An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics

Editor/Author Galvin, J. F. P.
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

Single-User Purchase Price: $80.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $120.00
ISBN: 978-1-119-08622-2
Category: Science - Environmental sciences
Image Count: 190
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

What do we mean by the tropics? The weather and the climates it produces across the tropical zone are significantly different from those experienced by the people living in higher latitudes, so forecasters across Europe and much of North America are unfamiliar with its effects. In this book, Jim Galvin demystifies the topic in this zone that is increasingly of interest to those studying weather and climate.

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Table of Contents

  • About the Author
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • 1 Setting the Scene
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 What do we mean by ‘the tropics’?
  • 1.3 The geography of the tropics
  • 1.4 The tropical troposphere
  • 1.5 Climate and population in the tropics
  • 1.6 Question
  • 2 The Energy Balance and the Dynamics of Weather in the Tropics
  • 2.1 The tropical ‘heat engine’
  • 2.2 Absorption, reflection and apparent solar elevation
  • 2.3 Emission from the surface
  • 2.4 The radiation balance and the tropical zone
  • 2.5 The dynamics of weather systems in the tropics
  • 2.6 Questions
  • 3 Winds, Temperature and Weather in the Tropical Zone
  • 3.1 Winds
  • 3.2 Temperature
  • 3.3 The weather patterns and climates of the tropics
  • 3.4 Clouds and fog in the tropics
  • 3.5 Questions
  • 4 The Subtropical Jet Streams
  • 4.1 The formation of jet streams at the margins of the tropics
  • 4.2 Weather associated with the subtropical jet stream
  • 4.3 Folds and bifurcations in the flow
  • 4.4 Clear-air turbulence
  • 4.5 Questions
  • 5 Synoptic-scale Weather Systems
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Convection in the tropics
  • 5.3 The inter-tropical convergence zone
  • 5.4 The depth of convective clouds
  • 5.5 Layer clouds and shallow convection
  • 5.6 The effects of heavy rainfall in the tropics
  • 5.7 Atmospheric teleconnections
  • 5.8 Questions
  • 6 Climate, Flora and Fauna
  • 6.1 The relationship of climate to plants and animals
  • 6.2 Tropical rainforest
  • 6.3 Seasonal tropical forest
  • 6.4 The savannas
  • 6.5 Tropical deserts and scrublands
  • 6.6 Mountain climates
  • 6.7 Tropical oceans and coasts
  • 6.8 Climatic variability
  • 6.9 Questions
  • 7 Dry Environments
  • 7.1 Background
  • 7.2 Wind and weather in the deserts
  • 7.3 Fog and low cloud
  • 7.4 Severe weather in the dry tropics
  • 7.5 The effects of desert weather
  • 7.6 Settlement and the over-use of scarce water supplies
  • 7.7 Questions
  • 8 Monsoons
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 The summer monsoon over southern Asia
  • 8.3 The summer monsoon over East Asia
  • 8.4 Variations of rainfall in the Asian summer monsoon
  • 8.5 The Asian winter monsoon
  • 8.6 The West African summer monsoon
  • 8.7 The West African winter monsoon
  • 8.8 Rainfall and the monsoons in East Africa
  • 8.9 The South American–Caribbean ‘monsoons’
  • 8.10 The Australian summer monsoon
  • 8.11 Variable broad-scale factors affecting the monsoons
  • 8.12 Questions
  • 9 Tropical Revolving Storms
  • 9.1 Broad-scale convection and the development of tropical storms
  • 9.2 Tropical storm development and decline
  • 9.3 The effects of tropical revolving storms
  • 9.4 Storm tracks in the Pacific Ocean
  • 9.5 The formation and tracks of hurricanes in the North Atlantic–Caribbean
  • 9.6 Tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean
  • 9.7 Tropical revolving storms in the south-west Pacific
  • 9.8 Variability in the development of tropical storms
  • 9.9 Extra-tropical transition
  • 9.10 Conclusion
  • 9.11 Questions
  • 10 Mesoscale Weather Systems
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Mesoscale convective complexes
  • 10.3 Sea- and land-breeze convergence zones
  • 10.4 Easterly waves and squall lines
  • 10.5 Mesoscale convective systems in northern India
  • 10.6 Depressions in north-west India, north Pakistan and Afghanistan
  • 10.7 Cross-equatorial flows
  • 10.8 Mesoscale convective systems in the Gulf of Guinea
  • 10.9 Local convection
  • 10.10 Extra-tropical interaction with moist tropical air masses
  • 10.11 Conclusion
  • 10.12 Questions
  • 11 Forecasting Clouds and Weather
  • 11.1 Background
  • 11.2 Distribution of significant cloud
  • 11.3 The effect of high ground as an elevated heat source
  • 11.4 Tropical upper-tropospheric troughs
  • 11.5 Effects of severe convection on aviation
  • 11.6 Questions
  • 12 The Variability of Weather and Climate Change in the Tropics
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 El Niño–La Niña
  • 12.3 The Madden–Julian Oscillation
  • 12.4 The quasi-biennial oscillation
  • 12.5 A discussion of anthropogenic climate change
  • 12.6 How is climate likely to change in the tropical zone?
  • 12.7 Modelling climate change
  • 12.8 Conclusion
  • 12.9 Questions
  • 13 Tropical Agriculture
  • 13.1 Agricultural productivity and tropical environments
  • 13.2 Agriculture in the humid tropics and the effects of forest clearance
  • 13.3 Agriculture in the savannas
  • 13.4 Dry-land agriculture
  • 13.5 Weather and locust swarms
  • 13.6 The effects of agriculture in the tropics
  • 13.7 Agriculture and climate change
  • 13.8 Question
  • 14 The Importance of the Tropical Ozone Layer
  • 14.1 Background
  • 14.2 The role of the tropics in replenishing extra-tropical stratospheric ozone
  • 14.3 The effect of ‘global warming’ on stratospheric ozone destruction in the tropics
  • 14.4 The effects of exposure to short-wave radiation
  • 14.5 Current state of the stratospheric ozone layer
  • 14.6 Question
  • 15 Remote Sensing of Tropical Weather
  • 15.1 Background
  • 15.2 Satellite remote sensing
  • 15.3 Precipitation
  • 15.4 Wind profilers
  • 15.5 Thunderstorm observation
  • 15.6 Monitoring surface cover, fires and volcanic eruptions
  • 15.7 Question
  • 16 Tropical Weather and Health
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 The effects of tropical sunshine and warmth
  • 16.3 Lifted dust and its effects on health
  • 16.4 Industrial and smoke pollution
  • 16.5 Parasitic and infectious diseases
  • 16.6 Response of the meteorological community
  • 16.7 Questions
  • 17 Conclusions and a Look to the Future
  • 17.1 A summary
  • 17.2 Forecasting the weather
  • 17.3 Questions
  • Appendix 1 Observations from the Tropics
  • Appendix 2 Named Winds of the Tropics
  • Appendix 3 An Introduction to Cloud Types, Cloud Species and Precipitation
  • A3.1 Introduction
  • A3.2 The high clouds
  • A3.3 The medium-level clouds
  • A3.4 The low clouds
  • A3.5 Cloud species and varieties
  • Appendix 4 An Introduction to Meteorological Diagrams, Stability, Instability and Aviation Weather Charts
  • A4.1 Temperature–pressure graphs
  • A4.2 Stability and instability
  • A4.3 Aviation-significant weather charts
  • Appendix 5 Snow in the Desert: A Case Study
  • A5.1 Introduction
  • A5.2 Development of a depression over the desert
  • A5.3 The weather features associated with the upper low
  • A5.4 Summary
  • Appendix 6 A Climatic Summary for Tropical Countries and States
  • Appendix 7 Two Easterly Waves in West Africa in Summer 2009: A Case Study
  • A7.1 Introduction
  • A7.2 The wave of 28 August to 5 September 2009
  • A7.3 The wave of 2–11 September 2009 and the development of Hurricane Fred
  • A7.4 A model for the development of squall lines in the Sahel
  • A7.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Glossary