Essentials: Essential Primary Care

Editor/Author Blythe, Andrew and Buchan, Jessica
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 978-1-118-86761-7
Category: Health & Medicine - Medicine
Image Count: 73
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: June 2019
Table of Contents

Essential Primary Care aims to provide undergraduate students with a comprehensive overview of the clinical problems encountered in primary care. It covers the structure of primary care in the UK, disease prevention and the management of common and important clinical presentations from infancy to old age. Case studies are used in every chapter to illustrate key learning points. The book provides practical advice on how to consult with patients, make sense of their symptoms, explain things to them, and manage their problems.

Share this

Table of Contents

  • List of Tables
  • List of Illustrations
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • 1: The key features of primary care
  • 1: The structure and organisation of primary care
  • What is primary care?
  • Organisation of primary care in the UK
  • What can be done in primary care?
  • 2: The GP consultation
  • The consultation in general practice
  • The effective consultation
  • Structuring a consultation (process and content)
  • Preparing for the consultation
  • Gaining rapport
  • Agreeing on the purpose of the consultation
  • Gaining knowledge about the issues through questioning
  • Gaining knowledge about the patient through examination
  • Gaining knowledge about the patient's perspective
  • Gaining knowledge about the patient's context
  • Understanding: what is going on and what do we do about it?
  • Reaching a shared decision and aiding the patient's understanding
  • Reflecting on our consultation skills
  • 3: Making a diagnosis
  • What is a diagnosis?
  • Science and art in diagnosis
  • Diagnosis-making as ‘labelling’
  • Models of diagnosis-making
  • Processes for reaching a diagnosis
  • Pitfalls of the diagnostic process
  • Preventing diagnostic errors
  • Learning to make a diagnosis
  • 4: Prescribing
  • Introduction
  • The cost of prescribing
  • Adherence
  • Safe prescribing using the 10 steps
  • Prescribing errors
  • Reporting adverse drug reactions
  • 5: The interface with secondary care
  • Introduction
  • Referring patients to secondary care
  • Admitting patients to hospital
  • Discharge from hospital
  • 6: The everyday ethics of primary care
  • Introduction
  • Concepts in medical ethics
  • Core values in primary care
  • Responsibilities of the GP
  • Approaching ethical issues
  • Five case studies in everyday ethics
  • 2: Healthy living and disease prevention
  • 7: Behaviour change
  • The role of the GP in health behaviour change
  • Barriers to health behaviour change
  • Assessing readiness to change
  • Brief motivational interviewing
  • Taking action: goal-setting
  • Relapse
  • 8: Alcohol and drug misuse
  • Identifying patients whose alcohol consumption is problematic
  • Helping people whose level of alcohol consumption is harmful
  • Detoxification and relapse
  • The role of the GP in helping people who misuse drugs
  • 9: Preventing cardiovascular disease
  • The burden of cardiovascular disease
  • Estimating the risk of a patient developing cardiovascular disease
  • Smoking cessation
  • Blood pressure
  • Cholesterol reduction
  • 10: Caring for people with learning disabilities
  • Types of learning disability
  • Inequalities of health experienced by those with a learning disability
  • Conducting a consultation with someone who has a learning disability
  • Common problems in people with a learning disability
  • Annual health checks for people with a learning disability
  • Supporting carers
  • 3: Common presenting problems
  • 11: Tiredness
  • Tired all the time
  • Thyroid disease
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Anaemia
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome
  • Childhood
  • 12: Child health in primary care
  • The healthy child
  • Screening and developmental reviews
  • Immunisations
  • Consulting with children
  • Child health promotion
  • Vulnerable families and children at risk
  • Child abuse
  • 13: Managing the feverish and ill child in primary care
  • Assessment of the ill child in primary care
  • Red flags and assessing the likelihood of serious illness
  • Childhood fever
  • Dehydration in children
  • Antibiotic use and parental expectations
  • Coughs, colds and influenza
  • Sore throat in children
  • Earache in children
  • Urinary tract infections in children
  • Suspected cancer in children
  • 14: Managing common conditions in infancy
  • Introduction
  • Assessing growth in infants
  • Rashes, jaundice and skin problems
  • Feeding, vomiting and crying
  • Sleep and preventing sudden infant death
  • Prematurity
  • 15: Managing chronic conditions in childhood
  • Recurrent wheeze and asthma
  • Acute asthma in children
  • Eczema in children
  • Glue ear (chronic otitis media)
  • Recurrent abdominal pain and constipation
  • Bedwetting
  • Behavioural issues in children
  • 16: Teenage and young-adult health
  • Consulting with teenagers
  • Confidentiality and consent
  • Puberty
  • Drugs and alcohol
  • Mood
  • Eating disorders
  • Early adulthood
  • 17: Respiratory tract infections
  • Coughs and colds
  • Lower respiratory tract infections: bronchitis and pneumonia
  • Sinusitis
  • Sore throat: pharyngitis and tonsillitis
  • Glandular fever
  • 18: Low back pain
  • The burden of back pain
  • Assessing back pain in primary care
  • Nerve root pain (radiculopathy) assessment and management
  • Other causes of back pain
  • Managing chronic nonspecific back pain
  • 19: Heartburn and dyspepsia
  • Definition of heartburn and dyspepsia
  • Diagnosing and managing heartburn
  • Diagnosing and managing dyspepsia
  • 20: Diarrhoea and rectal bleeding
  • Causes of diarrhoea
  • Conducting a consultation about diarrhoea
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Rectal bleeding
  • 21: Common skin conditions
  • Introduction
  • Inflammatory dermatoses
  • Psoriasis
  • Acne
  • Other inflammatory dermatoses
  • Pigmented lesions
  • Common skin infections
  • 22: Headache
  • Types of headache
  • Causes of headache that should not be missed
  • Giant-cell arteritis (temporal arteritis)
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning
  • 23: Fits, faints and funny turns
  • Transient loss of consciousness
  • Epilepsy
  • Dizziness
  • 24: Depression, anxiety and self-harm
  • Introduction
  • Definition
  • Epidemiology
  • Diagnosis
  • Variations in presentation
  • Management
  • Controversies in depression and anxiety
  • Personality disorder, depressed mood and recurrent self-harm
  • 25: Sexual health and dysuria
  • Sexually transmitted infections: a historical perspective
  • Dysuria and urinary tract infections
  • Vaginal and penile discharge
  • Sexual health epidemiology and sexual health services
  • Taking a sexual history in primary care
  • The National Chlamydia Screening Programme
  • Other sexually transmitted infections
  • Bloodborne sexually transmitted infections
  • 26: Menstrual problems, contraception and termination of pregnancy
  • Introduction
  • The menstrual cycle
  • Taking a menstrual history
  • Common menstrual problems
  • Postponing menstruation
  • Assessing contraception needs
  • The combined oral contraceptive pill
  • Progesterone-only methods of contraception
  • Postcoital contraception
  • Termination of pregnancy
  • 27: Pregnancy
  • Preconceptual advice
  • Subfertility in primary care
  • The antenatal screening programme
  • Common problems in the second and third trimesters
  • The onset of labour
  • Problems in the puerperium
  • 28: Domestic violence and abuse
  • What is domestic violence and abuse?
  • The scale of the problem
  • Health impact
  • Asking about domestic violence and abuse
  • Responding appropriately to disclosure
  • Offering referral
  • Children exposed to domestic violence and abuse
  • Middle and old age
  • 29: Cardiovascular disease
  • Introduction
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Angina
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Strokes and transient ischaemic attacks
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • 30: Breathlessness
  • Introduction
  • Acute breathlessness in primary care
  • Diagnosing and managing chronic asthma
  • Chronic breathlessness
  • Diagnosing and managing left ventricular failure
  • Diagnosing and managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • 31: Joint pains and stiffness
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Polymyalgia rheumatica
  • 32: Urinary problems and prostate disease
  • Haematuria
  • Haematospermia
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms in men
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Testicular problems
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • 33: The menopause
  • Symptoms of the menopause
  • Identifying the menopause
  • Managing menopausal symptoms
  • Hormone-replacement therapy preparations
  • Postmenopausal bleeding
  • 34: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy
  • Epidemiology of multimorbidity
  • The impact of multimorbidity on patients, GPs and the health system
  • Managing patients with multimorbidity
  • Polypharmacy
  • 35: Falls and fragility fractures
  • Falls
  • Osteoporosis and bone protection
  • 36: Visual and hearing loss
  • Identifying people with visual problems
  • Assisting people with visual loss
  • Common causes of visual loss
  • Conditions that require immediate action to prevent sight loss
  • Assessing someone who complains of poor hearing
  • Wax and ear-syringing
  • Conducting a consultation with someone who has a hearing loss
  • 37: Dementia
  • Diagnosing dementia
  • Finding the cause of dementia
  • Giving the diagnosis
  • Creating a power of attorney and a will
  • Supporting the family and carers of those with dementia
  • Creating the right environment at home
  • Medication for dementia
  • Monitoring patients with dementia
  • 4: Cancer
  • 38: Spotting patients with cancer
  • Introduction
  • The common risk factors for cancer
  • The role of screening
  • The National Awareness and Early Diagnosis Initiative
  • Defining the predictive value of symptoms, signs and tests
  • Rarer cancers
  • Missing a diagnosis of cancer in primary care
  • 39: Looking after patients with cancer
  • The role of the GP in the treatment of patients with cancer
  • Other problems encountered by patients with cancer
  • Cancer survivorship
  • Spotting patients who have a recurrence of their cancer
  • Surveillance of patients with cancer
  • 5: Palliative care and death
  • 40: Palliative care and death
  • What is palliative care?
  • Identifying those in need of palliative care
  • Symptom relief in palliative care
  • Allowing natural death
  • After death
  • Bereavement
  • Self-care