterations as a risk factor for PTSD
  • 11.7 Genetic and epigenetic influences on GR sensitivity
  • 11.8 Modifying glucocorticoid responsiveness: implications for prevention and treatment
  • 11.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Neuroimaging of PTSD
  • 12.1 History and background
  • 12.2 Neural circuits of PTSD
  • 12.3 Changes in brain structure and cognitive functioning in PTSD
  • 12.4 Neurohormonal responses to PTSD
  • 12.5 Functional neuroimaging studies in PTSD
  • 12.6 Neuroreceptor Studies in PTSD
  • 12.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • Section III: PTSD and co-occuring conditions
  • Chapter 13: PTSD and mild traumatic brain injury
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Mild TBI
  • 13.3 Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • 13.4 Overlap between mTBI and PTSD
  • 13.5 Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Stress-related psychopathology and pain
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Depression
  • 14.3 Schizophrenia
  • 14.4 Anorexia nervosa
  • 14.5 Borderline personality disorder
  • 14.6 Post-traumatic stress disorder
  • 14.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Stress and health
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Stress and cardiovascular disease
  • 15.3 Depression and cardiovascular disease
  • 15.4 PTSD and cardiovascular disease
  • 15.5 Potential mechanisms linking stress to cardiovascular disease
  • 15.6 Mechanisms through which depression and PTSD may increase CVD risk
  • 15.7 Stress, PTSD and functional pain disorders
  • 15.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Section IV: PTSD: from neurobiology to treatment
  • Chapter 16: Pharmacotherapy for PTSD: effects on PTSD symptoms and the brain
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Agents acting on the GABA–benzodiazepine receptor complex
  • 16.3 Agents acting on norepinephrine and serotonin receptors
  • 16.4 Tricyclic and monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants
  • 16.5 Medications with other mechanisms of action
  • 16.6 Selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors
  • 16.7 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
  • 16.8 Antidepressants with actions on norepinephrine and epinephrine reuptake
  • 16.9 Mood stabilizers
  • 16.10 Antipsychotic medications
  • 16.11 Glutamatergic agents
  • 16.12 MDMA
  • 16.13 Effect of pharmacotherapy on the brain and neurobiology in PTSD
  • 16.14 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Effects of psychotherapy for psychological trauma on PTSD symptoms and the brain
  • 17.1 Psychotherapy for psychological trauma
  • 17.2 The neuroscience of early interventions for trauma
  • 17.3 Psychological therapy for psychological trauma
  • 17.4 Effects of psychotherapy on the brain
  • 17.5 Brain imaging of psychotherapy in PTSD
  • 17.6 Conclusions
  • References