Therapeutic Exercise Foundations and Techniques

Editor/Author Kisner, Carolyn
Publication Year: 2018
Publisher: F.A.Davis Company

Single-User Purchase Price: $93.95
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: Not Available
ISBN: 978-0-8036-5850-9
Category: Health & Medicine - Rehabilitation & Therapy
Image Count: 840
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Here is all the guidance you need to customize interventions for individuals with movement dysfunction. You'll find the perfect balance of theory and clinical technique--in-depth discussions of the principles of therapeutic exercise and manual therapy and the most up-to-date exercise and management guidelines.

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Table of Contents

    • Dedication
    • Preface to the Seventh Edition
    • Acknowledgments
    • About the Authors
    • Contributors
    • Part I: General Concepts
    • Chapter 1: Therapeutic Exercise: Foundational Concepts - Vicky N. Humphrey, PT, MS Lynn Allen Colby, PT, MS
    • Therapeutic Exercise: Impact on Physical Function
    • Definition of Therapeutic Exercise
    • Components of Physical Function Related to Movement: Definition of Key Terms
    • Types of Therapeutic Exercise Interventions
    • Exercise Safety
    • Classification of Health Status, Functioning, and Disability— Evolution of Models and Related Terminology
    • Background and Rationale for Classification Systems
    • Models of Functioning and Disability— Past and Present
    • Components of the ICF and Applications in Physical Therapy
    • Principles of Comprehensive Patient Management
    • Clinical Decision-Making
    • Coordination, Communication, and Documentation
    • Evidence-Based Practice
    • A Patient Management Model
    • Strategies for Effective Exercise and Task-Specific Instruction
    • Health Literacy
    • Preparation for Exercise Instruction
    • Concepts of Motor Learning: A Foundation for Exercise and Task-Specific Instruction
    • Adherence to Exercise
    • Chapter 2: Prevention, Health, and Wellness - Susan A. Appling, PT, DPT, PhD, OCS, MTC Karen Holtgrefe, PT, DHS, OCS
    • Key Terms and Concepts
    • Chronic Disease, Prevention, and Health Care
    • Chronic Conditions Related to Behaviors
    • Health-Care Costs Due to Risky Behaviors
    • Investment in Prevention
    • Wellness
    • Healthy People 2020
    • Role of Physical Therapists in Health Promotion and Wellness
    • Facilitating Transformation
    • Identifying Risk Factors
    • Determining Readiness to Change
    • Physical Activity Guidelines
    • Physical Activity Recommendations
    • Considerations for People With Disabilities
    • Health Disparities and Risks
    • Achieving Health Equity for Those With Disabilities
    • Mindfulness: Implications for Health and Wellness
    • Mindfulness Defined
    • Mindfulness Meditation
    • Mindful Breathing
    • Mindful Eating
    • Developing and Implementing a Program
    • Case Example: Exercise and Osteoporosis
    • Additional Considerations for Developing Prevention, Health, and Wellness Programs
    • Part II: Applied Science of Exercise and Techniques
    • Chapter 3: Range of Motion - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS
    • Types of ROM Exercises
    • Indications, Goals, and Limitations of ROM
    • Passive ROM
    • Active and Active-Assistive ROM
    • Precautions and Contraindications to ROM Exercises
    • Principles and Procedures for Applying ROM Techniques
    • Examination, Evaluation, and Treatment Planning
    • Patient Preparation
    • Application of Techniques
    • Application of PROM
    • Application of AROM
    • ROM Techniques
    • Upper Extremity
    • Lower Extremity
    • Cervical Spine
    • Lumbar Spine
    • Self-Assisted ROM
    • Manual Assistance
    • Wand (T-Bar) Exercises
    • Wall Climbing
    • Overhead Pulleys
    • Skate Board/Powder Board
    • Reciprocal Exercise Unit
    • Continuous Passive Motion
    • Benefits of CPM
    • General Guidelines for CPM
    • ROM Through Functional Patterns
    • Chapter 4: Stretching for Improved Mobility - Lynn Colby, PT, MS John Borstad, PT, PhD Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS
    • Definition of Terms Associated With Mobility and Stretching
    • Flexibility
    • Hypomobility
    • Contracture
    • Selective Stretching
    • Overstretching and Hypermobility
    • Overview of Interventions to Increase Mobility of Soft Tissues
    • Indications, Contraindications, and Potential Outcomes of Stretching Exercises
    • Indications and Contraindications for Stretching
    • Potential Benefits and Outcomes of Stretching
    • Properties of Soft Tissue: Response to Immobilization and Stretch
    • Mechanical Properties of Noncontractile Soft Tissue
    • Mechanical and Physiological Properties of Muscle Tissue
    • Neurophysiological Properties of Skeletal Muscle
    • Determinants and Types of Stretching Exercises
    • Alignment and Stabilization
    • Intensity of Stretch
    • Duration of Stretch
    • Speed of Stretch
    • Frequency of Stretch
    • Mode of Stretch
    • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Techniques
    • Integration of Function Into Stretching
    • Procedural Guidelines for Application of Stretching Interventions
    • Examination and Evaluation of the Patient
    • Preparation for Stretching
    • Application of Manual Stretching Procedures
    • After Stretching
    • Precautions for Stretching
    • General Precautions
    • Special Precautions for Mass-Market Flexibility Programs
    • Adjuncts to Stretching Interventions
    • Complementary Approaches
    • Heat
    • Cold
    • Massage
    • Biofeedback
    • Joint Traction or Oscillation
    • Manual Stretching Techniques in Anatomical Planes of Motion
    • Upper Extremity Stretching
    • Lower Extremity Stretching
    • Neck and Trunk
    • Self-Stretching Techniques
    • Chapter 5: Peripheral Joint Mobilization/Manipulation - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS
    • Definitions of Terms
    • Mobilization/Manipulation
    • Self-Mobilization (Auto-Mobilization)
    • Mobilization With Movement
    • Physiological Movements
    • Accessory Movements
    • Resting Position
    • Manipulation Under Anesthesia
    • Muscle Energy
    • Basic Concepts of Joint Motion: Arthrokinematics
    • Joint Shapes
    • Types of Motion
    • Passive-Angular Stretching Versus Joint-Glide Stretching
    • Other Accessory Motions That Affect the Joint
    • Effects of Joint Motion
    • Indications and Limitations for Use of Joint Mobilization/Manipulation
    • Pain, Muscle Guarding, and Spasm
    • Reversible Joint Hypomobility
    • Positional Faults/Subluxations
    • Progressive Limitation
    • Functional Immobility
    • Limitations of Joint Mobilization/Manipulation Techniques
    • Contraindications and Precautions
    • Hypermobility
    • Joint Effusion
    • Inflammation
    • Conditions Requiring Special Precautions for Stretching
    • Procedures for Applying Passive Joint Techniques
    • Examination and Evaluation
    • Documentation
    • Grades or Dosages of Movement for Non-Thrust and Thrust Techniques
    • Positioning and Stabilization
    • Direction and Target of Treatment Force
    • Initiation and Progression of Treatment
    • Patient Response
    • Total Program
    • Mobilization With Movement: Principles of Application
    • Principles and Application of MWM in Clinical Practice
    • Patient Response and Progression
    • Theoretical Framework
    • Shoulder Girdle Complex
    • Glenohumeral Joint
    • Acromioclavicular Joint
    • Sternoclavicular Joint
    • Scapulothoracic Soft-Tissue Mobilization
    • Elbow and Forearm Complex
    • Humeroulnar Articulation
    • Humeroradial Articulation
    • Proximal Radioulnar Joint
    • Distal Radioulnar Joint
    • Wrist and Hand Complex
    • Radiocarpal Joint
    • Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints of Digits II to V
    • Carpometacarpal Joint of the Thumb
    • Metacarpophalangeal and Interphalangeal Joints of the Fingers
    • Hip Joint
    • Knee Joint Complex
    • Tibiofemoral Articulations
    • Patellofemoral Joint
    • Leg and Ankle Joints
    • Tibiofibular Joints
    • Talocrural Joint (Upper Ankle Joint)
    • Subtalar Joint (Talocalcaneal), Posterior Compartment
    • Intertarsal and Tarsometatarsal Joints
    • Intermetatarsal, Metatarsophalangeal, and Interphalangeal Joints
    • Chapter 6: Resistance Exercise for Impaired Muscle Performance - Lynn Colby, PT, MS John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Muscle Performance and Resistance Exercise: Definitions and Guiding Principles
    • Strength, Power, and Endurance
    • Overload Principle
    • Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands (SAID) Principle
    • Reversibility Principle
    • Skeletal Muscle Function and Adaptation to Resistance Exercise
    • Factors That Influence Tension Generation in Normal Skeletal Muscle
    • Physiological Adaptations to Resistance Exercise
    • Determinants of Resistance Exercise
    • Alignment and Stabilization
    • Exercise Intensity
    • Exercise Volume
    • Exercise Order
    • Exercise Frequency
    • Exercise Duration
    • Rest Interval (Recovery Period)
    • Mode of Exercise
    • Velocity of Exercise
    • Periodization and Variation of Training
    • Integration of Function
    • Types of Resistance Exercise
    • Manual and Mechanical Resistance Exercise
    • Isometric Exercise (Static Exercise)
    • Dynamic Exercise: Concentric and Eccentric
    • Dynamic Exercise: Constant and Variable Resistance
    • Isokinetic Exercise
    • Open Kinetic Chain and Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise
    • General Principles of Resistance Training
    • Examination and Evaluation
    • Preparation for Resistance Exercises
    • Implementation of Resistance Exercises
    • Precautions for Resistance Exercise
    • Valsalva Maneuver
    • Substitute Motions
    • Overtraining and Overwork
    • Exercise-Induced Muscle Soreness
    • Pathological Fracture
    • Contraindications to Resistance Exercise
    • Pain
    • Inflammation
    • Severe Cardiopulmonary Disease
    • Manual Resistance Exercise
    • Definition and Use
    • Guidelines and Special Considerations
    • Techniques: General Background
    • Upper Extremity
    • Lower Extremity
    • Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation: Principles and Techniques
    • Diagonal Patterns
    • Basic Procedures With PNF Patterns
    • Upper Extremity Diagonal Patterns
    • Lower Extremity Diagonal Patterns
    • Specific Techniques With PNF
    • Mechanical Resistance Exercise
    • Application in Rehabilitation Programs
    • Application in Fitness and Conditioning Programs
    • Special Considerations for Children and Adolescents
    • Specific Resistance Training Regimens
    • Progressive Resistance Exercise
    • Circuit Weight Training
    • Isokinetic Regimens
    • Equipment for Resistance Training
    • Free Weights and Simple Weight-Pulley Systems
    • Variable Resistance Units
    • Elastic Resistance Devices
    • Equipment for Dynamic Stabilization Training
    • Equipment for Closed-Chain Training
    • Reciprocal Exercise Equipment
    • Isokinetic Testing and Training Equipment
    • Chapter 7: Principles of Aerobic Exercise - Karen Holtgrefe, PT, DHSC
    • Key Terms and Concepts
    • Physical Activity
    • Exercise
    • Physical Fitness
    • Maximum Oxygen Consumption
    • Endurance
    • Aerobic Exercise Training (Cardiorespiratory Endurance)
    • Adaptation
    • Myocardial Oxygen Consumption
    • Deconditioning
    • Energy Systems, Energy Expenditure, and Efficiency
    • Energy Systems
    • Energy Expenditure
    • Efficiency
    • Physiological Response to Aerobic Exercise
    • Cardiovascular Response to Exercise
    • Respiratory Response to Exercise
    • Responses Providing Additional Oxygen to Muscle
    • Testing as a Basis for Exercise Programs
    • Fitness Testing of Healthy Subjects
    • Stress Testing for Convalescing Individuals and Individuals at Risk
    • Multistage Testing
    • Determinants of an Exercise Program
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
    • Time (Duration)
    • Type (Mode)
    • Volume
    • Progression
    • Exercise Program
    • Warm-Up Period
    • Aerobic Exercise Period
    • Cool-Down Period
    • Physiological Changes That Occur With Training
    • Cardiovascular Changes
    • Respiratory Changes
    • Metabolic Changes
    • Other System Changes
    • Application of Principles of an Aerobic Training Program for the Patient With Coronary Disease
    • Inpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation
    • Outpatient Cardiac Rehabilitation: Early Exercise Program
    • Maintenance Program
    • Special Considerations
    • Adaptive Changes
    • Applications of Aerobic Training for the Deconditioned Individual and the Patient With Chronic Illness
    • Deconditioning
    • Reversal of Deconditioning
    • Adaptations for Those With Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Impairments, Goals, and Plan of Care
    • Age Differences
    • Children
    • Young Adults
    • Older Adults
    • Chapter 8: Exercise for Impaired Balance - Anne D. Kloos, PT, PhD, NCS Deborah L. Givens, PT, PhD, DPT
    • Background and Concepts
    • Balance: Key Terms and Definitions
    • Balance Control
    • Sensory Systems and Balance Control
    • Motor Strategies for Balance Control
    • Balance Control Under Varying Conditions
    • Impaired Balance
    • Sensory Input Impairments
    • Sensorimotor Integration Impairments
    • Biomechanical and Motor Output Impairments
    • Deficits With Aging
    • Deficits From Medications
    • Management of Impaired Balance
    • Examination and Evaluation of Impaired Balance
    • Balance Training
    • Health and Environmental Factors
    • Evidence-Based Balance Exercise Programs for Fall Prevention in the Elderly
    • Evidence-Based Balance Exercise Programs for Specific Musculoskeletal Conditions
    • Chapter 9: Aquatic Exercise - Elaine L. Bukowski, PT, DPT, MS, (D)ABDA EMERITUS
    • Background and Principles for Aquatic Exercise
    • Definition of Aquatic Exercise
    • Goals and Indications for Aquatic Exercise
    • Precautions and Contraindications to Aquatic Exercise
    • Precautions
    • Contraindications
    • Properties of Water
    • Physical Properties of Water
    • Hydromechanics
    • Thermodynamics
    • Center of Buoyancy
    • Aquatic Temperature and Therapeutic Exercise
    • Temperature Regulation
    • Mobility and Functional Control Exercise
    • Aerobic Conditioning
    • Pools for Aquatic Exercise
    • Traditional Therapeutic Pools
    • Individual Patient Pools
    • Special Equipment for Aquatic Exercise
    • Collars, Rings, Belts, and Vests
    • Swim Bars
    • Gloves, Hand Paddles, and Hydro-tone® Bells
    • Fins and Hydro-tone® Boots
    • Kickboards
    • Pool Care and Safety
    • Exercise Interventions Using an Aquatic Environment
    • Stretching Exercises
    • Manual Stretching Techniques
    • Spine Stretching Techniques
    • Shoulder Stretching Techniques
    • Hip Stretching Techniques
    • Knee Stretching Techniques
    • Self-Stretching With Aquatic Equipment
    • Strengthening Exercises
    • Manual Resistance Exercises
    • Upper Extremity Manual Resistance Techniques
    • Lower Extremity Manual Resistance Techniques
    • Dynamic Trunk Stabilization
    • Independent Strengthening Exercises
    • Aerobic Conditioning
    • Treatment Interventions
    • Physiological Response to Deep-Water Walking/Running
    • Proper Form for Deep-Water Running
    • Exercise Monitoring
    • Equipment Selection
    • Part III: Principles of Intervention
    • Chapter 10: Soft Tissue Injury, Repair, and Management - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS
    • Soft Tissue Lesions
    • Examples of Soft Tissue Lesions: Musculoskeletal Disorders
    • Clinical Conditions Resulting From Trauma or Pathology
    • Severity of Tissue Injury
    • Irritability of Tissue: Stages of Inflammation and Repair
    • Management During the Acute Stage
    • Tissue Response: Inflammation
    • Management Guidelines: Maximum Protection (Phase I)
    • Management During the Subacute Stage
    • Tissue Response: Proliferation, Repair, and Healing
    • Management Guidelines: Moderate Protection/Controlled Motion (Phase II)
    • Management During the Chronic Stage
    • Tissue Response: Maturation and Remodeling
    • Management Guidelines: Minimum to No Protection/Return to Function (Phase III)
    • Cumulative Trauma: Chronic Recurring Pain
    • Tissue Response: Chronic Inflammation
    • Causes of Chronic Inflammation
    • Contributing Factors
    • Management Guidelines: Chronic Inflammation
    • Chapter 11: Joint, Connective Tissue, and Bone Disorders and Their Management - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Jacob N. Thorp, PT, DHS, OCS, MTC Karen Holtgrefe, PT, DHS, OCS
    • Arthritis: Arthrosis
    • Clinical Signs and Symptoms
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Osteoarthritis: Degenerative Joint Disease
    • Fibromyalgia and Myofascial Pain Syndrome
    • Fibromyalgia
    • Myofascial Pain Syndrome
    • Osteoporosis
    • Risk Factors
    • Prevention of Osteoporosis
    • Recommendations for Exercise
    • Precautions and Contraindications
    • Fractures and Posttraumatic Immobilization
    • Risk Factors
    • Bone Healing Following a Fracture
    • Principles of Management: Period of Immobilization
    • Postimmobilization
    • Chapter 12: Surgical Interventions and Postoperative Management - Lynn Colby, PT, MS John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Indications for Surgical Intervention
    • Guidelines for Preoperative and Postoperative Management
    • Considerations for Preoperative Management
    • Considerations for Postoperative Management
    • Potential Postoperative Complications and Risk Reduction
    • Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A Closer Look
    • Overview of Common Orthopedic Surgeries and Postoperative anagement
    • Surgical Approaches
    • Tissue Grafts
    • Repair, Reattachment, Reconstruction, Stabilization, or Transfer of Soft Tissues
    • Release, Lengthening, or Decompression of Soft Tissues
    • Joint Procedures
    • Extra-articular Bony Procedures
    • Chapter 13: Peripheral Nerve Disorders and Management - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Cindy Johnson Armstrong, PT, DPT, CHT
    • Review of the Peripheral Nervous System
    • Nerve Structure
    • Mobility Characteristics of the Nervous System
    • Common Sites of Injury to Peripheral Nerves
    • Nerve Injury and Recovery
    • Mechanisms of Nerve Injury
    • Classification of Nerve Injuries
    • Recovery From Nerve Injuries
    • Management Guidelines: Recovery From Nerve Injury
    • Neural Tension Disorders
    • Symptoms and Signs of Impaired Nerve Mobility
    • Causes of Symptoms
    • Principles of Management
    • Precautions and Contraindications to Neurodynamic Testing and Treatment
    • Neural Testing and Mobilization Techniques for the Upper Quadrant
    • Neural Testing and Mobilization Techniques for the Lower Quadrant
    • Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
    • Related Diagnoses
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Sites of Compression or Entrapment
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function in TOS
    • Common Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Nonoperative Management of TOS
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Examination
    • Common Impairments of Structure in CTS
    • Common Impairments of Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Nonoperative Management of CTS
    • Surgical and Postoperative Management for CTS
    • Ulnar Nerve Compression in the Tunnel of Guyon
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Examination
    • Common Impairments of Structure
    • Common Impairments of Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Nonoperative Management
    • Surgical Release and Postoperative Management
    • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
    • Signs and Symptoms of CRPS
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Clinical Course
    • Common Impairments of Structure in CRPS
    • Common Impairments of Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Management
    • Part IV: Exercise Interventions by Body Region
    • Chapter 14: The Spine: Structure, Function, and Posture - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Jacob N. Thorp, PT, DHS, OCS, MTC
    • Structure
    • Functional Components of the Spine
    • Motions of the Spinal Column
    • Arthrokinematics of the Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joints
    • Structure and Function of Intervertebral Discs and Cartilaginous End-Plates
    • Intervertebral Foramina
    • Biomechanical Influences on Postural Alignment
    • Curves of the Spine
    • Gravity
    • Stability
    • Postural Stability in the Spine
    • Inert Structures: Influence on Stability
    • Muscles: Influence on Stability
    • Neurological Control: Influence on Stability
    • Effects of Limb Function on Spinal Stability
    • Effects of Breathing on Posture and Stability
    • Effects of Intra-abdominal Pressure and the Valsalva Maneuver on Stability
    • Etiology of Pain
    • Effect of Mechanical Stress
    • Effect of Impaired Postural Support From Trunk Muscles
    • Effect of Impaired Muscle Endurance
    • Pain Syndromes Related to Impaired Posture
    • Common Faulty Postures: Characteristics and Impairments
    • Pelvic and Lumbar Region
    • Cervical and Thoracic Region
    • Frontal Plane Deviations: Scoliosis and Lower Extremity Asymmetries
    • General Management Guidelines
    • Awareness and Control of Spinal Posture
    • Posture, Movement, and Functional Relationships
    • Joint, Muscle, and Connective Tissue Mobility Impairments
    • Impaired Muscle Performance
    • Body Mechanics
    • Ergonomics: Relief and Prevention
    • Stress Management/Relaxation
    • Healthy Exercise Habits
    • Chapter 15: The Spine: Management Guidelines - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Jacob N. Thorp, PT, DHS, OCS, MTC
    • Pathology of the Intervertebral Disc
    • Injury and Degeneration of the Disc
    • Disc Pathologies and Related Conditions
    • Signs and Symptoms of Disc Lesions and Fluid Stasis
    • Pathomechanical Relationships of the Intervertebral Disc and Facet Joints
    • Disc Degeneration
    • Related Pathologies
    • Pathology of the Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joints
    • Common Diagnoses and Impairments From Facet Joint Pathologies
    • Pathology of the Vertebrae
    • Compression Fracture Secondary to Osteoporosis
    • Scheuermann's Disease
    • Pathology of Muscle and Soft Tissue Injuries: Strains, Tears, and Contusions
    • General Symptoms From Trauma
    • Common Sites of Lumbar Strain
    • Common Sites of Cervical Strain
    • Postural Strain
    • Emotional Stress
    • Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Pathomechanics of Spinal Instability
    • Neutral Zone
    • Instability
    • Principles of Management for the Spine
    • Examination and Evaluation
    • General Guidelines for Managing Acute Spinal Impairments: Maximum Protection Phase
    • General Guidelines for Managing Subacute Spinal Impairments: Controlled Motion Phase
    • General Guidelines for Managing Chronic Spinal Impairments: Return to Function Phase
    • Management Guidelines: Nonweight-Bearing Bias
    • Management of Acute Symptoms
    • Progression
    • Management Guidelines: Extension Bias
    • Principles of Management
    • Indications, Precautions, and Contraindications for Interventions: Extension Approach
    • Interventions Using an Extension Approach in the Lumbar Spine
    • Interventions to Manage a Disc Lesion in the Cervical Spine
    • Disc Lesions: Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Indications for Surgery
    • Common Surgeries
    • Procedures
    • Postoperative Management
    • Management Guidelines: Flexion Bias
    • Principles of Management
    • Indications and Contraindications for Intervention: Flexion Approach
    • Techniques Utilizing a Flexion Approach
    • Management Guidelines: Stabilization
    • Identification of Clinical Instability
    • Principles of Management
    • Management Guidelines: Mobilization/Manipulation
    • Management: Lumbar Spine
    • Management: Cervical Spine
    • Management Guidelines: Soft Tissue Injuries
    • Management During the Acute Stage: Protection Phase
    • Management in the Subacute and Chronic Stages of Healing: Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Lower Thoracic and Lumbopelvic Region
    • Compression Fracture Secondary to Osteoporosis
    • Spondylolisthesis
    • Ankylosing Spondylitis
    • Scheuermann's Disease
    • Rib Subluxation
    • Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
    • Cervical and Upper Thoracic Region
    • Tension Headache/Cervical Headache
    • Neck Pain
    • Cervical Radiculopathy
    • Cervical Myelopathy
    • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction
    • Structure and Function
    • Signs and Symptoms
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Principles of Management and Interventions
    • Chapter 16: The Spine: Exercise and Manipulation Interventions - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Jacob N. Thorp, PT, DHS, OCS, MTC
    • Basic Concepts of Spinal Management With Exercise
    • Fundamental Interventions
    • Patient Education
    • General Exercise Guidelines
    • Kinesthetic Awareness
    • Mobility/Flexibility
    • Muscle Performance
    • Cardiopulmonary Endurance
    • Functional Activities
    • Kinesthetic Awareness
    • Elements of Functional Training: Fundamental Techniques
    • Position of Symptom Relief
    • Effects of Movement on the Spine
    • Blending of Kinesthetic Training, Stabilization Exercises, and Fundamental Body Mechanics
    • Progression to Active and Habitual Control of Posture
    • Mobility/Flexibility
    • Cervical and Upper Thoracic Region: Stretching Techniques
    • Techniques to Increase Thoracic Extension
    • Techniques to Increase Cervical Retraction (Axial Extension): Scalene Muscle Stretch
    • Techniques to Increase Upper Cervical Flexion: Suboccipital Muscle Stretch
    • Traction as a Stretching Technique
    • Cervical Joint Manipulation Techniques
    • Manipulation to Increase Cervical Flexion
    • Manipulation to Increase Cervical Extension
    • Manipulation to Increase Cervical Rotation
    • Manipulation to Increase Cervical Rotation and Side Bending
    • Manipulation to Increase Cervical Rotation and Side Bending: Alternate Technique
    • Muscle Energy Techniques to Increase Craniocervical Mobility
    • Techniques to Increase Craniocervical Flexion
    • Techniques to Increase Craniocervical Rotation
    • Mid and Lower Thoracic and Lumbar Regions: Stretching Techniques
    • Techniques to Increase Lumbar Flexion
    • Techniques to Increase Lumbar Extension
    • Techniques to Increase Lateral Flexibility of the Spine
    • Traction as a Stretching Technique
    • Thoracic and Lumbar Joint Manipulation and HVT Techniques
    • Manipulation Technique to Increase Thoracic Spine Extension
    • Manipulation Technique to Increase Thoracic Spine Flexion
    • Manipulation to Increase Thoracic Spine Rotation
    • Pistol Thrust to Increase Thoracic Spine Mobility
    • Cross-Arm Thrust to Increase Thoracic Spine Mobility
    • Fall Thrust to Increase Thoracic Spine Mobility
    • Rib Manipulation for Expiratory Restriction
    • Rib Manipulation for Inspiratory Restriction
    • Elevated First Rib Manipulation
    • Manipulation Techniques to Increase Lumbar Spine Extension
    • Manipulation to Increase Lumbar Spine Rotation
    • Manipulation to Increase Lumbar Intervertebral Side Bending
    • HVT Lumbar Roll to Increase Lumbar Rotation
    • SI Joint Manipulation Technique to Increase Sacral Nutation (Flexion)
    • SI Joint Manipulation Technique to Increase Sacral Counternutation (Extension)
    • Posterior Rotation Manipulation to Innominate
    • Muscle Performance
    • Stabilization Training: Fundamental Techniques and Progressions
    • Guidelines for Stabilization Training
    • Deep Segmental Muscle Activation and Training
    • Global Muscle Stabilization Exercises
    • Isometric and Dynamic Exercises
    • Exercises for the Cervical Region
    • Exercises for the Thoracic and Lumbar Regions
    • Cardiopulmonary Endurance
    • Common Aerobic Exercises and Effects on the Spine
    • Cycling
    • Walking and Running
    • Stair Climbing
    • Cross-Country Skiing and Ski Machines
    • Swimming
    • Upper Body Ergometers
    • Step Aerobics and Aerobic Dancing
    • Cross Fit
    • “Latest Popular Craze”
    • Functional Activities
    • Early Functional Training: Fundamental Techniques
    • Preparation for Functional Activities: Basic Exercise Techniques
    • Weight-Bearing Exercises
    • Transitional Stabilization Exercises
    • Body Mechanics and Environmental Adaptations
    • Principles of Body Mechanics: Instruction and Training
    • Environmental Adaptations
    • Intermediate to Advanced Exercise Techniques for Functional Training
    • Repetitive Lifting
    • Repetitive Reaching
    • Repetitive Pushing and Pulling
    • Rotation or Turning
    • Transitional Movements
    • Transfer of Training
    • Patient Education for Prevention
    • Chapter 17: The Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Lynn Colby, PT, MS John D. Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Joints of the Shoulder Complex
    • Synovial Joints
    • Functional Articulations
    • Scapular Stability
    • Shoulder Girdle Function
    • Scapulohumeral Rhythm
    • Clavicular Elevation and Rotation With Humeral Motion
    • External Rotation of the Humerus With Elevation
    • Deltoid–Short Rotator Cuff and Supraspinatus Mechanisms
    • Referred Pain and Nerve Injury
    • Common Sources of Referred Pain in the Shoulder Region
    • Nerve Disorders in the Shoulder Girdle Region
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Glenohumeral Joint
    • Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Joints
    • Glenohumeral Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Glenohumeral Arthroplasty
    • Painful Shoulder Syndromes (Rotator Cuff Disease and Impingement Syndromes): Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function
    • Common Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Management: Painful Shoulder Syndromes
    • Painful Shoulder Syndromes: Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Subacromial Decompression and Postoperative Management
    • Rotator Cuff Repair and Postoperative Management
    • Shoulder Instabilities: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Mechanisms of Injury
    • Closed Reduction of Anterior Dislocation
    • Closed Reduction of Posterior Dislocation
    • Shoulder Instabilities: Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Glenohumeral Joint Stabilization Procedures and Postoperative Management
    • Acromioclavicular and Sternoclavicular Joint Stabilization Procedures and Postoperative Management
    • Exercise Techniques During Acute and Early Subacute Stages of Tissue Healing
    • Early Motion of the Glenohumeral Joint
    • Early Motion of the Scapula
    • Early Neuromuscular Control
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • Self-Stretching Techniques to Increase Shoulder ROM
    • Manual and Self-Stretching Exercises for Specific Muscles
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance and Functional Control
    • Isometric Exercises
    • Stabilization Exercises
    • Dynamic Strengthening Exercises: Scapular Muscles
    • Dynamic Strengthening Exercises: Glenohumeral Muscles
    • Functional Progression for the Shoulder Complex
    • Chapter 18: The Elbow and Forearm Complex - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Lynn Colby, PT, MS Cindy Johnson Armstrong, PT, DPT, CHT
    • Joints of the Elbow and Forearm
    • Elbow Joint Characteristics and Arthrokinematics
    • Forearm Joint Characteristics and Arthrokinematics
    • Muscle Function at the Elbow and Forearm
    • Primary Actions at the Elbow and Forearm
    • Relationship of Wrist and Hand Muscles to the Elbow
    • Referred Pain and Nerve Injury in the Elbow Region
    • Common Sources of Referred Pain Into the Elbow Region
    • Nerve Disorders in the Elbow Region
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function
    • Common Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Protection Phase
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Controlled Motion Phase
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Return to Function Phase
    • Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Radial Head Excision or Arthroplasty
    • Total Elbow Arthroplasty
    • Myositis Ossificans
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Management
    • Overuse Syndromes: Repetitive Trauma Syndromes
    • Related Pathologies
    • Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function
    • Common Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Nonoperative Management of Overuse Syndromes: Protection Phase
    • Nonoperative Management: Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • Manual, Mechanical, and Self-Stretching Techniques
    • Self-Stretching Techniques: Muscles of the Medial and Lateral Epicondyles
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance and Functional Control
    • Isometric Exercises
    • Dynamic Strengthening and Endurance Exercises
    • Functional Progression for the Elbow and Forearm
    • Chapter 19: The Wrist and Hand - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Lynn Colby, PT, MS Cindy Johnson Armstrong, PT, DPT, CHT
    • Joints of the Wrist and Hand
    • Wrist Joint: Characteristics and Arthrokinematics
    • Hand Joints: Characteristics and Arthrokinematics
    • Hand Function
    • Muscles of the Wrist and Hand
    • Grips and Prehension Patterns
    • Major Nerves Subject to Pressure and Trauma at the Wrist and Hand
    • Nerve Disorders in the Wrist
    • Referred Pain and Sensory Patterns
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Common Joint Pathologies and Associated Impairments
    • Common Impairments of Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Protection Phase
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Wrist Arthroplasty
    • Metacarpophalangeal Implant Arthroplasty
    • Proximal Interphalangeal Implant Arthroplasty
    • Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty of the Thumb
    • Tendon Rupture Associated With RA: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Repetitive Trauma Syndromes/ Overuse Syndromes
    • Tendinopathy
    • Traumatic Lesions of the Wrist and Hand
    • Simple Sprain: Nonoperative Management
    • Lacerated Flexor Tendons of the Hand: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Lacerated Extensor Tendons of the Hand: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Techniques for Musculotendinous Mobility
    • Tendon-Gliding and Tendon-Blocking Exercises
    • Scar Tissue Mobilization for Tendon Adhesions
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • General Stretching Techniques
    • Stretching Techniques of the Intrinsic and Multijoint Muscles
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance, Neuromuscular Control, and Coordinated Movement
    • Techniques to Strengthen Muscles of the Wrist and Hand
    • Dexterity and Functional Activities
    • Chapter 20: The Hip - Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Lynn Colby, PT, MS John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Anatomical Characteristics of the Hip Region
    • Bony Structures
    • Hip Joint Characteristics and Arthrokinematics
    • Influence of the Hip Joint on Balance and Posture Control
    • Functional Relationships in the Hip Region
    • Motions of the Femur and Muscle Function
    • Motions of the Pelvis and Muscle Function
    • Hip, Knee, and Ankle Functional Relationships in Weight Bearing
    • Pathomechanics in the Hip Region
    • The Hip and Gait
    • Hip Muscle Function and Gait
    • Effect of Musculoskeletal Impairments on Gait
    • Referred Pain and Nerve Injury
    • Major Nerves Subject to Injury or Entrapment
    • Common Sources of Referred Pain in the Hip and Buttock Region
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function
    • Common Activity Limitations and Participation Restrictions
    • Management: Protection Phase
    • Management: Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Arthroscopic Procedures for the Hip
    • Total Hip Arthroplasty
    • Hemiarthroplasty of the Hip
    • Hip Fractures: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Hip Fracture: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Impact on Function
    • Sites and Types of Hip Fracture
    • Nonoperative Management
    • Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Hip Fracture
    • Painful Hip Syndromes: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function
    • Management: Protection Phase
    • Management: Controlled Motion Phase
    • Management: Return to Function Phase
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • Techniques to Stretch Range-Limiting Hip Structures
    • Techniques to Stretch Range-Limiting, Two-Joint Muscles
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance and Functional Control
    • Open-Chain (Nonweight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Closed-Chain (Weight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Functional Progression for the Hip
    • Chapter 21: The Knee - Lynn Colby, PT, MS Carolyn Kisner, PT, M John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Joints of the Knee Complex
    • Tibiofemoral Joint
    • Patellofemoral Joint
    • Patellar Function
    • Patellar Alignment
    • Patellar Compression
    • Muscle Function
    • Knee Extensor Muscle Function
    • Knee Flexor Muscle Function
    • Dynamic Stability of the Knee
    • The Knee and Gait
    • Muscle Control of the Knee During Gait
    • Hip and Ankle Impairments
    • Referred Pain and Nerve Injuries
    • Major Nerves Subject to Injury at the Knee
    • Common Sources of Referred Pain
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Common Joint Pathologies and Associated Impairments
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Protection Phase
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Repair of Articular Cartilage Defects
    • Total Knee Arthroplasty
    • Patellofemoral Dysfunction: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Patellofemoral Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments
    • Patellofemoral Symptoms: Management—Protection Phase
    • Patellofemoral Symptoms: Management—Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Patellar Instability: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Overview of Surgical Options
    • Proximal Extensor Mechanism Realignment: Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Repair or Reconstruction and Related Procedures
    • Distal Realignment Procedures: Patellar Tendon With Tibial Tubercle Transfer and Related Procedures
    • Ligament Injuries: Nonoperative Management
    • Mechanisms of Injury
    • Ligament Injuries in the Female Athlete
    • Common Impairments, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Conservative Management of the Ligament Injuries
    • Ligament Injuries: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Background
    • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    • Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
    • Meniscus Tears: Nonoperative Management
    • Mechanisms of Injury
    • Common Impairments and Activity Limitations
    • Management
    • Meniscus Tears: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Meniscus Repair
    • Partial Meniscectomy
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • To Increase Knee Extension
    • To Increase Knee Flexion
    • To Increase Mobility of the IT Band at the Knee
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance and Functional Control
    • Open-Chain (Nonweight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Closed-Chain (Weight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Functional Progression for the Knee
    • Chapter 22: The Ankle and Foot - Lynn Colby, PT, MS Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS Jonathan Rose, PT, MS, SCS, ATC John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Structural Relationships and Motions
    • Anatomical Characteristics
    • Motions of the Foot and Ankle Defined
    • Joint Characteristics and Arthrokinematics: Leg, Ankle, and Foot
    • Function of the Ankle and Foot
    • Structural Relationships
    • Muscle Function in the Ankle and Foot
    • The Ankle/Foot Complex and Gait
    • Function of the Ankle and Foot Joints During Gait
    • Muscle Control of the Ankle and Foot During Gait
    • Referred Pain and Nerve Injury
    • Major Nerves Subject to Pressure and Trauma
    • Common Sources of Segmental Sensory Reference in the Foot
    • Joint Hypomobility: Nonoperative Management
    • Common Joint Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Protection Phase
    • Joint Hypomobility: Management— Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Joint Surgery and Postoperative Management
    • Total Ankle Arthroplasty
    • Arthrodesis of the Ankle and Foot
    • Leg, Heel, and Foot Pain: Nonoperative Management
    • Related Pathologies and Etiology of Symptoms
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Leg, Heel, Foot Pain: Management— Protection Phase
    • Leg, Heel, Foot Pain: Management— Controlled Motion and Return to Function Phases
    • Ligamentous Injuries: Nonoperative Management
    • Common Impairments of Structure and Function, Activity Limitations, and Participation Restrictions
    • Ankle Sprain: Management— Protection Phase
    • Ankle Sprain: Management— Controlled Motion Phase
    • Ankle Sprain: Management— Return to Function Phase
    • Traumatic Soft Tissue Injuries: Surgical and Postoperative Management
    • Repair of Complete Lateral Ankle Ligament Tears
    • Repair of a Ruptured Achilles Tendon
    • Exercise Techniques to Increase Flexibility and Range of Motion
    • Flexibility Exercises for the Ankle Region
    • Flexibility Exercises for Limited Mobility of the Toes
    • Stretching the Plantar Fascia of the Foot
    • Exercises to Develop and Improve Muscle Performance and Functional Control
    • Exercises to Develop Dynamic Neuromuscular Control
    • Open-Chain (Nonweight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Closed-Chain (Weight-Bearing) Exercises
    • Functional Progression for the Ankle and Foot
    • Chapter 23: Advanced Functional Training - Lynn Colby, PT, MS Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS John Borstad, PT, PhD
    • Exercises for Stability and Balance
    • Guidelines Revisited
    • Advanced Stabilization and Balance Exercises
    • Exercises for Strength and Power
    • Advanced Strengthening Exercises
    • Plyometric Training: Stretch-Shortening Drills
    • Part V: Special Areas of Therapeutic Exercise
    • Chapter 24: Exercise for the Older Adult - Barbara Billek-Sawhney, PT, EDD, DPT, GCS Rajiv Sawhney, PT, DPT, MS, OCS
    • Definitions and Descriptions Applied to Older Adults
    • Definitions: Quantitative and Qualitative
    • Healthy People 2020
    • Complexity of Diagnoses in the Older Population
    • Health Trends in the Aging Population
    • Wellness Aging Model Related to Illness, Injury, and Immobility
    • Aging: Primary and Secondary
    • Effects of Aging or Senescence on the Body Systems
    • Effects of Decreased Activity
    • Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise
    • The Choosing Wisely Initiative
    • Justification for Exercise and Physical Activity
    • Considerations Prior to Implementation of Exercise
    • Examination of the Aging Adult: Highlights
    • Exercise Prescription for the Older Adult
    • Multidimensional Program
    • Aerobic Exercise for the Older Adult
    • Flexibility Exercises for the Older Adult
    • Balance Training for the Older Adult
    • Resistance Exercise for the Older Adult
    • Functional Training for the Older Adult
    • Common Disorders in Older Adults and Exercise Recommendations
    • Falls in Older Adults
    • Osteoporosis
    • Sarcopenia/Frailty
    • Osteoarthritis
    • Obesity
    • Cancer
    • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • Urinary Incontinence
    • Summary
    • Chapter 25: Women's Health: Obstetrics and Pelvic Floor - Barbara Settles Huge, PT Carolyn Kisner, PT, MS
    • Characteristics of Pregnancy and Labor
    • Pregnancy
    • Labor
    • Anatomical and Physiological Changes of Pregnancy
    • Weight Gain During Pregnancy
    • Changes in Organ Systems
    • Changes in Posture and Balance
    • Overview of Pelvic Floor Anatomy, Function, and Dysfunction
    • Pelvic Floor Musculature
    • Effect of Childbirth on the Pelvic Floor
    • Classification of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction
    • Risk Factors for Dysfunction in the Female Population
    • Considerations for Treatment of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in the Male Population
    • Interventions for Pelvic Floor Impairments
    • Pregnancy-Induced Pathology
    • Diastasis Recti
    • Posture-Related Back Pain
    • Sacroiliac/Pelvic Girdle Pain
    • Varicose Veins
    • Joint Laxity
    • Nerve Compression Syndromes
    • Exercises for the Pelvic Floor
    • Pelvic Floor Awareness and Training
    • Related Exercises for Pelvic Floor Stabilization
    • Aerobic Exercise During Pregnancy
    • Maternal Response to Aerobic Exercise
    • Fetal Response to Maternal Aerobic Exercise
    • Recommendations for Aerobic Training
    • Exercise for the Uncomplicated Pregnancy and Postpartum
    • Guidelines for Managing the Pregnant Woman
    • Precautions and Contraindications to Exercise during Pregnancy
    • Critical Areas of Emphasis and Selected Exercise Techniques
    • Relaxation and Breathing Exercises for Use During Labor
    • Unsafe Postures and Exercises During Pregnancy
    • Exercise Critical to the Postpartum Period
    • Cesarean Childbirth
    • Significance to Physical Therapists
    • Suggested Activities for the Patient Following a Cesarean Section
    • High-Risk Pregnancy
    • High-Risk Conditions
    • Management Guidelines and Precautions for High-Risk Pregnancies
    • Chapter 26: Management of Lymphatic Disorders - Karen L. Hock, PT, MS, CLT-LANA Lynn Allen Colby, PT, MS
    • Disorders of the Lymphatic System
    • Structure and Function of the Lymphatic System
    • Types of Lymphedema
    • Clinical Manifestations of Lymphatic Disorders
    • Examination and Evaluation of Lymphatic Function
    • Lymphedema Risk Reduction
    • Management of Lymphedema
    • Breast Cancer–Related Lymphatic Dysfunction
    • Background
    • Surgical Procedures
    • Radiation Therapy
    • Impairments and Complications Related to Breast Cancer Treatment
    • Guidelines for Management Following Breast Cancer Surgery
    • Exercises for the Management of Lymphedema
    • Background and Rationale
    • Components of Exercise Regimens for Management of Lymphedema
    • Guidelines for Lymphatic Drainage Exercises
    • Selected Exercises for Lymphatic Drainage: Upper and Lower Extremity Sequences