Chocolate Science and Technology

Editor/Author Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

Single-User Purchase Price: $200.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $300.00
ISBN: 978-1-118-91378-9
Category: Food, Drink, Nutrition
Image Count: 188
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption.

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Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the author
  • Chapter 1: History, origin and taxonomy of cocoa
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 History of cocoa
  • 1.3 Taxonomy of cocoa
  • 1.4 Morphological and varietal characteristics of cocoa
  • 1.5 Varietal effects on cocoa bean flavour
  • 1.6 The concept of this book
  • Chapter 2: World cocoa production, processing and chocolate consumption pattern
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 World production of cocoa
  • 2.3 Major changes in world cocoa trade
  • 2.4 Cocoa yield in producing countries
  • 2.5 World cocoa grindings trends between 2005–2006 and 2014–2015
  • 2.6 World stocks of cocoa beans
  • 2.7 International cocoa price developments
  • 2.8 Cocoa processing trends
  • 2.9 Cocoa and chocolate consumption
  • 2.10 Fairtrade cocoa and chocolate in the modern confectionery industry
  • 2.11 The organic cocoa in chocolate confectionery industry
  • 2.12 The changing chocolate market
  • Chapter 3: Traditional and modern cocoa cultivation practices
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Environmental requirements for cocoa cultivation
  • 3.3 Traditional cocoa cultivation practices
  • 3.4 Modern cocoa cultivation practices using vegetative propagation
  • 3.5 Establishment and shade
  • 3.6 Flowering and pod development
  • 3.7 Harvesting of cocoa pods
  • 3.8 Pod breaking
  • 3.9 The cocoa pod
  • 3.10 Good agricultural practices in cocoa cultivation
  • Chapter 4: Cocoa diseases and pests and their effects on chocolate quality
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Major cocoa diseases
  • 4.3 Cocoa pests
  • 4.4 Cocoa crop protection
  • Chapter 5: Cocoa bean composition and chocolate flavour development
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Bean composition and flavour precursor formation
  • 5.3 Effects of genotype on cocoa bean flavour
  • 5.4 Flavour development during post-harvest treatments of cocoa
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • Chapter 6: Cocoa processing technology
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Bean selection and quality criteria
  • 6.3 Cocoa quality, grading and storage
  • 6.4 Selection of bean blends and chocolate flavour quality
  • 6.5 Steps in cocoa processing
  • Chapter 7: Industrial chocolate manufacture – processes and factors influencing quality
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Chocolate manufacturing processes
  • 7.3 Tempering, lipid crystallization and continuous phase character during chocolate manufacture
  • 7.4 Casting and moulding
  • 7.5 Cooling
  • 7.6 Demoulding
  • 7.7 Wrapping/Packaging
  • 7.8 Factors influencing rheological and textural qualities in chocolate
  • 7.9 Chocolate quality and defects
  • 7.11 Conclusion and further research
  • Chapter 8: The chemistry of flavour development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Influence of bean selection on chocolate flavour quality
  • 8.3 Effect of roasting
  • 8.4 Flavour development during chocolate manufacture
  • 8.5 Key flavour compounds in milk chocolate
  • 8.6 Key flavour compounds in dark chocolate
  • 8.7 Conclusion
  • Chapter 9: Alternative sweetening and bulking solutions in chocolate manufacture
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Types of sugar substitutes and their characteristics
  • 9.3 High-potency sweeteners
  • 9.4 Bulk sweeteners
  • 9.5 Low-digestible carbohydrate polymers
  • 9.6 Laxation and low–digestible carbohydrate polymers
  • 9.7 Applicability and suitability of different sweeteners and carbohydrate polymers in chocolate processing
  • 9.8 Importance of blending different sugar substitutes
  • Chapter 10: Sensory character and flavour perception of chocolates
  • 10.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 10.2 Introduction
  • 10.3 Sensory perception of quality in chocolates
  • 10.4 Sensory assessment of chocolates
  • 10.5 Factor influencing chocolate flavour
  • 10.6 Flavour release and perception of sweetness in chocolate
  • 10.7 Dynamism of flavour perception in chocolate
  • 10.8 Retronasal flavour release and perception during chocolate consumption
  • 10.9 Measurement of flavour release and intensity in chocolates
  • 10.10 Electronic noses and tongues as online sensors for sensory assessment of chocolates
  • 10.11 Conclusion
  • Chapter 11: Nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption
  • 11.1 Summary and significance
  • 11.2 Introduction
  • 11.3 Chemistry and composition of cocoa flavonoids
  • 11.4 Chocolate types and their major nutritional constituents
  • 11.5 Antioxidant properties and their mechanism of action
  • 11.6 Effects on endothelial function, blood pressure and the cardiovascular system
  • 11.7 Effects on insulin sensitivity and carcinogenic properties
  • 11.8 Cocoa, chocolate and aphrodisiac properties
  • 11.9 Conclusion
  • Chapter 12: Processing effects on the rheological, textural and melting properties during chocolate manufacture
  • 12.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 12.2 Introduction
  • 12.3 Materials and methods
  • 12.4 Results and discussion
  • 12.5 Relationships between Casson model and ICA recommendations
  • 12.6 Textural properties
  • 12.7 Microstructural properties of molten dark chocolate
  • 12.8 Melting properties of dark chocolate
  • 12.9 Relationships between rheological, textural and melting properties of dark chocolate
  • 12.10 Conclusion
  • Chapter 13: Tempering behaviour during chocolate manufacture: Effects of varying product matrices
  • 13.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 13.2 Introduction
  • 13.3 Materials and methods
  • 13.4 Results and discussion
  • 13.5 Conclusion
  • Chapter 14: Tempering and fat crystallization effects on chocolate quality
  • 14.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 14.2 Introduction
  • 14.3 Materials and methods
  • 14.4 Results and discussion
  • 14.5 Conclusion
  • Chapter 15: Fat bloom formation and development in chocolates
  • 15.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 15.2 Introduction
  • 15.3 Materials and methods
  • 15.4 Results and discussion
  • 15.5 Conclusion
  • Chapter 16: Matrix effects on flavour volatiles character and release in chocolates
  • 16.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 16.2 Introduction
  • 16.3 Materials and methods
  • 16.4 Results and discussion
  • 16.5 Conclusion
  • Chapter 17: Process optimization and product quality characteristics during sugar-free chocolate manufacture
  • 17.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 17.2 Introduction
  • 17.3 Materials and methods
  • 17.4 Results and discussion
  • 17.5 Optimization of chocolate formulation
  • 17.6 Conclusion
  • Chapter 18: Food safety management systems in chocolate processing
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 The HACCP system
  • 18.3 ISO 22000 approach
  • 18.4 Hazards associated with chocolate processing
  • 18.5 Critical operations in cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture
  • 18.6 Conclusion
  • Chapter 19: Application of ISO 22000 and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in chocolate processing
  • 19.1 Summary and industrial relevance
  • 19.2 Introduction
  • 19.3 Hazards associated with chocolate processing
  • 19.4 Preprocessing operations
  • 19.5 Cocoa processing into semi-finished products
  • 19.6 Milk chocolate manufacturing operations
  • 19.7 Hazard analysis
  • 19.8 Conclusion
  • Chapter 20: Conclusions and industrial applications
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Conclusions: Structure–properties relationships in chocolate manufacture
  • 20.3 Conclusions: Tempering behaviour from response surface methodology
  • 20.4 Conclusions: Effects of tempering and fat crystallization on microstructure and physical properties
  • 20.5 Conclusions: Fat bloom formation and development with under-tempering
  • 20.6 Conclusions: Flavour volatiles and matrix effects related to variations in PSD and fat content
  • 20.7 Conclusions: Process optimization and product quality characteristics of sugar-free chocolates
  • 20.8 Industrial relevance and applications of research findings in this book
  • 20.9 Recommendations for further research studies
  • References
  • Abbreviations
  • Acronyms and websites of organizations related to the cocoa and chocolate industry
  • Glossary of cocoa and chocolate terminologies