Dictionary of Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine, and Translational Medicine

Editor/Author Dye, Frank J.
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 978-1-118-86782-2
Category: Health & Medicine - Medicine
Image Count: 71
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: March 2019
Table of Contents

This dictionary includes the fundamental terminology of each of these areas, the major discoveries and significant scientists that comprise the history and current development of the field, as well as a number of concepts. The vocabulary is presented within the broader lexicon of developmental biology and embryology, which provides context for these three fields. Topics covered range from stem cells (embryonic, adult, and iPSCs) to teratology. The inclusion of extensive cross-referencing of the terms will enable readers to broaden their understanding of them.

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Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • A
  • A23187
  • abaxial
  • abdominal cavity
  • ABO blood typing system
  • aboral surface
  • abortifacient
  • abortion
  • abortus
  • abruptio placentae
  • abscisic acid (ABA)
  • abscission
  • accessory sex glands
  • accutane
  • Acetabularia
  • acetylated histones
  • acetylation
  • achaete
  • achondroplasia
  • acid blob
  • acoelomate
  • acrania
  • acrocentric chromosome
  • acrocephaly
  • acrogen
  • acron
  • acrosin
  • acrosomal filament
  • acrosomal vesicle
  • acrosome
  • acrosome reaction
  • acrotrophic ovariole
  • actin
  • actinomycin D
  • activation of the egg
  • activator
  • active immunity
  • activin
  • adaptive developmental plasticity
  • adaxial
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • adenovirus-based transduction
  • adepithelial cells
  • adherens junctions
  • adhesion promoting motif
  • adipocytes
  • adipose-derived stem cells
  • ADSC
  • adrenal glands
  • adrenal hyperplasia
  • adrenaline
  • adrenergic neurons
  • adult hemoglobin
  • adult stem cells
  • adventitious
  • AER
  • aequorin
  • afterbirth
  • after-ripening
  • agamospermy
  • agenesis
  • aggregation
  • aging
  • AGM region
  • Agnatha
  • agnatha
  • AIDS
  • air space
  • albinism
  • albino
  • albumen
  • albumin
  • albuminous seed
  • alcohol
  • alecithal eggs
  • aleurone
  • aleurone layer
  • algae
  • alginate
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • allantoic diverticulum
  • allantoic stalk
  • allantoic vesicle
  • allantois
  • allele
  • allelic series
  • Allman, George
  • allogamy
  • allogeneic
  • allogeneic graft
  • allometric growth
  • allometry
  • allosteric enzymes
  • alopecia
  • alternation of generations
  • alternative RNA splicing
  • alveolar period
  • alveoli
  • amelia
  • ameloblasts
  • Ametabola
  • ametabolous
  • AMF
  • AMH
  • amino acids
  • ammocoete
  • ammonia
  • ammonotelic organisms
  • amnio-cardiac vesicles
  • amniocentesis
  • amniocyte
  • amnion
  • -amnios-
  • amniota
  • amniote egg
  • amniotes
  • amniotic cavity
  • amniotic fluid
  • amniotic folds
  • amniotic sac
  • amoebocyte
  • amorphous
  • Amphibia
  • amphibians
  • amphiblastic cleavage
  • amphimixis
  • Amphioxus
  • amplexus
  • ampulla
  • anagenesis
  • anal agenesis
  • anal evagination
  • anal membrane
  • anal plate
  • anal stenosis
  • analgesic
  • analogous
  • analogous organs
  • anamniota
  • anamniotes
  • anaphase
  • anatomic effect
  • anatomic position
  • -andr-
  • androecium
  • androgen insensitivity syndrome
  • androgenesis
  • androgenic merogony
  • androgens
  • anencephaly
  • aneuploid
  • angioblasts
  • angiogenesis
  • angiogenesis
  • angiogenetic clusters
  • angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)
  • angiopoietins
  • angiosperms
  • animal
  • animal cap
  • animal gradient
  • animal hemisphere
  • animal pole
  • animalculist
  • animalization
  • animalized
  • animal–vegetal axis
  • animism
  • aniridia
  • anisogamy
  • ankyloglossia
  • anlage
  • annual
  • anoikis
  • anovulation
  • Antennapedia complex
  • Antennapedia gene
  • anteriad
  • anterior group Hox genes
  • anterior intestinal portal
  • anterior neuropore
  • anterior organizing center
  • anterior pole
  • anterior tip
  • anterior visceral endoderm
  • anteroposterior axis
  • anther
  • anther sac
  • antheridiophore
  • antheridium
  • antheridogen
  • Anthropocene
  • anticlinal divisions
  • anticodon
  • antidifferentiation factors
  • antifertilizin
  • antifungal symbiotic bacteria
  • anti-Müllerian duct hormone
  • anti-Müllerian factor
  • antipodal cells
  • antisense oligonucleotides
  • antisense RNA
  • antral vacuoles
  • antrum
  • Anura
  • anus
  • aorta
  • aorta-gonad-mesonephros region
  • aortic arches
  • Apaf-1
  • apical dominance
  • apical ectodermal cap
  • apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
  • apical meristem
  • apical notch
  • Apoda
  • apomixis (apogamy)
  • apoplastic continuity
  • apoptosis
  • apoptosis
  • apospory
  • appendage buds
  • appendicular skeleton
  • appendix
  • appositional growth
  • Apterygota
  • aqueduct of Sylvius
  • Arabidopsis
  • archegonium
  • archencephalon
  • archenteron
  • archenteron roof
  • archeocyte
  • archeocytes
  • archetype
  • architectural transcription factor
  • area opaca
  • area opaca vasculosa
  • area opaca vitellina
  • area pellucida
  • area placentalis
  • Aristotle
  • aromatase
  • arrector pili muscle
  • arrhythmic events
  • “arrival of the fittest”
  • arteries
  • arthrotome
  • artificial insemination
  • Ascaris
  • Ascaris megalocephala
  • ascidians (sea squirts)
  • asexual reproduction
  • assembly factor
  • As (asingle)-spermatogonia (SSCs)
  • astrocyte
  • astrotactin
  • asymmetric cell divisions
  • asymmetric division
  • atavism
  • ATP
  • atrazine
  • atresia
  • atretic follicles
  • atrial septal defect
  • atrichoblasts
  • atrioventricular canal
  • atrium
  • attitude
  • auditory nerves
  • auditory placodes
  • auditory vesicles
  • auricularia
  • autocrine growth factor
  • autocrine signaling
  • autogamous
  • autograft
  • autologous cell therapy
  • autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI)
  • autologous graft
  • autologous pluripotent cells
  • autologous stem cell therapy
  • autonomic ganglia
  • autonomic nerves
  • autonomic nervous system
  • autonomous specification
  • autophilous
  • autopod
  • autopoietic
  • autoregulation
  • autoschizis
  • autosomal mutations
  • autosomes
  • auxiliary sex glands
  • auxin
  • Aves
  • avidin
  • axes
  • axial patterning
  • axial placentation
  • axial protocadherin
  • axial skeleton
  • axiation
  • axillary
  • axoneme
  • axons
  • azoospermia
  • AZT
  • B
  • B cells
  • β-like cells.
  • B lymphocytes
  • backbone
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Baer, Karl Ernst von
  • balance between self renewal and differentiation
  • Balbiani rings
  • Baldwin effect
  • Balfour, Francis
  • Balfour's law
  • balloon catheterization
  • banding techniques
  • Barker hypothesis
  • Barr body
  • Bartholin's glands
  • basal
  • basal body temperature (BBT) method
  • basal cell
  • basal disc
  • basal lamina
  • basal layer
  • basal level transcription
  • basal placentation
  • base pair
  • basement membrane
  • base-pairing rules
  • basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)
  • basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family
  • basic leucine zipper (bZip)
  • basic leucine zipper (bZip) family
  • Bateson, William
  • battery
  • Bauchstück
  • Bauplan
  • B-catenin
  • Bcl-2 genes
  • Beadle, George Wells
  • Beermann, Wolfgang
  • Beneden, Edouard Van
  • BFU-E
  • bicoid
  • bicoid mRNA
  • bicoid protein
  • bicornuate uterus
  • biennial
  • bifurcate
  • bifurcation point
  • “big pharma”
  • bilaminar embryonic disc
  • bilateral cleavage
  • bilateral symmetry
  • Bilateria
  • Bildungstrieb
  • bindin
  • bindin receptor
  • binding site
  • binocular vision
  • biochemical cytodifferentiation
  • bioartificial hearts
  • bioceramics
  • biofilms
  • biogenesis
  • Biogenetic Law
  • bioinformatics
  • biological mother
  • biomarker
  • biomarkers
  • biomaterials-based delivery
  • bipinnaria larva
  • bipotential stage
  • birth
  • birth canal
  • birth defect
  • birthday
  • bisphenol A (BPA)
  • bithorax complex (BX-C)
  • bivalent
  • Blackburn, Elizabeth H.
  • bladder
  • -blast
  • blast cell
  • blastema
  • blastocoel
  • blastocyst
  • blastocyst cavity
  • blastocyte
  • blastoderm
  • blastodermic vesicle
  • blastodisc
  • blastogenesis
  • blastokinesis
  • blastomeres
  • blastopore
  • blastopore lips
  • blastozooid
  • blastula
  • blastulation
  • block to polyspermy
  • blood islands
  • blood plasma
  • blood–testis barrier
  • Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich (1752–1840)
  • BMP
  • BMP4
  • BMP4 and BMP7
  • body cavity
  • body construction theory
  • body folds
  • body stalk
  • bone engineering
  • bone marrow
  • bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)
  • Bonellia viridis
  • Bonnet, Charles
  • Born, Gustav
  • bottle cells
  • boundary sequences
  • Bounoure, Louis
  • Boveri, Theodor
  • Bowman's capsule
  • brachial
  • branchial fistula
  • brachy-
  • brachydactyly
  • Brachyury
  • brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
  • brain vesicles
  • branchial
  • branchial arches
  • branchial chamber
  • branchial clefts
  • branchial furrows
  • branchial grooves (furrows)
  • branchiomere
  • brassinosteroids
  • BRCA1
  • breech presentation
  • Brenner, Sydney
  • Briggs, Robert
  • broad ligament of the uterus
  • bronchioles
  • bronchus
  • brown fat cells
  • bryophytes
  • bryostatin
  • buccal cavity
  • bud
  • budding
  • bulb
  • bulbourethral gland
  • bulbous arteriosus
  • bulge
  • Bunker, Eng and Chang
  • bursa copulatrix
  • burst-forming unit, erythroid (BFU-E)
  • bushy chorion
  • bystander effect
  • C
  • C-value
  • c-kit receptor
  • C-value paradox
  • cadastral genes
  • C-cadherin
  • cadherins
  • caeno-
  • caenogenesis
  • caenomorphosis
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • calcium phosphate
  • callus
  • calvaria
  • calyces
  • calyx
  • CAM
  • cambium
  • Cambrian
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Camerarius, Rudolph
  • CAMs
  • canalicular period
  • canalization (developmental robustness)
  • cancer microenvironment
  • cancer stem cell hypothesis
  • candidate gene mapping
  • canonical
  • Capecchi, Mario R.
  • capacitation
  • capillaries
  • caput epididymis
  • carapacial ridge
  • carbohydrate
  • carcinoma
  • cardiac bifida
  • cardiac cells
  • cardiac jelly
  • cardiac muscle
  • cardiac myoblasts
  • cardiac neural crest
  • cardiac progenitor stem cells (CPCs)
  • cardiac prominence
  • cardinal veins
  • cardioblast
  • cardiogenic mesoderm
  • cardiomyocytes
  • cardioprotective cytokines
  • cardiospheres
  • cardiovascular, metabolic, and lipoprotein translation
  • carotid arteries
  • carpel
  • carpellate flowers
  • carrier
  • cartilage
  • cartilage engineering
  • Cas9
  • cascade of embryonic inductions
  • cascade of protein phosphorylations
  • caspases
  • catalyst
  • catalyze
  • cataract
  • catenins
  • catheterization
  • cauda epididymis
  • caudad
  • caudal
  • caudal intestinal portal (CIP)
  • caudal knob
  • caudal mRNA
  • caul
  • cavitation
  • CB
  • CBFA1
  • Cbfa1 gene
  • Cdc
  • cdk
  • cDNA
  • cDy1
  • cecum
  • ced genes
  • -cele
  • C. elegans
  • cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
  • cell arrangements
  • cell autonomous genes
  • cell–cell adhesion
  • cell cycle
  • cell differentiation
  • cell elongation
  • cell fusion
  • cell hybridization
  • cell hypertrophy
  • cell junctions
  • cell lineage
  • cell lineage restriction
  • cell lineage studies
  • cell patches
  • cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs)
  • cell permeant recombinant proteins
  • cell-mediated immunity
  • cell proliferation
  • cell reprogramming
  • cell sheets
  • cell-sorting
  • cell, tissue and gene therapy
  • cellular affinity
  • cellular blastoderm
  • cellular ecosystem
  • cellulose
  • cement gland
  • Cenozoic Era
  • central cell
  • central dogma of molecular biology
  • central group Hox genes
  • central nervous system (CNS)
  • central zone
  • centrioles
  • centrolecithal eggs
  • centromere
  • centrosome
  • cephalad
  • cephalic
  • cephalic neural crest
  • cephalic precocity
  • cephalic presentation
  • cephalochordates
  • -cephaly
  • Cerberus
  • cerci
  • cerebellum
  • cerebral hemispheres
  • cerebral vesicles
  • cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • cerebrum
  • cervical canal
  • cervical cap
  • cervical flexure
  • cervical mucus
  • cervical plug
  • cervical sinus
  • cervix uteri
  • cesarean section
  • CFU-E
  • CFU-GM
  • CFU-Meg
  • CFU-M,L
  • CFU-S
  • Chabry, Laurent
  • chalaza(e)
  • chancre
  • chasmogamous
  • checkpoints
  • chemical teratogens
  • chemoaffinity hypothesis
  • chemoattractant
  • chemorepellent
  • chemotaxis
  • chemotaxis
  • chemotherapeutic drugs
  • chiasmata
  • chick
  • Child, Charles Manning
  • childbirth
  • chimera
  • Chironomus
  • chlamydia
  • chloasma
  • cholinergic neurons
  • Chondrichthyes
  • chondrocranium
  • chondrocytes
  • chondrogenesis
  • chondroskeleton
  • chordamesoderm
  • Chordata
  • chordate
  • chordate characteristics
  • chordin
  • chordoneural hinge
  • chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM)
  • choriocarcinoma
  • chorion
  • chorion frondosum
  • chorion laeve
  • chorionic plate
  • chorionic sac
  • chorionic villi
  • chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  • choroid fissure
  • choroid plexus
  • chromaffin cell
  • chromatid
  • chromatin
  • chromatin diminution
  • chromatophores
  • Chromosomal Theory of Heredity
  • chromosome bands
  • chromosome diminution
  • chromosome elimination
  • chromosome puffs
  • chromosomes
  • cilia
  • circadian clocks
  • circuit
  • circulating progenitor cells
  • circulation
  • circulatory arcs
  • cis regulation
  • cis-regulatory element
  • cistron
  • c-Kit protein
  • clade
  • class II promoter
  • class switching
  • cleavage
  • cleavage embryogenesis
  • cleavage furrow
  • cleavage nucleus
  • cleavage patterns
  • cleft lip
  • cleft palate
  • cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD)
  • cleidoic egg
  • cleistogamous
  • clinical development
  • clinical discovery
  • clinical endpoint
  • clinical informatics
  • clinical proteomics
  • clinical translation
  • cloaca
  • cloacal membrane
  • cloacal plate
  • clonal analysis
  • clonal proliferation
  • clonal restriction
  • clonal selection theory
  • clone
  • cloning
  • clonogenic
  • close developmental relationship
  • clubfoot
  • c-mos
  • Cnidaria
  • cnidarians
  • CNS
  • co-activator
  • cochlea
  • codominance
  • codons
  • Coelenterata
  • coelenterates
  • coeloblastula
  • coelom
  • coelomate
  • coenobium
  • coenocyte
  • Cohen, Stanley
  • cohesion proteins
  • coitus
  • coitus interruptus
  • colcemid
  • colchicine
  • coleoptile
  • coleorhizae
  • colinear
  • colinearity
  • collagen
  • collagen, type IV
  • collecting tubules
  • colliculi
  • colony-forming unit-fibroblasts
  • colors
  • combination strategies
  • combinatorial
  • combinatorial regulation
  • combinatorial regenerative therapies
  • commensalism
  • commisure
  • commitment
  • committed stems cells
  • community effect
  • compaction
  • comparative embryology
  • compartments
  • compensatory mutation
  • compensatory regeneration
  • competence
  • competence factor
  • competence map
  • competence transfer
  • complete flower
  • conceptacle
  • conception
  • conceptus
  • condensation
  • conditional development
  • conditional mutation
  • conditional specification
  • conditioned media
  • cone
  • congenital
  • congenital anomalies
  • congenital dislocation of the hip
  • congenital syphilis
  • conjoined twins
  • conjugation
  • Conklin, Edwin Grant
  • connecting stalk
  • conservation
  • constitutive
  • constitutive heterochromatin
  • constitutive mutation
  • constraints
  • contact guidance
  • contact inhibition
  • contact placenta
  • continuity of the germplasm
  • contraception
  • contractile proteins
  • contractile ring
  • contraction
  • contragestion
  • conus arteriosus
  • convergence
  • convergent extension
  • cooperativity
  • co-option
  • copulation
  • cord blood
  • co-repressor
  • cork cambium
  • cornea
  • corneal epithelium's regenerative power
  • corolla
  • corona dispersing enzyme
  • corona penetrating enzyme (CPE)
  • corona radiata
  • corpora allata
  • corpora bigemina
  • corpora quadrigemina
  • corpus
  • corpus albicans
  • corpus epididymis
  • corpus hemorrhagicum
  • corpus luteum
  • corpuscles of Meissner
  • correlated progression
  • cortex
  • cortical granules
  • cortical reaction
  • cortical rotation
  • cortices
  • cotyledons
  • covalent bond
  • Cowper's glands
  • CPC
  • CpG islands
  • cranial ectodermal placodes
  • cranial flexure
  • cranial ganglia
  • cranial nerves
  • cranial neural crest
  • cranial vault
  • craniobuccal pouch
  • craniorachischisis
  • cranium
  • Cretaceous Period
  • Cretaceous–Paleocene discontinuity
  • cri du chat
  • -crine
  • CRISPRs
  • CRISPR-Cas9
  • critical day length
  • Critical Path Initiative
  • critical periods in development
  • cross-functional collaborations
  • crossing over
  • crossopterygians
  • cross-talk
  • crura cerebri
  • cryogenic storage
  • cryptic genetic variation
  • cryptochrome
  • cryptogam
  • cryptorchidism
  • crystallins
  • CSF
  • CT
  • Ctenophora
  • CTSA
  • culmination
  • cumulus
  • cumulus oophorus
  • cutis plate
  • cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
  • cyclin-dependent kinase
  • cyclins
  • cyclopamine
  • cyclopia
  • cyclostomes
  • cystic duct
  • cystocytes
  • cytochalasin B
  • cytodifferentiation
  • cytogenetics
  • cytokines
  • cytokinesis
  • cytokinins
  • cytology
  • cytomegalovirus
  • cytome
  • cytomics
  • cytonemes
  • cytoplasm
  • cytoplasmic bridges
  • cytoplasmic determinant
  • cytoplasmic incompatibility
  • cytoplasmic localization
  • cytoplasmic matrix
  • cytoplasmic organelles
  • cytoplasmic rearrangements
  • cytosine methylation
  • cytoskeletal proteins
  • cytoskeleton
  • cytostatic factor
  • cytotrophoblast
  • cytotrophoblastic shell
  • D
  • -dactyly
  • Dareste, Camille
  • Darwin and embryology
  • Darwin, Charles
  • data mining
  • dauer
  • dauerblastula
  • dauer larva
  • dauer larva pathway
  • dauer stage
  • daughter cells
  • DAX1 gene
  • day length
  • deacetylated histones
  • Decapentaplegic (Dpp) gene
  • decapentaplegic protein
  • decellularization protocols
  • decellularized matrices
  • decidua
  • decidua basalis
  • decidua capsularis
  • decidua parietalis
  • decidua reaction
  • deciduous placenta
  • dedifferentiation
  • deep homology
  • deep layer (cells)
  • defect experiment
  • defensins
  • delamination
  • deletion
  • Delta-Notch system
  • denatured DNA
  • denatured protein
  • dendrites
  • de novo methylases
  • dental papilla
  • dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)
  • Dentalium
  • denticles
  • dentin
  • dentinoblast
  • deoxyribonucleic acid
  • deoxyribonucleotides
  • dependent development
  • derivative
  • dermal papilla
  • dermal tissue
  • dermatome
  • dermis
  • dermomyotome
  • descent
  • descent with modification
  • descriptive embryology
  • desiccation
  • desmosomes
  • determinants
  • determinate cleavage
  • determination
  • determinative development
  • deuterencephalic
  • deuterostomes
  • Deuterostomia
  • deutocerebrum
  • deutoplasm
  • development
  • developmental anatomy
  • developmental biologist
  • developmental biology
  • developmental biomedical processes
  • developmental constraints
  • developmental domains
  • developmental estrogen syndrome
  • developmental evolutionary synthesis
  • developmental genes
  • developmental geneticist
  • developmental genetics
  • developmental modularity
  • developmental Northern blot
  • developmental origin of health and disease (DOHD) hypothesis
  • developmental plasticity
  • developmental program
  • developmental robustness
  • developmental switches
  • developmental symbiosis
  • developmental systems theory (DST)
  • Devonian
  • dextrotropic cleavage
  • diacylglycerol (DAG)
  • diakinesis
  • diapause
  • diaphragm
  • diaphragmatic hernia
  • diaphysis
  • dickkopf
  • dicots
  • dicotyledonous plants
  • dictyate
  • Dictyostelium discoideum
  • diencephalon
  • diestrus
  • diethylstilbesterol (DES)
  • differential adhesion hypothesis
  • differential cell affinities
  • differential gene expression
  • differential RNA splicing
  • differential substrate affinity hypothesis
  • differentiation
  • differentiation inducing factor
  • differentiation protocols
  • diffuse placenta
  • digestive proteins
  • digestive system
  • digestive tube
  • digit
  • dihydrotestosterone
  • dilatation and evacuation (D & E)
  • dilatation stage of labor
  • dimer
  • dimorphic
  • diocoel
  • dioecious
  • dipleurula
  • diplobiont
  • diploblastic
  • diploblasts
  • diploid
  • diploid merogony
  • diplont
  • diplontic life cycle
  • diplospory
  • diplotene stage
  • Diptera
  • direct development
  • direct reprogramming
  • disc
  • discoblastula
  • discogastrula
  • discoid
  • discoidal cleavage
  • Discontinuity, Theory of
  • discovery medicine
  • disease biomarkers
  • disjunction
  • disk
  • disomy
  • disparity
  • disruptions
  • dissociation
  • distal
  • Distal-less
  • distal tip cell
  • divergence
  • diversity
  • diverticulum
  • dividing egg
  • dizygotic twins
  • DMD
  • DNA
  • DNA-binding domain
  • DNA methylation
  • DNA microarrays (DNA chips)
  • DNA microchip
  • DNA minicircles
  • DNA replication
  • DNA synthesis
  • DNase footprinting
  • DNase hypersensitive sites
  • DNase protection assay
  • Dolly
  • domain
  • domains of commitment
  • dominant
  • dominant negative mutation
  • dominant negative protein
  • dominant-recessive inheritance
  • dormancy
  • dorsal
  • dorsal
  • dorsal aortae
  • dorsal axial mesoderm
  • dorsal closure
  • dorsal determinant
  • dorsal lip of the blastopore
  • dorsal mesocardium
  • dorsal mesoderm
  • dorsal protein
  • dorsalization
  • dorsalizing factors
  • dorsoventral axis
  • dorsum
  • dosage compensation
  • double assurance hypothesis
  • double fertilization
  • double-negative gate
  • down-mutation
  • downregulation
  • downstream
  • Down syndrome
  • Driesch, Hans
  • Drosophila
  • dry sperm
  • dual gradient model
  • duct of Cuvier
  • duct of Santorini
  • duct of Wirsung
  • ductus arteriosus
  • ductus choledochus
  • ductus deferens
  • ductus venosus
  • duodenum
  • duplex uterus
  • duplication
  • dyad
  • dynamic anatomy
  • dynein
  • dysgenesis
  • dysplasia
  • E
  • E-cadherin
  • ecdysis
  • ecdysone
  • ecdysone receptors
  • Ecdysozoa
  • Echinoderm Theory
  • eclosion
  • ECM
  • eco-evo-devo
  • eco-devo
  • ecological developmental biology
  • ecological evolutionary developmental biology
  • ecomorph
  • ecotype
  • ectoderm
  • ectodermal placodes
  • ectodysplasin (EDA) cascade
  • ectogenesis
  • ectogony
  • ectomere
  • ectomesenchyme
  • ectopic embryos
  • ectopic kidney
  • ectopic perivascular niches
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • ectoplacental cone
  • edema
  • Ediacara
  • Edwards, Robert
  • effacement
  • efferent ductules
  • EGF
  • EGF receptors
  • egg
  • egg activation
  • egg capsules
  • egg chamber
  • egg chemistry
  • egg coats
  • egg cylinder
  • egg follicle
  • egg grooming
  • egg jelly
  • egg physics
  • egg shell
  • egg tube
  • egg water
  • eggs
  • EHT
  • eINDs
  • einsteckung
  • ejaculate
  • ejaculation
  • ejaculatory ducts
  • electron microscope
  • electroporation
  • emboitement
  • emboly
  • embryo
  • embryo bank
  • embryo body plan
  • embryo defenses
  • embryo sac
  • embryo transfer (ET)
  • embryoblast
  • embryogenesis
  • embryogeny
  • embryoid bodies (EBs)
  • embryologist
  • embryology
  • embryonal carcinoma (EC)
  • embryonal region
  • embryonate
  • embryonic
  • embryonic axis
  • embryonic–abembryonic axis
  • embryonic cell cycle
  • embryonic disc
  • embryonic ectoderm
  • embryonic endoderm
  • embryonic germ (EG) cells
  • embryonic induction
  • embryonic mesoderm
  • embryonic period
  • embryonic pole
  • embryonic shield
  • embryonic stem cells (ES cells)
  • embryopathy
  • embryophytes
  • embryotomy
  • embryotroph
  • emulsify
  • enamel hypoplasia
  • enamel knot
  • enamel organ
  • encapsulated nerve endings
  • encapsulation
  • -encephaly
  • end bud
  • endoblast
  • endocardial cushion tissue
  • endocardial primordia
  • endocardial tube
  • endocardium
  • endochondral ossification
  • endocrine cells
  • endocrine disruptors
  • endocrine factors
  • endocrine mimics (endocrine disruptors)
  • endocrine signaling
  • endoderm
  • endoderm determinant
  • endogenous regeneration
  • endolymphatic duct
  • endomere
  • endomesoderm
  • endometriosis
  • endometrium
  • Endopterygota
  • endoskeleton
  • endosperm
  • endosperm cell
  • endosteal osteoblasts
  • endosymbiosis
  • endothelial cells
  • endotheliochorial placenta
  • endothelins
  • energids
  • engagement
  • engineered heart tissue (EHT)
  • engineered micelles
  • engraft
  • engrailed
  • enhanceosome
  • enhancer
  • enhancer modularity
  • enhancer trap
  • entelechy
  • enterocoel
  • enterocoely
  • entoblast
  • entoderm
  • Entwicklungsmechanik
  • enveloping layer
  • environmental integration
  • environmental mismatch hypothesis
  • enzyme-linked receptors
  • enzymes
  • EP-cadherin
  • epaxial muscles
  • ependyma
  • ependymal cells
  • Eph receptors
  • ephrin proteins
  • epialleles
  • epiblast
  • epiboly
  • epicardium
  • epicotyl
  • epidermal cells
  • epidermal ectoderm
  • epidermal growth factor (EGF)
  • epidermis
  • epididymis
  • epigaster
  • epigenesis
  • epigenetic assimilation
  • epigenetic change
  • epigenetic inheritance
  • epigenetic memory
  • epigenetic methylation
  • epigenetic origin of adult diseases
  • epigenetic progenitor model
  • epigenetic theory
  • epigenetics
  • epigenetic trait
  • epimere
  • epimorphic regeneration
  • epimorphosis
  • epimyocardial primordium
  • epimyocardial tube
  • epimyocardium
  • epinephrine
  • epineural sinus
  • epiphyseal fusion
  • epiphyseal growth plates
  • epiphyses
  • episomal vectors
  • episome
  • epistasis
  • epithelial cadherin
  • epithelial cells
  • epithelialization
  • epithelial–mesenchymal interactions
  • epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions
  • epitheliochorial placenta
  • epithelium
  • epoophoron
  • equator
  • equivalence group
  • ERK
  • erythroblast
  • erythroblastosis fetalis
  • erythrocyte
  • erythroid progenitor cell (BFU-E)
  • erythropoiesis
  • erythropoietin
  • ES cells
  • esophageal atresia
  • esophagus
  • estrogen
  • estrous cycle
  • estrus
  • ethylene
  • eucaryotes
  • euchromatin
  • eukaryotes
  • euploid
  • eustachian tubes
  • Eutheria
  • euviviparity
  • euviviparous
  • evagination
  • Evans, Martin J.
  • evanescent
  • even-skipped
  • “evo-devo”
  • evolution
  • evolutionarily conserved regions
  • evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo)
  • evolutionary embryology
  • Evolutionary Synthesis
  • evolutionary tree
  • exalbuminous seed
  • excisable transgenes
  • excretion
  • exocoelom
  • exocytosis
  • exogastrula
  • exogastrulation
  • exon
  • exon shuffling
  • Exopterygota
  • exoskeleton
  • exosomes
  • exploratory trials
  • expansin
  • experimental embryology
  • experimental medicine
  • explant
  • explantation
  • expressivity
  • expulsion
  • exstrophy
  • exstrophy of the bladder
  • extant
  • extension
  • external auditory meatus
  • external os
  • external rotation
  • extinct
  • extracellular matrix (ECM)
  • extraembryonic
  • extraembryonic coelom
  • extraembryonic endoderm
  • extraembryonic membranes
  • extraembryonic mesoderm
  • extrauterine fetus
  • exuviae
  • F
  • Fabricius, Hieronymus
  • FACS
  • facultative heterochromatin
  • fallopian tubes
  • fascicles
  • fasciclins
  • fat bodies
  • fate map
  • fate tracing (or fate mapping)
  • fate mapping
  • fecundation
  • fecundity
  • feeder layer
  • fertile
  • fertilin proteins
  • fertility awareness methods
  • fertility preservation strategy
  • fertilization
  • fertilization cone
  • fertilization consequences
  • fertilization envelope
  • fertilization membrane or fertilization envelope
  • fertilizin
  • Fertilizin Theory
  • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  • fetal cardiomyocytes
  • fetal hemoglobin
  • fetal membranes
  • fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis
  • fetal period
  • fetal plasticity
  • fetoscopy
  • fetus
  • fetus in fetu
  • FGF
  • FGF2
  • FGF receptors
  • fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
  • fibronectin
  • field
  • field of organization
  • field-specific selector gene
  • filopodia
  • fimbria
  • fin fold
  • Fire, Andrew Z.
  • first polar body
  • FISH
  • fission
  • fistula
  • flagellum
  • flexion
  • flexures
  • floor plate
  • floral
  • floral meristem
  • floral meristem identity genes
  • floral organ identity genes
  • flowering control gene (FLC)
  • fluorescence in situ hydridization
  • foam
  • focus
  • Fol, Hermann
  • folic acid
  • follicle
  • follicle cells
  • follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • follicular stem cell
  • follistatin
  • fontanelles
  • foot activator gradient
  • foot inhibitor gradient
  • foramen cecum
  • foramen ovale
  • foramen primum
  • foramen secundum
  • foramina of Monro
  • forced expression
  • forebrain
  • forebrain protuberance
  • foregut
  • founder animal
  • founder cell
  • fourth ventricle
  • fraternal twins
  • free-central placentation
  • freemartin
  • free nerve terminations
  • French flag
  • frizzleds
  • frogs
  • frontal plane
  • frontonasal process
  • frontonasal prominence
  • fructose
  • fruit
  • FSH
  • Fucus
  • functional genomics
  • functional genomics
  • fundus
  • Fungi
  • funiculus
  • fusion of stem cells
  • fusogen
  • fusome
  • G
  • G0
  • G1
  • G1 checkpoint
  • G2
  • G2 checkpoint
  • G proteins
  • gain-of-function mutation
  • gallbladder
  • gametangium
  • gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
  • gamete recognition proteins
  • gametes
  • gametic meiosis
  • gametogenesis
  • gametophyte
  • gametophyte generation
  • ganglion
  • ganglion cells
  • ganglion mother cell
  • gap genes
  • gap junctions
  • Garstang, Walter
  • Gartner's ducts
  • Gastraea Theory
  • gastrocoel
  • gastrula
  • gastrulate
  • gastrulation
  • GDNF
  • Gegenbaur, Karl
  • gel mobility shift assay
  • gemma
  • gemmation
  • gemmule formation
  • gemmules
  • gene
  • gene alteration
  • gene clusters
  • gene complex
  • gene divergence
  • gene duplication
  • gene expression
  • gene family
  • gene knockout
  • gene targeting
  • general transcription factors (GTFs)
  • generative cell
  • genetic accommodation
  • genetic assimilation
  • genetic code
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic heterogeneity
  • genetic lineage tracing
  • genetic mosaics
  • genetic redundancy
  • genetic screen
  • genetic sex
  • genetic toolbox
  • genetically modified human embryos
  • geneticist
  • genetics
  • genistein
  • genital folds
  • genital herpes
  • genital papilla
  • genital pores
  • genital ridge
  • genital swellings
  • genital tubercle
  • genitalia
  • genodermatoses
  • genome
  • genome duplication
  • genomic editing
  • genomic equivalence
  • genomic imprinting
  • genomics
  • genotype
  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Etienne
  • germ band
  • germ band stage
  • germ cell determinants
  • germ cell-less (gcl)
  • germ cells
  • germ layers
  • germ line
  • germ line chimeras
  • germ-line mutation
  • germline SCs
  • germ plasm
  • germ plasm theory
  • germ ring
  • germ wall
  • germarium
  • germinal crescent
  • germinal disc
  • germinal epithelium
  • germinal neuroepithelium
  • germinal vesicle
  • germination
  • germplasm
  • gerontology
  • gestate
  • gestation
  • gestation period
  • gestational mother
  • gibberellic acid (GA)
  • gill arches
  • gill (branchial) chamber
  • gill clefts
  • gill plates
  • gill slits
  • gills
  • glands of Littré
  • glaucoma
  • glial cells
  • glial growth factor (GGF)
  • glial guidance
  • glioblasts
  • globular stage embryo
  • glomerular filtrate
  • glomerulus
  • -glossia
  • glucose
  • Gluecksohn-Schoenheimer, Salome
  • glutathione
  • glycoprotein
  • glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
  • gnathostomes
  • Goldschmidt, Richard
  • Golgi apparatus
  • gonadal ridges
  • gonadotrophin
  • gonadotropin
  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  • gonads
  • gonial syncytia
  • gonidia
  • gonocytes
  • gonorrhea
  • gonotome
  • goosecoid
  • Graaf, Regnier de
  • Graafian follicle
  • gradient
  • gradualism
  • graft-versus-host disease
  • granulocytes
  • granulosa cells
  • gray crescent
  • gray matter
  • great fault of embryology
  • green fluorescent protein
  • Greider, Carol W.
  • grex
  • Grobstein, Clifford
  • ground meristem
  • ground tissue
  • growth
  • growth cone
  • growth factor
  • growth factor therapy
  • growth hormone
  • growth plate closure
  • guard mother cell
  • Gurdon, Sir John Bertrand
  • gurken gene
  • gurken protein
  • gut
  • gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
  • GVBD
  • GVHD
  • gymnosperms
  • -gyn-
  • gynandromorphs
  • gyne
  • gynoecium
  • gynogenesis
  • gynomerogony
  • gyri
  • H
  • Haeckel, Ernst
  • hair germ
  • hairy gene
  • Haldane, J. S.
  • Haller, Albrecht von
  • halteres
  • Hamburger, Viktor
  • Hammerling, Joachim
  • haplodiploidy
  • haplodiplontic life cycle
  • haploid
  • haploinsufficiency
  • haplont
  • haptotaxis
  • hard palate
  • harelip
  • Harris, Arthur
  • Harrison, Ross Granville
  • Hartsoeker, Nicolaas
  • Hartwell, Leland H.
  • Harvey, William
  • hatching
  • hCG
  • head activator gradient
  • head fold
  • head inhibitor gradient
  • head kidney
  • head mesoderm
  • head process
  • head process stage
  • health informatics
  • heart development
  • heart murmur
  • heart stage embryo
  • heat shock
  • heat shock proteins (Hsp)
  • hedgehog
  • hedgehog receptor
  • hedgehog signal transduction pathway
  • Heilbrunn, Lewis Victor
  • Hellin's Law
  • hemangioblasts
  • hematopoiesis
  • hematopoietic
  • hematopoietic inductive environments (HIMs)
  • hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
  • Hemichordata
  • hemichordate
  • Hemichordate Theory
  • Hemimetabola
  • hemimetabolous
  • hemisected
  • hemizygous
  • hemochorial placenta
  • hemodichorial placenta
  • hemoendothelial placenta
  • hemogenic endothelial cells
  • hemoglobin
  • hemolytic disease of the newborn
  • hemorrhage
  • hemotrichorial placenta
  • Hensen's node
  • hepatectomy
  • hepatic diverticulum
  • hepatic duct
  • hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)
  • Herbst, Curt
  • hermaphrodite
  • hermaphroditic
  • hermaphroditism
  • hernia
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Hertwig, Wilhelm August Oscar
  • Hertwig's Law
  • heteroblastic
  • heterochromatin
  • heterochronic mutation
  • heterochrony
  • heterocyberny
  • heterogamy
  • heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
  • heterogony
  • heterokaryon
  • heterometry
  • heteromorphosis
  • heteroplastic transplantation
  • heterosporous
  • heterotaxis
  • heterothallus
  • heterotopic graft
  • heterotopic site
  • heterotopy
  • heterotypy
  • heterozygous
  • Heuser's membrane
  • hibernal
  • hierarchy
  • high mobility group (HMG)-box factors
  • high throughput
  • high-throughput cell biology
  • high-throughput research
  • high-throughput screening
  • higher vertebrates
  • hindbrain
  • hindgut
  • hinge regions
  • His, Wilhelm
  • histioblasts
  • histoblasts
  • histodifferentiation
  • histogenesis
  • histolysis
  • histone acetylation
  • histone acetyltransferase
  • histone deacetylases
  • histone methylation
  • histone methyltransferases
  • histones
  • Historical Periods of Embryology
  • History of Evolutionary Biology
  • histotypic aggregation
  • HIV
  • HLA-matching requirements
  • HMG protein
  • holandric genes
  • holoblastic
  • Holometabola
  • holometabolous
  • Holtfreter, Johannes
  • Hom-C
  • homeobox
  • homeobox genes
  • homeodomain
  • homeodomain family
  • homeodomain protein
  • homeoprotein
  • homeorhesis
  • homeosis
  • homeothermic
  • homeotic complex (Hom-C)
  • homeotic gene
  • homeotic mutation
  • homeotic selector genes
  • homoiogenetic
  • homolecithal eggs
  • homologous
  • homologous chromosomes
  • homologous developmental pathways
  • homologous genes
  • homologous organs
  • homologous recombination
  • homologous regulatory genes
  • homologs
  • homology
  • homonomous
  • homophilic binding
  • homoplasy
  • homosporous
  • homothallus
  • homozygous
  • homunculus
  • hopeful monster
  • hopeless monsters
  • horizontal division
  • horizontal transmission
  • hormone response elements
  • hormones
  • hornworts
  • horseshoe kidney
  • Horstadius, Sven
  • Horvitz, H. Robert
  • housekeeping genes
  • Hox genes
  • Hox proteins
  • hub
  • Hubel, David
  • human accelerated regions (HARs)
  • Human Genome Project
  • humoral immunity
  • hunchback
  • hunchback protein
  • Hunt, Tim
  • Hunter, John
  • Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome
  • Huxley, Thomas Henry
  • hyalin
  • hyaline membrane
  • hyaline membrane disease
  • hyaluronic acid
  • hybrid merogony
  • Hydra
  • hydro-
  • hydrocephalus
  • hydrocephaly
  • hydrogel
  • hydrogel/ECM-based matrices
  • hydronephrosis
  • 20-hydroxyecdysone
  • hyperactivation
  • hypermorphosis
  • hyperplasia
  • hypertrichosis
  • hypoblast
  • hypoplasia
  • hyaluronidase
  • hydatidiform mole
  • hydrogen bonds
  • hydrolytic
  • Hymenoptera
  • hyoid arches
  • hyomandibular arches
  • hyomandibular furrows
  • hyomandibular pouch
  • hypaxial muscles
  • hypermetamorphism
  • hypha
  • hypobranchial eminence
  • hypocotyl
  • hypomere
  • hypophysis
  • hypostome
  • I
  • ichthyosis congenita
  • ICM
  • ICSI
  • identical twins
  • IGF
  • IL
  • Illyanassa obsoleta (Nassarius obsoletus)
  • imaginal
  • imaginal buds
  • imaginal discs
  • imaginal molt
  • imago
  • imbibition
  • immature ovum
  • immediate adaptive responses
  • immortality of the germplasm
  • immune privileged environment
  • immunobiology and immunotherapy section
  • immunoglobulin superfamily CAMs
  • immunomodulation
  • immunosuppression
  • immunovirology
  • imperfect flower
  • imperforate anus
  • imperforate hymen
  • implantation
  • imprinting
  • IMZ
  • in cis
  • in situ
  • in situ hybridization
  • in trans
  • in utero
  • in utero surgery
  • in vitro
  • in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • in vitro spermatogenesis
  • in vivo
  • inborn errors of metabolism
  • incomplete flower
  • incubation
  • indeciduate placenta
  • independent development
  • indeterminate cleavage
  • India ink
  • indifferent stage
  • indirect development
  • indirect reprogramming
  • individualization
  • individuation
  • indoleacetic acid (IAA)
  • induced labor
  • induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)
  • inducer
  • inducing factors
  • induction
  • indusium
  • inferior
  • inferior vena cava
  • inflorescence
  • inflorescence meristem
  • infundibulum
  • ingression
  • inguinal ring
  • inheritance of acquired characteristics
  • initials
  • inner cell mass (ICM)
  • innervate
  • inositol triphosphate (IP3)
  • insectivores
  • insertional mutagenesis
  • instar
  • instars
  • instructive interaction
  • instructive cytokines
  • insulator
  • insulator sequences
  • insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)
  • integrins
  • integuments
  • intercalary meristems
  • intercalated discs
  • intercalation
  • intercourse
  • interdigital necrotic zone
  • interface problem
  • interior necrotic zone
  • interkinesis
  • interlaminar jelly
  • interleukin 2 (IL-2)
  • interleukin 3 (IL-3)
  • intermediate filaments
  • intermediate inheritance
  • intermediate layer
  • intermediate mesoderm
  • intermediate spermatogonia
  • internal rotation
  • internodes
  • interphase
  • intersex
  • interspecies epigenesis
  • interspecific incompatibility
  • interstitial cells of Leydig
  • interstitial growth
  • interstitial tissue
  • intervening sequence
  • interventricular septum
  • interventricular sulcus
  • intervertebral discs
  • intervillous spaces
  • intracellular signal transduction
  • intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • intraembryonic
  • intramembranous ossification
  • intraspecific incompatibility
  • intrauterine device
  • intron
  • invagination
  • inversion
  • invertebrates
  • involuting marginal zone (IMZ) cells
  • involution
  • ionophores
  • iPSCs
  • iris
  • irregular cleavage
  • ischemia
  • islets of Langerhans
  • isogamy
  • isolation experiment
  • isolecithal
  • isomerism
  • isometric growth
  • isthmus
  • iteroparous
  • IUD (intrauterine device)
  • IVF
  • J
  • Jacob, François
  • JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway
  • jaundice of newborn
  • jellify
  • jelly coat
  • Jenkinson, J. W.
  • jervine
  • Journal of Translational Medicine
  • jugular veins
  • Just, Ernest J.
  • juvenile
  • juvenile hormone
  • juvenile phase
  • juxtacrine factors
  • juxtacrine signaling
  • K
  • kairomones
  • Kallman syndrome
  • Kartagener's syndrome
  • karyogamy
  • karyokinesis
  • karyoplasm
  • karyotype
  • keel
  • Keller explant
  • keratin
  • keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)
  • keratinocytes
  • KGF
  • kinases
  • kinesin
  • kinetochore
  • Klf family
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • klotho gene
  • knockin
  • knockout
  • Koller's sickle
  • Kölliker, Albrecht von
  • Kolreuter, Joseph
  • Kovalevsky, Aleksandr O.
  • Kowalevsky, Aleksandr O.
  • Kupffer's cells
  • Kupffer's vesicle
  • L
  • labeled pathways hypothesis
  • labiogingival lamina
  • labioscrotal folds
  • labor
  • labyrinth
  • labyrinthodonts
  • lactation
  • lactiferous ducts
  • lacunae
  • lacZ gene
  • lamellipodia
  • lamina basalis
  • lamina terminalis
  • laminin
  • lampbrush chromosomes
  • lancelets
  • Langerhans cells
  • Lankester, Ray
  • lanugo
  • laparoscopy
  • laparotomy
  • large offspring syndrome
  • larva
  • Larvacea
  • larval molt
  • laryngotracheal groove
  • latebra
  • laterad
  • lateral
  • lateral body folds
  • lateral geniculate nucleus
  • lateral lingual swellings
  • lateral meristem
  • lateral mesoderm
  • lateral palatine process
  • lateral plate mesoderm
  • lateral somitic frontier
  • lateral ventricles
  • latitudinal division
  • Law of Independent Assortment
  • Law of Segregation
  • LD50
  • lead identification (LI) stage
  • lead optimization (LO) stage
  • leaf axils
  • leaf development
  • leaf primordia
  • lectin
  • lectin interaction
  • Leeuwenhoek, Antony van
  • leghemoglobin
  • lens placodes
  • lens vesicles
  • leptotene
  • LESC deficiency
  • LESCs
  • leukemia inhibitory factor
  • level-interactive modular array
  • Levi-Montalcini, Rita
  • levonorgestrel
  • levotropic cleavage
  • Lewis, Edward B.
  • Lewis, Warren
  • Leydig cells
  • lie
  • life expectancy
  • ligand
  • ligation, tubal
  • Lillie, F. R.
  • Lim genes
  • LIM-homeodomain proteins
  • limb buds
  • limb field
  • limbal crypts
  • limbal stem cell deficiency
  • limbs
  • limbus
  • linea nigra
  • lineage
  • lineage-based information
  • lineage diagram
  • lineage labels
  • lineage-restricted stem cells
  • lineage studies
  • lipid
  • lipovitellin
  • liquor folliculi
  • litter
  • Littré's glands
  • liver bulge
  • liver primordium
  • liverworts
  • lobster-claw deformity
  • local cell implants
  • locule
  • locus
  • locus control regions (LCRs)
  • Loeb, Jacques
  • long-day plants
  • long-germ development
  • Lophotrochozoa
  • loss-of-function mutation
  • low output syndrome
  • lower vertebrates
  • lumbar rib
  • lumen
  • luminal surface
  • lung bud
  • lungs
  • luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • luteotropin
  • lymphoid precursor cell
  • Lyon hypothesis
  • Lysenko, Trofim
  • lysins
  • lysosomal storage diseases
  • lysosomes
  • lysozyme
  • M
  • M checkpoint
  • M-phase promoting factor (MPF)
  • macrocephaly
  • macroevolution
  • macrogamete
  • macroglossia
  • macrolecithal eggs
  • macromeres
  • macromolecules
  • macrophyll
  • macrostomia
  • MACS
  • macula
  • maintenance methylases
  • malformations
  • Malpighi, Marcello
  • Malpighian layer
  • Malpighian tubules
  • Mammalia
  • mammalian embryos
  • mammary glands
  • mammary ridges
  • mandible
  • mandibular arches
  • Mangold, Hilde
  • Mangold, Otto
  • mantle layer
  • MAP
  • MAP
  • MAP kinase
  • MAPs
  • marginal cells
  • marginal layer
  • marginal sinus
  • marginal zone
  • marine invertebrates
  • marrow
  • marsupial
  • marsupium
  • Mash-1
  • MASH1 gene
  • master genes
  • master regulatory genes
  • maternal effect genes
  • maternal effects stage
  • maternal–fetal co-development
  • maternal inheritance
  • maternal message
  • maternal mRNA
  • maternal proteins
  • mathematical modeling
  • matrotrophy
  • maturation divisions
  • maturation-promoting factor (MPF)
  • maxilla
  • maxillary processes
  • maximum life span
  • mazopathy
  • MDSCs
  • “me-too” approach
  • mechanoreceptors
  • mechanotransduction
  • Meckel, Johann Friedrich
  • Meckel's cartilage
  • Meckel's diverticulum
  • meconium
  • mediad
  • medial palatine process
  • medial plane
  • mediastinum testis
  • medical bioinformatics
  • mediolateral axis
  • medulla
  • medullary cord(s)
  • medullary folds
  • medullary plate
  • megagametogenesis
  • megagametophyte
  • megalecithal eggs
  • megalocephaly
  • megaphyll
  • megasporangium
  • megaspore
  • megaspore mother cell
  • megasporocyte
  • megasporogenesis
  • megasporophyll
  • meiolecithal eggs
  • meiosis
  • meiosis and the life cycle
  • meiotic chromosome terminology
  • MEK
  • melanin
  • melanocyte stem cell
  • melanocytes
  • melanoma
  • -melia
  • Mello, Craig C.
  • meltrins
  • membrana granulosa
  • membranous labyrinth
  • memory cells
  • menarche
  • Mendel, Gregor
  • mendelian
  • meningocele
  • meningocephalocele
  • meningomyelocele
  • menopause
  • menses
  • menstrual age
  • menstrual cycle
  • mericlinal chimeras
  • meridional division
  • meridional plane
  • meristem
  • meristic variation
  • Merkel cells
  • Merkel's tactile disc
  • meroanencephaly
  • meroblastic
  • merogone
  • merogony
  • meroistic oogenesis
  • meroistic ovariole
  • meromelia
  • MESA
  • mesectoderm
  • mesencephalon
  • mesenchymal cell
  • mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
  • mesenchyme
  • mesenchyme-to-epithelium transitions
  • mesendoderm
  • mesenteries
  • mesenteron rudiments
  • mesentoblasts
  • mesentoderm
  • mesocoel
  • mesoderm
  • mesoderm induction
  • mesodermal mantle
  • mesogastrium
  • mesoglea
  • mesolecithal eggs
  • mesomere
  • mesomeres
  • mesometencephalic fold
  • mesonephric ducts
  • mesonephric ridge
  • mesonephric tubules
  • mesonephros
  • mesorchium
  • mesosalpinx
  • mesovarium
  • Mesozoic Era
  • messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Metabola
  • metabolome
  • metabolomics
  • metacentric chromosome
  • metacoel
  • metadiscoidal placenta
  • metafemales
  • metagenesis
  • metal implants
  • metalloproteinases
  • metallothioneins
  • metamere
  • metamerism
  • metamorphic climax
  • metamorphic molt
  • metamorphosis
  • metanephric diverticulum
  • metanephrogenous mesoderm
  • metanephros
  • metaphase
  • metaphase chromosome spread
  • metaphase plate
  • metaplasia
  • metastasis
  • metatela
  • Metatheria
  • metazoa
  • metazoan development
  • Metchnikoff, Elie
  • metencephalon
  • methoprene
  • Methuselah gene
  • methylation
  • methylation erasure
  • microarray
  • microbial consortia
  • microcapsules
  • microcephaly
  • microenvironment
  • microevolution
  • microfilament
  • microgamete
  • microgametogenesis
  • microgametophyte
  • microglossia
  • microinjection
  • microlecithal eggs
  • micromeres
  • microphyll
  • micropyle
  • microRNAs (miRNAs)
  • microspikes
  • microsporangium
  • microspore
  • microspore mother cell
  • microsporocyte
  • microsporogenesis
  • microsporophyll
  • microstomia
  • microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)
  • microtrabecular lattice
  • microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs)
  • microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs)
  • microtubule mesh
  • microtubules
  • micturition
  • midblastua transition (MBT)
  • midbrain
  • midgut
  • midgut loop
  • midpiece
  • mifepristone
  • migration
  • Mintz, Beatrice
  • Minute technique
  • MIS
  • miscarriage
  • MITF
  • mitochondria
  • mitochondrial cloud
  • mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mtrRNA)
  • mitogen
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
  • mitogenic
  • mitomycin C
  • mitosis
  • mitosis-promoting factor (MPF)
  • mitotic recombination
  • mitral valve
  • mittelschmerz
  • mixed cranial nerves
  • mixed nerves
  • MNCs
  • model organisms
  • Modern Synthesis
  • modularity
  • molar pregnancy
  • mold
  • molecular clock
  • molecular cloning
  • molecular parsimony
  • molecular probe
  • molting
  • monocarpic plants
  • monocots
  • monocotyledonous plants
  • Monod, Jacques Lucien
  • monoecious
  • monomer
  • mononuclear cells (MNCs)
  • monophyletic
  • monophyletic group
  • monosomy
  • monospermy
  • monotremes
  • monozygotic twins
  • monster
  • Morgan, Thomas Hunt
  • morning sickness
  • morph
  • morphallactic regeneration
  • morphallaxis
  • morphogen
  • morphogen receptor gradient
  • morphogenesis
  • morphogenetic constraints
  • morphogenetic determinants
  • morphogenetic fields
  • morphogenetic furrow
  • morphogenetic gradient
  • morphogenetic law
  • morphogenetic movements
  • morpholino
  • morphology
  • morphospecies
  • morula
  • mosaic
  • mosaic behavior
  • mosaic determination
  • mosaic development
  • mosaic pleiotropy
  • motifs
  • motor cranial nerves
  • motor proteins
  • movement proteins
  • MSC-based cell therapy
  • MSCs
  • MTT
  • mucopolysaccharides
  • mucous gland
  • mucus
  • Müller, Fritz
  • Müller, Johannes Peter
  • Müllerian ducts
  • Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS)
  • multicellular
  • multicellularity
  • multifactorial inheritance
  • multigravida
  • multinucleated
  • multipotent cells
  • multipotent stem cells
  • multiple allelism
  • multiple pregnancy
  • multipotent cardiac progenitor cells
  • multipotent stem cells
  • mural trophoblast
  • Murray, Joseph E.
  • muscle-derived stem cells
  • muscle spindles
  • mushroom
  • mutagenesis screens
  • mutagenized
  • mutagens
  • mutation
  • mutualism
  • mutualistic consortia
  • Myc family:
  • mycelium
  • mycorrhiza
  • mycosporines
  • myelencephalon
  • myelin
  • myelination
  • myelocoel
  • myeloid precursor cell
  • myeloschisis
  • myoblast transfer therapy
  • myoblasts
  • myocardium
  • myocoel
  • MyoD
  • MyoD family
  • myoepithelial cells
  • myofibrils
  • myogenesis
  • myogenic bHLH
  • myomere
  • myoplasm
  • myosin
  • myotome
  • myotubes
  • N
  • N-acetylglucosaminadase
  • N-acetylglucosamine:galactosyltransferase
  • N-cadherin
  • nanoelectronic biosensors
  • Nanog
  • nanomedicine
  • nanoporous micromechanical biocapsules
  • nanos
  • nanos mRNA
  • nanos protein
  • nanotechnology
  • nares
  • nasal passages
  • nasal pits
  • nasal placodes
  • nasal septum
  • nasofrontal process
  • nasolacrimal groove
  • nasolateral processes
  • nasomedial processes
  • nasopalatine duct
  • nasopharynx
  • native DNA
  • native protein
  • natural selection
  • nebenkern
  • neck of the latebra
  • neck neural crest
  • necrosis
  • Needham, Joseph
  • negative selection
  • Nematoda
  • Nemertea
  • neoblasts
  • neo-Darwinism
  • neogenesis
  • neo-oogenesis
  • neoplasia
  • neoplasm
  • neoteny
  • nephrocoel
  • nephrogenic cord
  • nephrogenic tissue
  • nephron
  • nephrostomes
  • nephrotome
  • nephrotomic plate
  • nerve
  • nerve growth factor (NGF)
  • nerve tracts
  • netrins
  • network
  • neural cadherin
  • neural canal
  • neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)
  • neural crescent
  • neural crest
  • neural-derived mitotic factors
  • neural ectoderm
  • neural folds
  • neural groove
  • neural plate
  • neural retina
  • neural ridges
  • neural tube
  • neuralizing activity
  • neurenteric canal
  • neurites
  • neuroblasts
  • neurocoel
  • neurocranium
  • neuroectoderm
  • neuroepithelium
  • neurogenesis
  • neurogenin
  • neurohypophysis
  • neuromeres
  • neurons
  • neuropores
  • neuroprotection
  • neuroscience
  • neurotrophins
  • neurula
  • neurulation
  • neurulation, primary
  • neurulation, secondary
  • NF-kB
  • NGF
  • niche
  • niche construction
  • Nicolaus Kleinenberg
  • nidation
  • Nieuwkoop center
  • Nieuwkoop, Pieter
  • NIH Roadmap
  • NIMZ
  • nitrogenous waste
  • Nkx2-5
  • Nobel Prizes
  • nocodazole
  • nodal gene
  • node
  • nodes
  • noggin
  • non-cell autonomous genes
  • nondisjunction
  • noninvoluting marginal zone (NIMZ) cells
  • nonsister chromatids
  • nonsurgical sperm aspiration
  • norgestrel
  • Northern blot
  • nostrils
  • notochord
  • notochordal canal
  • novelty
  • NSA
  • nucellus
  • nuclear envelope
  • nuclear equivalence
  • nuclear membrane
  • nuclear pores
  • nuclear receptor superfamily
  • nuclear RNA (nRNA)
  • nuclei
  • nucleocytoplasmic ratio (N/P ratio)
  • nucleolar organizer
  • nucleolus
  • nucleoplasm
  • nucleosome
  • nucleosome positioning
  • nucleus
  • nucleus of Pander
  • nucleus pulposus
  • null mutation
  • Nurse, Paul M.
  • nurse cells
  • Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane
  • nutrition and metabolism
  • nutritional polyphenism
  • nymph
  • O
  • obesigen
  • obstetrician
  • Oct-3/4
  • odontoblasts
  • odontogenesis
  • olfactory cells
  • olfactory epithelium
  • olfactory lobes
  • olfactory nerves
  • olfactory pits
  • olfactory placodes
  • oligodendrocytes
  • oligohydramnios
  • oligolecithal
  • omental bursa
  • omics
  • omphalocele
  • omphalogenesis
  • omphalomesenteric arteries
  • omphalomesenteric duct
  • omphalomesenteric veins
  • oncogene
  • oncogenetic mutations
  • oncosis
  • one gene–one enzyme hypothesis
  • one gene–one polypeptide
  • one gene–one family of proteins
  • ontogenetic hypertrophy
  • ontogenetic inconstancy
  • ontogeny
  • ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
  • Onychophora
  • oocyte
  • oogamy
  • oogenesis
  • oogonia in adult mammalian ovaries
  • oogonium
  • oolema
  • ooplasm
  • ooplast
  • ootid
  • oozooid
  • operculum
  • operon
  • Operon Theory
  • optic bulges (protuberances)
  • optic chiasma
  • optic cups
  • optic lobes
  • optic nerves
  • optic recess
  • optic stalk
  • optic tectum
  • optic vesicles
  • oral–aboral axis
  • oral evagination
  • oral plate
  • oral sucker
  • oral surface
  • Ordovician
  • organelles
  • organizer
  • organizer graft
  • Organ of Jacobson (Jacobson's organ)
  • organogenesis
  • oropharyngeal membrane
  • oropharynx
  • orphan embryos
  • orthologous regulatory genes
  • orthologs
  • orthotopic graft
  • os
  • OSCs
  • OSE
  • oskar mRNA
  • OSKM
  • ossicles
  • ossification
  • ossification center
  • Osteichthyes
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • osteoconduction
  • osteocytes
  • osteogenesis
  • osteoinduction
  • osteoid matrix
  • osteopetrosis
  • osteoporosis
  • osteoprotegerin
  • ostium
  • ostracoderms
  • otic capsule
  • otic placodes
  • otic vesicles
  • otocyst
  • otolith
  • outgroup
  • ovarian follicle
  • ovarian stem cells
  • ovaries
  • ovariole
  • ovary
  • oviducts
  • oviparity
  • oviparous
  • ovist
  • ovothiol
  • ovoviviparity
  • ovoviviparous
  • ovulation
  • ovule
  • ovum
  • oxycephaly
  • oxytocin
  • P
  • p53
  • P-cadherin
  • P element
  • P-granules
  • pacemaker
  • pachytene
  • paedogenesis
  • paedomorphosis
  • pair-rule genes
  • paired and aligned spermatogonia
  • palate
  • palatine shelf
  • Paleocene period
  • paleogenesis
  • paleomorphic
  • Paleozoic Era
  • palmar erythema
  • pampiniform plexus
  • pancreas
  • pancreatic diverticulum
  • Pander, Christian
  • pangenesis
  • panoistic ovariole
  • Panspermy
  • papilla
  • parabiosis
  • paracrine effects
  • paracrine factors
  • paracrine signaling
  • paradidymis
  • paradigm
  • ParaHox genes
  • paralogous genes
  • paralogous group
  • paralogs
  • paramesonephric ducts
  • paraptosis
  • parasegments
  • parasitism
  • parathyroid glands
  • paraxial mesoderm
  • paraxial protocadherin
  • paraxis protein
  • parazoa
  • parenchymal cells
  • parietal
  • parietal mesoderm
  • parietal placentation
  • parthenocarpy
  • parthenogenesis
  • parthenogenesis induction
  • parthenomerogony
  • partial birth abortions
  • partial cleavage
  • partial hepatectomy
  • parturition
  • passive immunity
  • Patella
  • patent ductus arteriosus
  • paternal epigenetic effects
  • pathophysiology
  • pathway
  • patient-targeted molecular therapies
  • pattern formation (patterning)
  • pattern of cleavage
  • patterning
  • Pax genes
  • Pax proteins
  • Pax6
  • PDA
  • PDGF
  • pelvic cavity
  • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • pelvic kidney
  • pelvis
  • penetrance
  • penis
  • peptide nanofibers
  • percutaneous
  • perennial
  • perfect flower
  • perianth
  • periblast
  • periblastula
  • pericardial cavity
  • pericarp
  • perichondrium
  • periclinal divisions
  • pericyte
  • periderm
  • periosteal bone
  • periosteal buds
  • periosteum
  • peripheral
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • peripheral zone
  • periplasm
  • peristalsis
  • peristome
  • peritoneal cavity
  • peritoneum
  • perivisceral cavity
  • perivitelline space
  • permissive interaction
  • peroxidase
  • personalized medicine
  • personalized medicine
  • petal
  • Pfeffer, Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp
  • Pflüger, Eduard
  • PGCs
  • pH
  • phallus
  • phanerogam
  • pharmacodynamics
  • pharmacogenomics
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharyngeal arches
  • pharyngeal bursa
  • pharyngeal pouches
  • pharyngobranchial duct
  • pharyngula stage
  • pharynx
  • phase 0 clinical trials
  • phase 1 clinical trials
  • phase 2 clinical trials
  • phase 3 clinical trials
  • phase 4 clinical trials
  • phenocopy
  • phenotype assessment
  • phenotype
  • phenotypic accommodation
  • phenotypic heterogeneity
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • phenotypic sex
  • phenotypic suppression
  • philtrum
  • phloem
  • phocomelia
  • -phora
  • phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2)
  • phosphoinositol pathway
  • phospholipase C
  • phosvitin
  • photolyase
  • photomorphogenesis
  • photoperiod
  • photoperiodism
  • photoreceptor cells
  • phototropin
  • phototropism
  • phthalates
  • phyletic constraints
  • phyletic transformation
  • phyllotaxy
  • phylogenetic tree
  • phylogeny
  • phylotypic stage
  • phylum
  • physical constraints
  • physiology
  • phytochelatins
  • phytochromes
  • PiED
  • pigment cells
  • pigmentation
  • pigmented retina
  • pineal gland
  • pinnae
  • pioneer nerve fibers
  • pioneer transcription factors
  • piPSCs
  • pistil
  • pistillate flowers
  • pituitary gland
  • placenta
  • placenta accreta
  • placenta fetalis
  • placenta materna
  • placenta previa
  • placental activities: endocrine secretion
  • placental activities: metabolism
  • placental activities: transfer
  • placental barrier
  • placental cadherin
  • placental circulation
  • placental classification
  • placental membrane
  • placental septa
  • placental stage
  • placentation
  • Placodermi
  • placoderms
  • placodes
  • plagiocephaly
  • planaria
  • planes
  • plant
  • -plasia
  • plasma
  • plasma cell differentiation
  • plasma cells
  • plasma membrane
  • plasmid transduction
  • plasmodesmata
  • plasmodium
  • plastic adherence
  • plastochron
  • platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
  • platelet rich plasma
  • Platyhelminthes
  • pleiotropic
  • pleiotropy
  • plesiomorphic
  • pleural cavities
  • poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid
  • -ploid
  • plumule
  • pluripotent
  • pluripotent cells
  • pluripotent epidermal stem cell
  • pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell
  • pluripotent neural stem cell
  • pluteus larva
  • PMZ
  • PNS
  • poikilothermic
  • polar body
  • polar coordinate model
  • polar granule component (Pgc)
  • polar granules
  • polar lobe
  • polar nuclei
  • polar trophoblast
  • polarization
  • pole cells
  • pole plasm
  • poles
  • pollen
  • pollen germination
  • pollen grain
  • pollen tube
  • pollination
  • polocyte
  • poly-
  • polyandry
  • polycarpic plants
  • polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • polycomb proteins
  • polydactyly
  • polyembryony
  • polygamous
  • polygenic
  • polygyny
  • polyhydramnios
  • polyinvagination islands
  • polymastia
  • polymer
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • polymers
  • polymorphic
  • polymorphism
  • polyphenism
  • polyphyletic group
  • polyploidy
  • polyspermy
  • polytene chromosomes
  • polytrophic ovariole
  • pons
  • pontine
  • pontine flexure
  • porous biomaterials
  • porous HA ceramic scaffold
  • portfolio consideration attrition
  • portmanteau
  • position
  • positional gene cloning
  • positional information
  • positional value
  • positive selection
  • postanal gut
  • posteriad
  • posterior dominance
  • posterior fornix
  • posterior group Hox genes
  • posterior intestinal portal
  • posterior marginal zone (PMZ)
  • posterior neuropore
  • posterior organizing center
  • posterior prevalence
  • posteriorizing activity
  • postpartum
  • posttranslational regulation
  • postzygotic isolation
  • potassium chloride (KCl)
  • potency
  • prechordal plate
  • precipitation
  • precocenes
  • precocious
  • predator-induced defense
  • predator-induced polyphenism
  • predictive adaptive responses
  • preformationism
  • pregnancy
  • pregnancy reduction
  • preimplantation embryo diagnosis (PiED)
  • premature
  • premature chromosome condensation
  • premature senescence
  • premaxilla
  • pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA)
  • prenatal
  • prenatal diagnosis
  • preoral gut
  • preplate technique
  • prepupa
  • presentation
  • presumptive
  • prezygotic isolation
  • primary axis
  • primary embryonic induction
  • primary follicle
  • primary hypoblast
  • primary inducer
  • primary larvae
  • primary mesenchyme cells
  • primary nephric ducts
  • primary neurulation
  • primary oocyte
  • primary ossification centers
  • primary sex determination
  • primary tissues
  • primary transcript
  • primary translation
  • primary vesicles
  • primigravida
  • primitive alveoli
  • primitive blood cells
  • primitive groove
  • primitive gut
  • primitive knot
  • primitive node
  • primitive pit
  • primitive ridges
  • primitive streak
  • primitive streak stage
  • primordial follicle
  • primordial germ cells (PGCs)
  • primordium
  • Pringsheim, Nathaniel
  • proacrosin
  • proamnion
  • procambium
  • procaryotes
  • prochordal plate
  • proctodaeum
  • proctodeum
  • proerythroblast
  • progenesis
  • progenitor
  • progenitor cell
  • progeria
  • progesterone
  • programmed cell death, or PCD
  • progress zone
  • progressive determination
  • prokaryotes
  • prolactin
  • proliferation
  • proliferin (PLF)
  • proliferin-related protein (PRP)
  • promeristem
  • prometaphase
  • promoter
  • pronephric ducts
  • pronephric swellings
  • pronephric tubules
  • pronephros
  • proneural cluster
  • proneural genes
  • pronuclei fusion
  • pronucleoli
  • pronucleus
  • pronymph stage
  • proof of concept (POC)
  • proof of principle
  • prophase
  • prosencephalon
  • prosocoel
  • prospective fate
  • prospective potency
  • prostaglandins
  • prostate gland
  • protamines
  • proteases
  • protective cloning
  • protein kinase C
  • protein–protein domain
  • protein transduction
  • proteins
  • proteoglycans
  • proteome
  • proteomics
  • Proterozoic
  • prothallial cell
  • prothallium
  • prothallus
  • prothoracic gland
  • prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)
  • protoblast
  • protocadherins
  • protocerebrum
  • protochordates
  • protoderm
  • Proto-Hox gene complex
  • protonema
  • proto-oncogene
  • protoplasm
  • protostomes
  • Protostomia
  • Prototheria
  • protozoa
  • proximal
  • PRP
  • pseudocoelom
  • pseudocoelomates
  • pseudogene
  • pseudoglandular period
  • pseudohermaphroditism
  • pseudo-linear model of drug development
  • pseudoplasmodium
  • pseudopregnancy
  • Pteridophyta
  • pterospermous
  • Pterygota
  • puberty
  • pubescence
  • pulmonary circulation
  • pulmonary stenosis
  • pulmonary trunk
  • punctuated equilibrium theory
  • pupa
  • puparium
  • pupation
  • Purkinge fibers
  • Purkinje, Jan Evangelista
  • Purkyne, Johannes
  • pyloric stenosis
  • Q
  • quadruplets
  • quantitative trait
  • quantitative trait loci (QTL)
  • quiescent
  • quiescent cell
  • quiescent center
  • quantum mechanics
  • R
  • rachischisis
  • radial cleavage
  • radial patterning
  • radial symmetry
  • Radiata
  • radiation
  • radicle
  • Ramón y Cajal, Santiago
  • Rana
  • random epigenetic drift
  • random segregation of chromosomes
  • Ras
  • Rathke, Heinrich
  • Rathke's pocket
  • Rb
  • reaction–diffusion model
  • reaction norm
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS) theory of aging
  • real regenerative effect
  • realisator genes
  • reawakening of the morphogenetic process
  • Recapitulation Theory
  • receptacle
  • receptor
  • receptor gradient
  • receptor proteins
  • receptor tyrosine kinase
  • recessive
  • reciprocal embryonic induction
  • reciprocity of epigenetic and genetic cancer causation
  • recombinant DNA
  • recombination
  • recombination experiment
  • reconstitution
  • rectovaginal fistula
  • recumbent
  • red blood cells
  • reductionism
  • redundancy
  • regeneration
  • regeneration blastema
  • regenerative medicine
  • regenerative therapy
  • region-specific selector genes
  • regional specificity
  • regulation
  • regulative development
  • regulatory circuit
  • regulatory evolution
  • regulatory genes
  • Reichert's membrane
  • related developmental origin
  • relational pleiotropy
  • Remak, Robert
  • renal agenesis
  • renal tubules
  • repair cells
  • replication
  • reporter gene
  • reporter protein
  • repressor
  • reproduction
  • reproductive cloning
  • reproductive duct:
  • reprogramming
  • reprogramming cocktail
  • Reptilia
  • resact
  • research cloning
  • resegmentation
  • resident cardiac stem cells
  • resorbed
  • resorption
  • respecification
  • respiratory distress of the newborn
  • respiratory distress syndrome
  • respiratory system
  • responder
  • restitution nucleus
  • restorative therapy
  • restriction of cell potency
  • rete cord
  • rete ovarii
  • rete testis
  • reticular lamina
  • reticulocyte
  • retina
  • retinoblastoma
  • retinoblastoma protein (Rb)
  • retinoic acid
  • retinoic acid receptors (RARs)
  • retroviral vector
  • retrovirus
  • reverse pharmacology
  • reverse transcriptase
  • RGD
  • Rh+, Rh−
  • Rh incompatibility
  • rhizoid
  • rhizoidal cell
  • rhizome
  • RhoB protein
  • rhombencephalon
  • rhombocoel
  • rhombomeres
  • ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  • ribosomes
  • ring canals
  • RNA interference (RNAi)
  • RNA interference pathway
  • RNA polymerase
  • RNA processing
  • RNA splicing
  • robotics
  • robustness
  • roof plate
  • Rosetta stone
  • rostrad
  • rostral
  • rotation
  • rotational cleavage
  • Roux, Wilhelm
  • royal jelly
  • RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase) signal transduction pathway
  • RU486 (mifepristone)
  • rubella virus
  • ruffled membranes
  • Runnström, John
  • S
  • S
  • sacculus
  • sacral neural crest
  • sagittal plane
  • salamanders
  • salivary glands
  • sarcoma
  • sarcomeres
  • satellite cells
  • scaffold-based approaches
  • scaphocephaly
  • scarification
  • scatter factor
  • -schisis
  • schizocoely
  • Schwann, Matthias
  • Schwann cells
  • sclera
  • sclerotium
  • sclerotome
  • scoliosis
  • SCNT
  • scrotum
  • scute
  • scutellum
  • seasonal polyphenism
  • sebaceous glands
  • sebum
  • second messengers
  • second polar body
  • secondary axis
  • secondary embryonic induction
  • secondary fields
  • secondary follicle
  • secondary hypoblast
  • secondary larvae
  • secondary mesenchyme cells
  • secondary neurulation
  • secondary sex determination
  • secondary tissues
  • secondary translation
  • secondary vesicles
  • seed
  • seed coat
  • seed dormancy
  • seed germination
  • Seessel's pocket
  • segment-polarity genes
  • segmental plate
  • segmental zones of mesoderm
  • segmentation
  • segmentation cavity
  • segmentation genes
  • segmentation nucleus
  • segments
  • segregate
  • selective affinity
  • selective matrix adhesion
  • selector gene
  • self-determination
  • self-incompatibility
  • self-pollination
  • semaphorin proteins
  • semelparous
  • semen
  • semicircular canals
  • semiconservative replication
  • semi-dominant mutation
  • seminal plasma
  • seminal receptacles
  • seminal vesicles
  • seminiferous
  • seminiferous tubules
  • seminism
  • semperflorous
  • senescence
  • sense plate
  • sensory cranial nerves
  • sepal
  • septum
  • septum primum
  • septum secundum
  • septum transversum
  • serial homologs
  • serial transplantation
  • serine/threonine kinases
  • sero-amniotic cavity
  • sero-amniotic raphe
  • serosa
  • serotinous
  • Sertoli cells
  • seven cardinal movements of labor
  • sex
  • sex cells
  • sex chromosomes
  • sex cords
  • sex determination
  • sex glands
  • sex hormones
  • sex-linked genes
  • sex-linked inheritance
  • sex-linked mutations
  • sexual dimorphism
  • sexual polyphenism
  • sexual reproduction
  • shell
  • shell membrane
  • shoot
  • short-day plants
  • short-germ development
  • Siamese twins
  • signal transduction
  • signaling center
  • silencers
  • simplex uterus
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • single spermatogonia
  • sinus rhomboidalis
  • sinus terminalis
  • sinus venosus
  • siRNAs
  • sister chromatids
  • site-specific mutagenesis
  • situs inversus
  • situs solitus
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeletal myoblasts
  • skeletogenic mesenchyme
  • Skene's glands
  • skin
  • skull
  • slime molds
  • Slit protein
  • slowly adhering cells
  • slug
  • slug protein
  • Smad signal transduction pathway
  • small-interfering RNA (siRNA)
  • small nuclear RNAs (snRNA)
  • small toolkit
  • Smithies, O.
  • smooth chorion
  • smooth muscle
  • soft palate
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
  • somatic cells
  • somatic mesoderm
  • somatic mutation
  • somatic mutation hypothesis
  • somatoplasm
  • somatopleure
  • somite bulges
  • somites
  • somitic mesoderm
  • somitogenesis
  • somitomeres
  • Sonic hedgehog
  • sonogram
  • sorocarp
  • sorophore
  • sorus
  • SOX9 gene
  • Sox family
  • Spallanzani, Lazaro
  • speciation
  • specific transcription factors
  • specification
  • specification map
  • Spemann, Hans
  • Spemann organizer (Spemann–Mangold organizer)
  • sperm
  • sperm-activating peptides
  • sperm bank
  • sperm fertility
  • sperm survival
  • sperm transport
  • spermateliosis
  • spermatheca
  • spermatic cord
  • spermatids
  • spermatocytes
  • spermatogenesis
  • spermatogonia
  • spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT)
  • spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs)
  • spermatophore
  • Spermatophyta
  • spermatophyte
  • spermatozoon
  • spermiation
  • spermicide
  • spermiogenesis
  • spermist
  • Sperry, Roger W.
  • spicule
  • Spiegelman, Sol
  • spina bifida
  • spinal canal
  • spinal cord
  • spinal ganglia
  • spinal nerves
  • spindle
  • spindle fibers
  • spinocaudal
  • spinous layer
  • spiracle
  • spiral cleavage
  • splanchnic mesoderm
  • splanchnopleure
  • spliceosome
  • splicing isoforms
  • spontaneous abortion
  • spontaneous generation (abiogenesis)
  • sporangiophore
  • sporangium
  • spore
  • spore germination
  • spore mother cells
  • sporic meiosis
  • sporocarp
  • sporocytes
  • sporophyll
  • sporophyte
  • sporophyte generation
  • Spratt, N. T.
  • SRY gene
  • SSCs
  • stabilizing selection
  • stadia
  • stadium
  • staging of development
  • stalk cells
  • stamen
  • staminate flowers
  • stasis
  • statistical genetics
  • statoblasts
  • STD
  • stem
  • stem cell
  • stem cell factor (SCF)
  • stem cell mediated regeneration
  • stem cell niche
  • stem cell trafficking
  • Stem Cells Translational Medicine
  • stemness
  • stenosis
  • stereoblastula
  • stereotaxis
  • stereotropism
  • sterile
  • Stevens, Nettie M.
  • Steward, F. C.
  • stigma
  • stomach
  • -stomia
  • stomodaeal invagination
  • stomodaeum
  • stomodeum
  • stratification
  • stratum corneum
  • stratum germinativum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum lucidum
  • stratum spinosum
  • strengths of adhesion
  • striated
  • strobilus
  • stroma
  • stromal cells
  • stromal vascular fraction (SVF)
  • structural genes
  • structural genomics
  • strypsin
  • Styela (Cynthia)
  • style
  • stylopod
  • subcaudal pocket
  • subcaudal space
  • subcephalic pocket
  • subcephalic space
  • subgerminal space
  • suction method
  • sulcus limitans
  • Sulston, John E.
  • superficial cleavage
  • superior vena cava
  • supernumerary breast
  • supernumerary chromosome
  • supernumerary nipples
  • supernumerary sperm
  • superovulate
  • superovulation
  • supine
  • supporting cells
  • suppressor gene
  • surfactant
  • surrogate endpoint
  • surrogate mother
  • suspensor
  • sutures
  • SVF
  • Swammerdam, Jan
  • sweat glands
  • Sylvian aqueduct
  • symbiont
  • symbiosis
  • symbiotic regulation of development
  • symplastic
  • synapomorphy
  • synapse
  • synapsis
  • synaptonemal complex
  • syncytial
  • syncytial blastoderm
  • syncytial cable
  • syncytial specification
  • syncytiotrophoblast
  • syntrophoblast
  • syncytium
  • syndactyly
  • syndetome
  • syndrome
  • synergids
  • syngamy
  • synteny
  • synthetic messenger RNA
  • syphilis
  • systemic circulation
  • systemic delivery
  • systems biology
  • Szostak, Jack W.
  • T
  • T1 translational research
  • T-box factors
  • T cells or T lymphocytes
  • tadpole
  • tail bud
  • tail fold
  • tapetum
  • target based drug discovery (TDD)
  • target identification
  • target validation
  • taste cells
  • TATA box
  • Tatum, Edward Lawrie
  • taxon
  • TBI
  • Tbx4
  • Tbx5
  • TE
  • tectum
  • telencephalon
  • teleosts
  • teloblasts
  • telocoel
  • telolecithal eggs
  • telomerase
  • telomeres
  • telophase
  • teloplasm
  • telson
  • temperature
  • temperature-sensitive mutations
  • template
  • tepal
  • teratocarcinoma
  • teratogen
  • teratogenesis
  • teratology
  • teratoma
  • terminal cell
  • terminal gene group
  • terminal sac period
  • tertiary follicle
  • test cells
  • test tube baby
  • testes
  • testicular dysgenesis syndrome
  • testicular feminization
  • testicular lobe
  • testis-determining factor
  • testosterone
  • tetrad
  • tetraploid number
  • tetraploidy
  • tetrapod
  • TGF-α
  • TGF-β
  • TGF-β
  • TGF-β receptor
  • thalidomide
  • thallophytes
  • thallus
  • theca externa
  • theca folliculi
  • theca granulosa
  • theca interna
  • thecal cells
  • thecodonts
  • Theory of Epigenesis
  • therapeutic cloning
  • therapsids
  • Theria
  • third ventricle
  • Thompson, D'Arcy W.
  • Thomas, E. Donnall
  • threshold concentration
  • threshold concept
  • threshold effect
  • thrifty phenotype hypothesis
  • “thrown a compound over the fence”
  • thymopharyngeal duct
  • thymus gland
  • thyroglossal duct
  • thyroid gland
  • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin)
  • thyropharyngeal duct
  • thyroxine
  • tight junctions
  • Tinman
  • tip cells
  • tissue engineering (TE)
  • tissue organization field (TOC) hypothesis
  • toad
  • Toll
  • tonsils
  • tool kit (of developmental biology)
  • tooth germ
  • tornaria
  • torpedo stage embryo
  • torsion
  • torso
  • torus transversus
  • totipotent
  • toxicogenomics
  • toxoplasmosis
  • trabeculae carneae
  • trace fossils
  • trachea
  • tracheal system
  • tracheophytes
  • trans-acting
  • trans-activating domain
  • trans-programming
  • transdifferentiation
  • transcription
  • transcription factor
  • transcription factor domains
  • transcription initiation complex
  • transcriptional regulation
  • transcriptome
  • transcriptomics
  • transdifferentiation
  • transfected cells
  • transfection
  • transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • transferrin
  • transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)
  • transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)
  • transgene
  • transgenerational therapy
  • transgenerational continuity
  • transgenic organism
  • translation
  • translational bioinformatics
  • translational block (T1)
  • translational block (T2)
  • translational medicine
  • translational medicine (operational definition)
  • translational regulation
  • translational research
  • translational science
  • translocated chemical messengers
  • transmission genetics
  • transplant
  • transplantation
  • transplantation experiment
  • transposable element
  • trans-regulation
  • trans-regulatory factor
  • transverse plane
  • trefoil stage
  • trehalose
  • Trembley, Abraham
  • trichoblasts
  • trichomes
  • tricuspid valve
  • triiodothyronine
  • trimester
  • triplets
  • triploblasts
  • triploid number
  • triploidy
  • trisomy
  • trisomy 21
  • tritocerebrum
  • trizygotic
  • Trochaea Theory
  • trochophore
  • trophectoderm
  • trophoblast
  • trophocytes
  • trophoderm
  • true β cells
  • truncoventricular region
  • truncus arteriosus
  • trunk neural crest
  • tubal ligation
  • tubal pregnancy
  • tube cell
  • tubercles
  • tuberculum posterius
  • tubuli recti
  • tubulin
  • tumor angiogenesis factors
  • tumor-suppressor genes
  • tumorigenic
  • tunica
  • tunica albuginea
  • tunicates
  • Turing, Alan Mathison
  • Turing model
  • Turner's syndrome
  • tympanic cavities
  • tyrosine kinases
  • U
  • UCBC
  • ultimobranchial bodies
  • ultrasonography
  • ultrasound
  • umbilical arteries
  • umbilical cord
  • umbilical cord blood (CB)
  • umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs)
  • umbilical cord tissue (CT)
  • umbilical duct
  • umbilical hernia
  • umbilical ring
  • umbilical vein
  • umbilicus
  • unicellular
  • unipotent stem cells
  • unipotent
  • unity of type
  • unsegmented mesoderm
  • up-mutation
  • upregulation
  • upstream
  • urachus
  • Urbilateria
  • ureotelic organisms
  • ureter
  • ureteric buds
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • urine
  • uriniferous tubules
  • urochordates
  • Urodela
  • urogenital ducts
  • urogenital membrane
  • urogenital ridge
  • urogenital sinus
  • urorectal septum
  • urostyle
  • uteric bud
  • uterine cavity
  • uterine cycle
  • uterine horn
  • uterine tube
  • uterus
  • utriculus
  • uvula
  • V
  • vagal neural crest
  • vagina
  • valproic acid (VA)
  • varicose veins
  • vas deferens
  • vasa efferentia
  • vascular cambium
  • vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  • vascular spiders
  • vasculogenesis
  • vasectomy
  • vasovasostomy
  • vault
  • vector
  • vegetal determinant
  • vegetal gradient
  • vegetal hemisphere
  • vegetal plate
  • vegetal pole
  • vegetalization
  • vegetalized
  • vegetalizing factors
  • vegetative
  • vegetative propagation
  • VEGF
  • veins
  • vellus
  • venae cavae
  • venter
  • ventrad
  • ventral
  • ventral furrow
  • ventral mesocardium
  • ventricles
  • ventricular layer
  • ventricular septal defect
  • Veratrum californicum
  • vernal
  • vernalization
  • vernation
  • vernix caseosa
  • vertebrae
  • vertebral column
  • vertebrate body plan
  • vertebrate characteristics
  • vertebrates
  • vertical division
  • vertical transmission
  • vesicle
  • vestibular glands
  • vestibule
  • vestigial
  • Vg1
  • Vg1 mRNA
  • Vg1 protein
  • viability
  • viral integration
  • vis essentialis
  • viscera
  • visceral
  • visceral arches
  • visceral furrows
  • visceral grooves
  • visceral mesoderm
  • viscerocranium
  • visual phototransduction
  • vital stains/dyes
  • vitalism
  • vitamin A (retinol)
  • vitellarium
  • vitelline duct
  • vitelline envelope
  • vitelline membrane
  • vitelline vascular plexus
  • vitelline veins
  • vitellogenesis
  • vitellogenin
  • vitrification
  • viviparity
  • viviparous
  • viviparous mutants
  • Vogt, W.
  • Volvox
  • vulva
  • W
  • Waddington, Conrad Hal
  • Warynski, Stanislas
  • “wasted investment”
  • Weismann, August
  • Weismann barrier
  • Went, Fritz
  • Wharton's jelly
  • white matter
  • Whitman, C. O.
  • wholist organicism
  • Wieschaus, Eric F.
  • Wiesel, Torsten
  • Wilson, Edmund Beecher
  • Wilson, H. V.
  • Wilson's principles of teratology
  • Winged helix proteins
  • wingless
  • winter bud
  • WMSDs
  • Wnt
  • Wnt receptors
  • Wnt signal transduction pathway
  • Wolbachia
  • Wolff, Friedrich Kaspar
  • Wolffian ducts
  • womb
  • wound epidermis
  • X
  • X chromosome
  • X chromosome inactivation
  • X-linked genes
  • xenoestrogens
  • xenogamy
  • xenograft
  • Xenopus
  • Xenotransplantation
  • Xist gene
  • Xwnt8
  • xylem
  • Y
  • Y chromosome
  • Yamanaka, Shinya
  • Yamanaka factors
  • yellow crescent
  • yolk
  • yolk cell
  • yolk cells
  • yolk duct
  • yolk nuclei
  • yolk nucleus
  • yolk platelet
  • yolk plug
  • yolk plug stage
  • yolk sac
  • yolk stalk
  • yolk syncytial layer (YSL)
  • Z
  • zeugopod
  • zinc finger
  • zinc finger family
  • zinc finger proteins
  • zona-binding proteins
  • zona pellucida
  • zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3)
  • zona radiata
  • zona reaction
  • zone of differentiation
  • zone of elongation
  • zone of junction
  • zone of overgrowth
  • zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)
  • zoophilous
  • zootype
  • ZP
  • ZPA
  • zygote
  • zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
  • zygotene
  • zygotic genes
  • zygotic meiosis
  • References
  • Color Plates