Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation

Editor/Author Tubbs, Shane R., Shoja, Mohammadali M. and Loukas, Marios
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

Single-User Purchase Price: $400.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $600.00
ISBN: 978-1-118-43035-4
Category: Health & Medicine - Medicine
Image Count: 1201
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation is the third installment of the classic human anatomical reference launched by Dr. Ronald Bergman. With both new and updated entries, and now illustrated in full color, the encyclopedia provides an even more comprehensive reference on human variation for anatomists, anthropologists, physicians, surgeons, medical personnel, and all students of anatomy.

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Table of Contents

  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Foreword
  • Foreword
  • 1 Skull
  • Frontal bone
  • Occipital bone
  • Parietal bone
  • Sphenoid bone
  • Temporal bone
  • Ethmoid bone
  • Lacrimal bone
  • Vomer
  • Inferior nasal concha
  • Maxilla
  • Palatine bone
  • Zygomatic bone
  • Mandible
  • Nasal bone
  • Teeth
  • Middle ear bones
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 2 Hyoid bone
  • References
  • 3 Cervical vertebrae
  • Embryology
  • Atlas
  • Axis
  • Uncinate process
  • Transverse foramen
  • Spinous processes
  • Klippel–Feil syndrome
  • Cervical ribs
  • References
  • 4 Thoracic vertebrae
  • Embryology
  • Vertebral bodies
  • Pedicles
  • Facets
  • Transverse processes
  • Laminae and spinous processes
  • References
  • 5 Lumbar vertebrae
  • Embryology
  • Anatomic variations
  • References
  • 6 Sacrococcygeal vertebrae
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 7 Scapula
  • Body of the scapula
  • Scapular articulations with ribs
  • Curvature of the scapular body
  • Tubercle of Luschka
  • Lateral border of scapula
  • Medial border of scapula
  • Superior border of scapula
  • Scapular notch
  • Coracoid process
  • Shape of the glenoid fossa
  • Shape of acromion
  • Os acromiale
  • References
  • 8 Clavicle
  • Introduction
  • Statistical shape analysis
  • Principal component analysis
  • Geometric variation
  • Anatomic variation
  • Discussion and conclusions
  • Summary
  • References
  • 9 Humerus
  • Retroversion of the humeral head
  • Intertubercular sulcus/bicipital groove
  • Supracondylar process and the ligament of Struthers
  • Supratrochlear foramen
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 10 Radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
  • Radius
  • Ulna
  • Variations of the hand
  • Thumb
  • Accessory ossicles of the wrist and hand
  • Coalitions of the carpal bones
  • Specific variations in carpal bone
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 11 Ribs and sternum
  • Ribs
  • Sternum
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 12 Pelvic bones
  • Sexual dimorphism of the os coxa
  • Individual variations within the os coxa
  • Malformations of the os coxae
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 13 Bones of the lower limb
  • Imaging considerations and normal variations
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Knee
  • Tibia and fibula
  • Foot
  • Foot anomalies
  • Limb deficiencies
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 14 Temporomandibular joint
  • Introduction
  • Variations in each component
  • Congenital anomalies
  • References
  • 15 Shoulder joint
  • Humeral head and glenoid fossa positions
  • Labrum
  • Capsule
  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Rotator cuff muscles
  • Bursae and recesses
  • Sternoclavicular
  • Acromioclavicular
  • Coracoclavicular joint
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 16 Elbow joint
  • Distal humerus
  • Proximal radius
  • Proximal ulna
  • Capsule and ligaments
  • References
  • 17 Wrist and hand joints
  • Anatomical variants within the hand
  • The thumb
  • Anatomical variants of the carpus
  • Bone-specific variations
  • Anatomical variants of the hand and wrist ligaments and cartilaginous structures
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 18 Sacroiliac joints
  • Articulation characteristics
  • Shape of the SIJ
  • Width and uniformity of the SIJ space
  • Position of the sacral auricular surface, morphology, and orientation
  • Auricular cartilage thickness and micro-anatomy
  • Innervation of the SIJ
  • SIJ structure and mobility through fetal period and aging
  • Racial and gender differences and pregnancy- and mobility-related variations
  • References
  • 19 Hip joint
  • Acetabulum
  • Labrum
  • Femur
  • Muscles
  • References
  • 20 Knee joint
  • Femoral intercondylar notch, condylar orientation, and tibial eminence
  • Genu varum, genu valgum, and recurvatum
  • Patella
  • Capsule
  • Bursae and Plicae
  • Fat pad
  • Menisci
  • Retinaculum
  • Ligaments
  • Musculotendinous variations
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 21 Ankle and foot joints
  • Bones
  • Ligaments
  • Bursae
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 22 Orbital muscles
  • Rectus muscles of the orbit
  • Obliquus superior (superior oblique)
  • Obliquus inferior (inferior oblique)
  • Levator palpebrae superioris
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 23 Middle ear muscles
  • Variations of the tensor tympani muscle
  • Variations of the stapedius muscle
  • References
  • 24 Facial muscles and muscles of mastication
  • Facial muscles of the mouth
  • Facial muscles around the nose
  • Facial muscles around the eyes
  • Extrinsic muscles of the ear
  • Muscles of the scalp
  • Platysma muscle
  • Muscles of mastication and other inconsistent muscles in the infratemporal fossa
  • References
  • 25 Anterior neck muscles
  • Mylohyoid
  • Digastric
  • Stylohyoid
  • Platysma
  • Infrahyoid muscles in general
  • Levator glandulae thyroidea
  • Sternocleidomastoid
  • Cleidocervical or levator claviculae
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 26 Pharyngeal muscles
  • Superior constrictor
  • Middle constrictor
  • Inferior constrictor
  • Stylopharyngeus
  • Salpingopharyngeus
  • Palatopharyngeus
  • References
  • 27 Soft palate and tongue muscles
  • Soft palate
  • Tongue
  • Other variants of the tongue
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 28 Prevertebral and craniocervical junction muscles
  • Scalenus anterior (anterior scalene)
  • Scalenus medius (middle scalene)
  • Scalenus posterior (posterior scalene)
  • Scalenus minimus
  • Longus colli
  • Longus capitis
  • Rectus capitis anterior
  • Rectus capitis lateralis
  • References
  • 29 Laryngeal muscles
  • Cricothyroid muscle
  • Posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
  • Lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
  • Arytenoid muscle
  • Thyroarytenoid muscle
  • Supernumerary fascicles
  • References
  • 30 Back muscles
  • Trapezius
  • Latissimus dorsi
  • Levator scapulae
  • Rhomboid major and rhomboid minor
  • Serratus anterior
  • Serratus posterior superior and inferior and supracostalis
  • Splenius capitis and cervicis muscles
  • Erector spinae
  • Transversospinalis
  • Suboccipital muscles
  • Occipitalis minor (of Santorini)
  • Intertransversarii
  • Interspinales
  • Levatores costarum brevis and longus
  • Quadratus lumborum
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 31 Scapulohumeral muscles
  • Subscapularis
  • Infraspinatus
  • Supraspinatus
  • Teres minor
  • Teres major
  • Deltoid
  • References
  • 32 Arm muscles
  • Coracobrachialis
  • Biceps brachii
  • Brachialis
  • Triceps brachii
  • Anconeus
  • References
  • 33 Forearm muscles
  • Pronator teres
  • Flexor carpi radialis
  • Palmaris longus
  • Flexor carpi ulnaris
  • Flexor digitorum superficialis
  • Flexor digitorum profundus
  • Flexor pollicis longus
  • Pronator Quadratus
  • Brachioradialis
  • Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis
  • Supinator
  • Extensor digitorum communis
  • Extensor digiti minimi (proprius) (manus)
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris
  • Abductor pollicis longus
  • Extensor pollicis brevis
  • Extensor pollicis longus
  • Extensor indicis
  • References
  • 34 Hand intrinsic muscles
  • Thenar muscles
  • Hypothenar muscles
  • Lumbricals
  • Dorsal interossei
  • Palmar interossei
  • Clinical implications
  • References
  • 35 Thoracic wall muscles
  • Pectoralis major
  • Pectoralis minor
  • Poland's syndrome
  • Pectoralis minimus
  • Pectoralis intermedius
  • Chondroepitrochlearis
  • Costocoracoideus (chondrocoracoideus)
  • Infraclavicularis
  • Interclavicularis anticus digastricus
  • Supraclavicularis proprius (tensor fascia colli)
  • Sternoclavicularis
  • Sternohumeralis
  • Diaphragm
  • Sternalis
  • References
  • 36 Abdominal wall muscles
  • Anterior abdominal muscles
  • Lateral abdominal muscles
  • Posterior abdominal muscles
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 37 Pelvic diaphragm and external anal sphincter
  • Levator ani muscle
  • Coccygeus (also known as ischiococcygeus)
  • External anal sphincter
  • References
  • 38 Perineal muscles
  • Superficial transverse perineus
  • Deep transverse perineus
  • Bulbospongiosus
  • Ischiopubicus
  • Ischiocavernosus
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 39 Gluteal muscles and lateral rotators of the hip
  • Gluteus maximus
  • Gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus
  • Piriformis
  • Obturator internus
  • Gemelli
  • Quadratus femoris
  • References
  • 40 Thigh muscles
  • Anterior compartment
  • Medial compartment
  • Posterior compartment
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 41 Leg muscles
  • Anterior compartment
  • Lateral compartment
  • Posterior compartment: superficial muscles
  • Posterior compartment: deep muscles
  • References
  • 42 Intrinsic muscles of the foot
  • Muscles of the dorsal aspect of foot
  • Muscles of the plantar aspect of foot
  • References
  • 43 Internal carotid artery and the anterior cerebral circulation
  • Internal carotid artery
  • Circle of Willis
  • Anterior cerebral artery
  • Middle cerebral artery
  • References
  • 44 Vertebrobasilar arteries
  • Vertebral and basilar arteries
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 45 Persistent fetal intracranial arteries
  • Trigeminal artery
  • Stapedial artery
  • Hypoglossal artery
  • Primitive ophthalmic arteries
  • Proatlantal intersegmental artery
  • Otic artery
  • Persistent primitive olfactory artery
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 46 Common carotid and cervical part of the internal carotid arteries
  • Common carotid artery
  • Cervical internal carotid artery
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 47 External carotid artery
  • Superior thyroid artery
  • Facial artery
  • Lingual artery
  • Superficial temporal artery
  • Maxillary artery
  • Ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Occipital and posterior auricular arteries
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 48 Vertebral artery
  • Origin
  • Transverse segment
  • Suboccipital segment
  • Intradural segment
  • Size, hypolasia, atresia
  • Anastomoses
  • Branches
  • References
  • 49 Thoracic aorta
  • Embryology
  • Aortic valve
  • Coronary arteries
  • Hypoplasia of the ascending aorta
  • Aortic arch branching variations
  • References
  • 50 Coronary arteries
  • Anomalies of origin and course
  • Anomalies of intrinsic coronary arterial anatomy
  • Anomalies of coronary termination
  • Anomalous anastomotic vessels
  • Multiple concomitant coronary arterial anomalies (and atypical anomalies)
  • Coronary anomalies in congenital heart disease
  • Coronary typology and dominance
  • Extracardiac circulation
  • List of abbreviations
  • References
  • 51 Pulmonary arteries
  • Main pulmonary artery
  • Lobar branch of pulmonary artery
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 52 Subclavian artery
  • Trunk formation of the subclavian artery
  • Internal thoracic artery
  • Inferior thyroid artery
  • Suprascapular artery
  • Transverse cervical artery
  • Costocervical trunk
  • Other
  • References
  • 53 Upper limb arteries
  • Axillary artery
  • Brachial artery
  • Radial artery
  • Ulnar artery
  • Arteries of the hand
  • References
  • 54 Abdominal aorta
  • Abdominal aorta
  • Celiac trunk
  • Superior mesenteric artery
  • Inferior mesenteric artery
  • Inferior phrenic artery
  • Middle suprarenal arteries
  • Renal artery
  • Gonadal arteries
  • Lumbar arteries
  • Median sacral artery
  • Common iliac artery
  • References
  • 55 Renal arteries
  • Historical background
  • Normal anatomy of the renal arteries
  • Single-origin renal artery from abdominal aorta
  • Multiple origin or termination of the renal arteries
  • References
  • 56 Internal iliac arteries
  • Aorto-iliac arterial system
  • Branching pattern of the internal iliac artery
  • Branches of the internal iliac arterial system
  • References
  • 57 Lower limb arteries
  • Embryonic development of the lower extremity vascular enlage
  • Proximal branches
  • Deep branches
  • Knee vascular variants
  • Foot and ankle vascular variants
  • References
  • 58 Arteries of the spinal cord
  • Arterial supply to the cervicothoracic segment
  • Arterial supply to the midthoracic segment
  • Arterial supply of the thoracolumbar segment
  • Arterial anastomoses of the spinal cord
  • Summary of variations of the arteries to the spinal cord
  • References
  • 59 Diploic veins
  • Introduction
  • MR imaging
  • References
  • 60 Dural venous sinuses
  • Superior sagittal sinus
  • Inferior sagittal sinus
  • Confluences of sinuses (torcular Herophili)
  • Transverse sinus
  • Sigmoid sinus
  • Straight sinus (sinus rectus)
  • Superior petrosal sinus
  • Middle petrosal sinus
  • Inferior petrosal sinus
  • Tentorial sinuses
  • Falcine venous plexus/sinus
  • Occipital sinus
  • Termination of the superior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital sinuses
  • Marginal sinus
  • Cavernous sinus
  • Sphenoparietal sinus
  • Ophthalmo-petrous/-petrosal sinus of Hyrtl
  • Basilar venous plexus
  • Petrosquamous sinus
  • Accessory sinus of Kelch
  • Accessory sinus of Verga
  • Petro-occipital sinus/vein
  • Anterior and posterior intercavernous sinuses/circular sinus
  • Inferior intercavernous sinus
  • Laterocavernous sinus
  • Other variations
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 61 Cerebral veins
  • Veins of the deep venous system
  • Veins of superficial venous system
  • References
  • 62 Emissary veins
  • Posterior condylar emissary vein
  • Mastoid emissary vein
  • Occipital emissary vein
  • Parietal emissary vein
  • Petrosquamosal sinus
  • Ophthalmic veins
  • Sphenoidal emissary vein (Vesalius)
  • Emissary veins of the foramen ovale
  • Internal carotid venous plexus
  • Emissary vein of the foramen cecum
  • Emissary veins of the foramen lacerum
  • Emissary veins of the clivus
  • Anterior condylar vein
  • Temporal emissary vein
  • Superficial petrosal emissary vein
  • References
  • 63 Veins of the neck
  • Common facial vein
  • Anterior jugular vein
  • External jugular vein
  • Communicating vein
  • Internal jugular vein
  • Inferior thyroid vein
  • Superior thyroid vein
  • Middle thyroid vein
  • Fourth thyroid vein
  • Posterior thyroid vein
  • Vertebral veins
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 64 Veins of the upper limb
  • Deep veins
  • Superficial veins
  • Anastomosis
  • References
  • 65 Intrathoracic veins
  • Azygos venous system
  • Internal thoracic vein
  • Superior intercostal vein
  • Supreme intercostal vein
  • Brachiocephalic veins and superior vena cava
  • Pulmonary veins
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 66 Cardiac veins
  • The coronary sinus and its tributaries
  • Anterior cardiac or right cardiac venous system
  • Venous drainage of particular regions of the heart
  • Venous anastomotic circulation
  • Valves of the cardiac veins
  • Coronary sinus variations and anomalies
  • Final remarks
  • List of abbreviations
  • References
  • 67 Pulmonary veins
  • References
  • 68 Inferior vena cava, portal and hepatic venous systems
  • Inferior vena cava
  • Portal and hepatic veins
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 69 Adrenal, renal, gonadal, azygos, hemiazygos, lumbar, and ascending lumbar veins
  • Adrenal veins
  • Renal veins
  • Lumbar veins
  • Ascending lumbar veins
  • Gonadal veins
  • Azygos veins
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 70 Iliac veins
  • Introduction
  • Common iliac vein
  • Duplication
  • Agenesis
  • High junction
  • Variations due to drainage patterns of the internal iliac veins
  • Other rare variations
  • Internal iliac vein
  • External iliac vein
  • References
  • 71 Veins of the lower limb
  • Developmental venous anomalies
  • Superficial veins of the lower limb
  • Deep veins of the lower limb
  • Perforating veins/perforators
  • References
  • 72 Venous drainage of the spinal cord
  • Intrinsic system
  • Extrinsic system
  • Extradural system
  • References
  • 73 Thymus
  • Thymic anatomical variations
  • Ectopic thymus
  • Accessory thymic tissue
  • Cystic accessory thymic tissue
  • 73.6 Other variations
  • References
  • 74 Tonsils
  • Palatine tonsil
  • Pharyngeal tonsil
  • Tubal tonsil
  • References
  • 75 Thoracic duct, cisterna chyli, and right lymphatic duct
  • Cisterna chyli
  • Thoracic duct
  • Right lymphatic duct
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 76 Lymphatics of the lower limb
  • Lymph nodes
  • Lymph vessels
  • Anatomical variations of the lymphatic system
  • Lymph drainage territories in the lower extremities
  • Anatomical changes to the lymphatics in lymphedematous lower extremities
  • References
  • 77 Forebrain
  • Cavum velum interpositum
  • Cavum septum pellucidum
  • Cavum vergae
  • Ectopic brain tissue
  • Sylvian fissure
  • Other Sulci/Fissures
  • References
  • 78 Cerebral ventricles
  • Lateral ventricles
  • Foramen of Monro
  • Third ventricle
  • Aqueduct of Sylvius
  • Fourth ventricle
  • Foramen of Magendie
  • Foramen of Luschka
  • References
  • 79 Pons, medulla oblongata and cerebellum
  • Embryology
  • Pons
  • Medulla
  • Cerebellum
  • References
  • 80 Subarachnoid space
  • Subarachnoid space size
  • Subarachnoid cisterns
  • Arachnoid trabeculae
  • Arachnoid membranes
  • Arachnoid membranes over the pineal region
  • Other arachnoid membranes
  • Subarachnoid space within the Fallopian canal
  • References
  • 81 Meninges
  • Dura mater
  • Dural folds
  • Dural sac (DS)
  • Arachnoid mater
  • Pia mater
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 82 Spinal cord and associated structures
  • Overview of the spinal cord
  • Meninges
  • Dentate ligaments
  • The correlation of spinal cord segments with bony anatomy
  • Lengths of L1 through coccygeal cord segments
  • Diameter of L1–S1 cord segments
  • Changing orientation of spinal cord segments relative to the vertebral levels during development
  • The volume of the spinal cord
  • Variation of the caudal end of the spinal cord and the diameter of the filum
  • Other
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 83 Cranial nerves N-VI
  • Nerve N: terminal nerve
  • Olfactory nerve (CN I)
  • Optic nerve (CN II)
  • Oculomotor nerve (CN III)
  • Trochlear nerve (CN IV)
  • Ophthalmic nerve, the trigeminal nerve roots, the trigeminal ganglion, and the ciliary ganglion (V1)
  • Maxillary nerve (V2)
  • Mandibular nerve (V3)
  • Abducent nerve (CN VI)
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 84 Facial nerve
  • Intermediate nerve of Wrisberg
  • Cisternal segment
  • Canalicular segment
  • Facial nerve sensory ganglia
  • Endotemporal variations of the facial nerve
  • Labyrinthine segment
  • Geniculate segment
  • Tympanic and mastoid segments
  • Variations in the branches of the main facial nerve trunk
  • References
  • 85 Vestibulocochlear nerve
  • References
  • 86 Glossopharyngeal nerve
  • Origin from the brain stem
  • Intracranial course
  • Tympanic branch
  • Carotid branch
  • Pharyngeal branches
  • Muscular branches
  • Lingual division and its branches
  • Anastomotic branches
  • References
  • 87 Vagus, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves
  • Vagus to glossopharyngeal nerve anastomoses
  • Vagovagal anastomoses
  • Vagus to accessory nerve anastomoses
  • Vagus to hypoglossal nerve anastomoses
  • Vagus to cervical nerve anastomoses and vagocervical complex
  • Hypoglossal nerve and its anastomoses
  • Accessory nerve to cervical nerve anastomoses
  • Autonomic anastomoses to lower cranial nerves
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 88 Autonomic nervous system
  • Sympathetic trunk
  • Sympathetic ganglia
  • Superior cervical ganglion
  • Inferior cervical ganglion
  • Stellate ganglion
  • Middle cervical ganglion
  • Thoracic sympathetic ganglia
  • Lumbar sympathetic ganglia
  • Sacrococcygeal sympathetic ganglia
  • Ansa subclavia
  • Rami communicans
  • Superior cardiac nerve
  • Cardiac plexus
  • Splanchnic nerves
  • Celiac ganglion
  • External carotid plexus
  • Parasympathetic ganglia
  • Ciliary ganglion
  • Otic ganglion
  • Pterygopalatine ganglion
  • Submandibular ganglion
  • Other
  • Pelvic splanchnic nerves
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 89 Spinal nerves
  • C1 dorsal root, ganglion, and ramus
  • Connections between dorsal rootlets
  • Greater occipital nerve
  • Lesser occipital nerve
  • Communications between cervical dorsal rami
  • Thoracic, lumbar, sacrococcygeal roots, and nerves
  • Cluneal nerves
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 90 Cervical plexus
  • Ansa cervicalis
  • Great auricular nerve
  • Lesser occipital nerve
  • Phrenic nerve
  • Transverse cervical nerve
  • Supraclavicular nerves
  • Cervical rami communicantes
  • Cervical plexus connections to accessory nerve
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 91 Nerves of the upper extremity
  • Overview
  • Typical brachial plexus
  • Nerves arising from the supraclavicular brachial plexus
  • Nerves arising from the lateral cord of the brachial plexus
  • Nerves arising from the medial cord of the brachial plexus
  • Nerves arising from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 92 Lumbosacral plexus
  • Lumbar plexus
  • Sacral plexus
  • Pudendal plexus
  • Coccygeal plexus
  • References
  • 93 Facial asymmetry
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 94 Eyelids, eyelashes, and eyebrows
  • Abnormal distance between the eyes: telecanthus
  • Major eyelid malformations
  • Palpebral fissures and folds
  • Abnormal position of eyelid
  • Eyelashes and eyebrows
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 95 Eye and lacrimal apparatus
  • Globe protrusion
  • Refractive error
  • Cornea
  • Conjunctiva
  • Anterior chamber
  • Canal of Schlemm and the ocular drainage apparatus
  • Iris
  • Lens and pupil
  • Sclera
  • Lacrimal apparatus
  • Atypical lacrimal glands
  • Canaliculus
  • Nasolacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, and canal
  • Ectopic lacrimal tissue
  • References
  • 96 Lateral nasal wall and paranasal sinuses
  • Variations of the nasal turbinates
  • Variations of the maxillary sinus
  • Variations of ethmoidal air cells
  • Variations of the uncinate process
  • Frontal and sphenoid sinuses pneumatization
  • References
  • 97 Ear
  • Variations of the external ear
  • Variations of the auditory meatus
  • Variations of the internal auditory canal
  • Variations of the facial nerve
  • Vascular variations
  • Variations of the round and oval windows
  • Variations of the Eustachian tube
  • Variations of the inner ear
  • Variations of the vestibular and cochlear aqueduct
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 98 Salivary glands and ducts
  • Parotid glands
  • Parotid ducts
  • Submandibular glands
  • Submandibular ducts
  • Sublingual glands and ducts
  • Heterotopic and minor salivary glands
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 99 Thyroid gland
  • Anatomy
  • Embryology
  • Variations of the thyroid gland
  • Arterial variations of the thyroid gland
  • References
  • 100 Parathyroid glands
  • Anatomy
  • Embryology
  • References
  • 101 Laryngeal cartilages
  • Major cartilages
  • Supernumerary cartilages
  • Ossification of the laryngeal cartilages
  • References
  • 102 Trachea
  • Absence of the trachea
  • Congenital tracheal stenosis
  • Tracheal diverticulum
  • Tracheal bronchus
  • References
  • 103 Lungs
  • Horizontal (minor) and oblique (major) fissures
  • Supernumerary fissures
  • Agenesis, aplasia, and hypoplasia of the lung
  • Horseshoe lung
  • Pulmonary sequestration
  • Anatomical variations of the bronchial pattern
  • References
  • 104 Heart
  • Pericardium
  • Heart dimensions (weight, length, position)
  • Situs inversus/situs ambiguous/bifid apex
  • Atrial appendages (left and right)
  • Foramen/fossa ovalis
  • Pectinate muscle (tenia sagitalis/crista terminalis)
  • Tendon of Todaro
  • Eustachian valve
  • Thebesian valve
  • Papillary muscles and chorda tendinae
  • Papillary muscle complex
  • Moderator band
  • Tricuspid valve
  • Mitral valve
  • Pulmonary valve
  • Aortic valve
  • Tendon of the infundibulum
  • False tendons
  • Sinu-atrial node
  • Atrioventricular node
  • Sinutubular junction
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 105 Esophagus
  • Pleuroesophageal muscle
  • Bronchoesophageal muscle
  • Esophageal diverticulum
  • Esophageal duplication cyst
  • Esophageal atresia
  • Failure of separation of the trachea and esophagus
  • Congenital esophageal stenosis
  • References
  • 106 Stomach
  • Microgastria
  • Atresia of the stomach
  • Hourglass stomach
  • Congenital (or infantile) hypertrophic pyloric stenosis
  • Duplication of the stomach
  • Diverticula
  • Congenital muscular defect
  • Heterotopic pancreatic mucosa
  • Double or triple pyloric antrum or pylorus
  • References
  • 107 Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts
  • Development of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts
  • Gallbladder
  • Cystic duct
  • Hepatic ducts
  • Common bile duct
  • Pancreaticobiliary junction
  • Cystic artery
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 108 Liver
  • Accessory hepatic grooves
  • Agenesis or hypoplasia of the right lobe of the liver
  • Agenesis or hypoplasia of the left lobe of the liver
  • Accessory lobes of the liver
  • References
  • Further reading
  • 109 Pancreas
  • Agenesis or hypogenesis of the pancreas
  • Annular pancreas
  • Portal annular pancreas
  • Heterotopic pancreas
  • Bifid tail of the pancreas
  • Pancreatic ducts
  • References
  • 110 Spleen
  • Splenic lobulations and clefts (notches)
  • Accessory spleen
  • Wandering spleen
  • Congenital absence of the spleen (asplenia, splenic agenesis)
  • Polysplenia
  • References
  • 111 Small intestines, appendix, and colon
  • Midgut rotation
  • Duodenum
  • Suspensory ligament of the duodenum
  • Ileum and jejunum
  • Vermiform appendix
  • Ileocecal valve
  • Cecum
  • Colon
  • References
  • 112 Sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus
  • Normal anatomy
  • Anatomic variations
  • Implications
  • References
  • 113 Kidney, urinary bladder, and ureter
  • Ectopia or variations in of ascent-pelvic ectopia
  • Horseshoe kidney
  • Intrathoracic kidney
  • Ectopic kidneys other than Horseshoe Kidney
  • Abnormalities of rotation
  • Nephroptosis
  • Floating kidney
  • Primary megaureter
  • Supernumerary kidney
  • Solitary functioning kidney (SFK)
  • Urinary bladder and ureters
  • References
  • 114 Adrenal gland
  • Absence of adrenal glands
  • Fused adrenal glands
  • Ectopic adrenal gland
  • Malposition of the adrenal glands
  • References
  • 115 Male genitourinary system
  • Penis
  • Scrotum
  • Testes
  • Vas deferens
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Prostate
  • Bulbourethral glands
  • References
  • 116 Female genital system
  • Ovary
  • Uterine tubes
  • Uterus
  • Vagina
  • Hymen
  • Clitoris
  • Labia majora
  • Labia minora
  • Bulbs of vestibule and greater vestibular glands
  • References
  • 117 Placenta and umbilical cord
  • Placenta
  • Umbilical cord
  • References
  • 118 Breast
  • Development
  • Anatomy
  • Blood supply, lymphatics, innervation
  • Asymmetry
  • Supernumerary
  • Shape variation
  • Physiological changes (pregnancy, lactation, involution)
  • Gynecomastia
  • References