Racism in the United States

Editor/Author Miller, Joshua and Garran, Ann Marie
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

Single-User Purchase Price: $80.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $120.00
ISBN: 978-0-82-614884-1
Category: Social Sciences - Ethnic Studies
Image Count: 8
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This comprehensive text thoroughly reviews the theories and history of racism, the sociology of and the psychology of racism, intergroup relations and intergroup conflict, and how racism is manifested institutionally, between groups, and between people, providing a unique view of the connections between these multiple perspectives.

Share this

This book is found in the following Credo Collections:

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Acknowledgments
    • Introduction: Racism in the United States: Implications for the Helping Professions
    • 1 Background: Social Identity and Situating Ourselves
    • SOCIAL IDENTITY
    • SITUATING OURSELVES
    • POWER, PRIVILEGE, AND SOCIAL IDENTITY
    • COMFORT ZONES, LEARNING EDGES, TRIGGERS, AND CREATING A CONTEXT FOR LEARNING
    • Setting Group Norms and Guidelines
    • Journal Writing
    • Creating a “Safe” Environment?
    • CONCLUSION
    • 2 What Is Racism?
    • HOW RACE AND RACISM HAVE BEEN CONCEPTUALIZED
    • Historical Underpinnings
    • The Western Concept of Race
    • THEORIES ABOUT RACISM
    • Ethnicity Theories
    • Race Relations Theories
    • Psychological Theories
    • Structural Theories of Racism
    • Critical Race Theory
    • THE CONTOURS OF RACISM
    • Levels of Racism
    • Direct and Indirect Racism
    • Intentional and Unintentional Racism
    • Sites of Racism
    • Frequency and Magnitude of Racism
    • THE SPECTRUM OF RACISM
    • Intrapersonal
    • Interpersonal
    • Intergroup
    • Institutional
    • Official and State
    • Extreme, State Sanctioned
    • CONCLUSION
    • 3 A Brief History of Racism in the United States and Implications for the Helping Professions
    • THE RACIAL CONTRACT
    • Native Americans
    • African Americans
    • Latinos/Hispanics
    • Asian Americans
    • Factors Common to Anti-Immigrant Racism
    • WHITE ETHNIC GROUPS
    • Push and Pull Factors
    • Discrimination Against White Ethnic Groups
    • Ethnicity and Race
    • Liminality
    • RACISM AND THE HELPING PROFESSIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • Progressive Era
    • The New Deal
    • The Civil Rights Movement and the Great Society
    • CONCLUSION
    • 4 The Web of Institutional Racism
    • THE NATURE OF THE WEB OF RACISM
    • RESIDENTIAL RACISM: NEIGHBORHOODS AND HOUSING
    • EDUCATIONAL RACISM: PUBLIC, PRIVATE, AND HIGHER EDUCATION
    • EMPLOYMENT RACISM
    • RACISM AND WEALTH ACCUMULATION AND UPWARD MOBILITY
    • ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH RACISM
    • MENTAL HEALTH RACISM
    • Access
    • Services Offered
    • Who Provides Services
    • The Structure of Services
    • Theoretical Biases
    • Racism in Clinical Encounters
    • Culturally Insensitive Facilities
    • Lack of Representation on Policy-Making Boards
    • Lack of Access to Private Practitioners
    • RACISM IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
    • POLITICAL RACISM
    • MEDIA RACISM
    • IMMIGRATION RACISM
    • Islamophobia
    • IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEB OF RACISM FOR THE HELPING PROFESSIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • 5 Why Is It So Difficult for People With Privilege to See Racism?
    • CONSCIOUSNESS
    • INVISIBLE KNAPSACKS OF PRIVILEGE
    • SOCIALIZATION INTO WHITE PRIVILEGE
    • THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY
    • THE DISCOURSE OF DENIGRATION AND THE CREATION OF OTHER
    • Renounced Targets
    • Triangulation
    • STEREOTYPES AND WHAT CAN BE DONE ABOUT THEM
    • Sources of Resistance
    • Consequences of Unexamined Stereotypes
    • Confronting Stereotypes
    • CONCLUSION
    • 6 Social Identity Formation and Group Membership
    • IDENTITY
    • RACIAL AND ETHNIC IDENTITY THEORY
    • Multiracial/Biracial Identity Development
    • SOCIAL IDENTITY FACTORS
    • MULTIDIMENSIONAL SOCIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
    • ASSUMPTIONS
    • AXES OF SOCIAL IDENTITY
    • Dimensions
    • Life Span Context
    • Environmental Context
    • Resolutions/Stances
    • SOCIAL IDENTITY: LEVELS OF AWARENESS, PERFORMANCE, AND TASKS
    • Identities That Are at the Socially Targeted End of the Spectrum
    • Identities That Are at the Socially Privileged End of the Spectrum
    • IDENTITY AND INTERGROUP RELATIONS
    • What Can Prevent or Alleviate Intergroup Conflict?
    • IMPLICATIONS FOR THE HELPING PROFESSIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • 7 Intersectionality: Racism and Other Forms of Social Oppression
    • COMMON ASPECTS OF SOCIAL OPPRESSION
    • Tilly's Model of Categorical Inequalities
    • Bell and Griffin's Features of Social Oppression
    • RACISM AND CLASS OPPRESSION
    • Race and Class Visibility
    • Race, Class, and Politics
    • Interaction of Race and Class Today
    • RACISM AND SEXISM
    • Social Consequences of Racism and Sexism
    • Social Roles and Social Identity
    • RACISM AND HETEROSEXISM
    • Heterosexism
    • The Interaction of Racism and Heterosexism
    • IMMIGRATION AND RACISM
    • Dynamics of Immigration
    • Significant Legislation
    • Immigration and Racism Today
    • CONCLUSION
    • 8 Racial Dialogue: Talking About Race and Racism
    • WHY UNDERTAKE RACIAL DIALOGUES?
    • WHY ARE RACIAL DIALOGUES SO CHALLENGING?
    • CONDUCTING SUCCESSFUL RACIAL DIALOGUES
    • Important Dimensions of Dialogue
    • Models and Stages of Intergroup Dialogue
    • Managing Effective Racial Dialogues
    • RACIAL RECONCILIATION AND INTERRACIAL JUSTICE
    • Recognition
    • Responsibility
    • Reconstruction
    • Reparation
    • CONCLUSION
    • 9 Responses to Racism in the Community
    • MILLVILLE
    • Snapshots of Millville Residents
    • Racism in Millville
    • THE DYNAMICS OF RACISM IN COMMUNITIES
    • Structural/Institutional Racism
    • Political Power
    • Social Identity and Group Membership
    • The Phenomenology of Community Racism
    • Social Cohesion and Community Integrity
    • RESPONDING TO RACISM IN THE COMMUNITY
    • Public Dialogue
    • Re-Storying the Community
    • Structural Interventions
    • Generating Social Capital in the Quest for Community Integrity
    • ANTIRACISM WORK IN THE COMMUNITY
    • Assessment and Prioritization
    • Working With Existing Groups and Organizations
    • Working in Coalitions
    • Disruptive Strategies
    • Participatory Efforts
    • CONCLUSION
    • 10 Confronting Racism in Agencies and Organizations
    • MULTICULTURAL OR ANTIRACISM?
    • TYPES OF ORGANIZATIONS
    • HOW RACISM IS MANIFESTED IN SOCIAL SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS
    • Policies
    • Interpersonal Relationships
    • Organizational Power
    • Resources Devoted to Antiracism
    • MODELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
    • THE PROCESS OF BECOMING AN ANTIRACISM ORGANIZATION
    • Mission Statement
    • Project Group
    • Assessment and Prioritization
    • An Antiracism Audit
    • CONCLUSION
    • 11 Cross-Racial Clinical Work
    • FIRST STEPS
    • Social Identity
    • Personhood, Culture, Values, and Worldview
    • Power
    • LEGACIES OF RACISM SEEN IN CLINICAL WORK
    • Anger
    • Rage
    • Guilt
    • Shame
    • Stress and Trauma
    • Grief and Mourning
    • MISTRUST
    • THEORETICAL BIASES
    • POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY AND SOLUTION-FOCUSED APPROACHES AND RACISM
    • BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE CROSS-RACIAL CLINICAL WORK
    • Internalized Racism
    • Inattention to Power and Privilege
    • Defensive Racial Dynamics
    • GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE CROSS-RACIAL CLINICAL WORK
    • Working With Social Identity
    • Listening and Observing
    • Working With Racial Transference and Countertransference
    • Ability to Tolerate and Respond to Strong Affect
    • Situating Clients in Their Historical and Social Context
    • Mirroring and Empathy
    • Bringing Up Issues of Race and Racism
    • Responding to Bias
    • Issues for Clinicians Who Identify as White
    • Issues for Clinicians Who Identify as People of Color or Multiracial
    • SUPERVISION AND CONSULTATION
    • STRUCTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
    • Environment
    • Access
    • Staffing and Board Representation
    • CONCLUSION
    • 12 Teaching About Race and Racism
    • EXAMPLES
    • Regina
    • Alicia
    • Michael
    • COURSE AND CLASS STRUCTURE
    • CLASSROOM CLIMATE
    • Classroom Safety
    • Classroom Norms
    • Caucus/Affinity Groups
    • INSTRUCTOR SELF-AWARENESS
    • Resistance
    • Supporting Antiracism Teaching
    • UNDERSTANDING STUDENTS
    • TEACHING STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES
    • Exercises
    • Interviewing in Pairs
    • Maintaining Balance
    • Availability of Teachers
    • FEELING STUCK
    • CONCLUSION
    • 13 Dismantling Racism: Creating the Web of Resistance
    • CREATING THE WEB OF RESISTANCE
    • Core Principles
    • The Intrapersonal Realm: Introspection and Education
    • The Interpersonal Realm: Engaging in Dialogue/Working in Coalitions
    • The Organizational Realm: Creating Antiracism Organizations
    • The Community Realm: Creating Inclusive Communities
    • Being Heard: The Realm of Discourse and Culture
    • The Political and Social Realm: Laws, Institutions, and Practices
    • MAINTAINING MOTIVATION
    • Self-Care
    • Self-Compassion
    • Avoiding Humiliating Others
    • Working Together
    • Taking the Long View
    • Valuing the Process as Well as the Product
    • Growing as Activists
    • ETERNAL VIGILANCE
    • Appendix A: Study Circles Dialogues
    • Appendix B: Steps to Successful Intergroup Conversation: A Critical-Dialogic Model
    • Appendix C: Activities Toward Becoming an Antiracist Organization
    • Appendix D: Issues to Consider When Confronting Institutional Racism
    • Appendix E: Cultural Values and Worldviews
    • Appendix F: For Further Reading About Cross-Racial/Cross-Cultural Clinical Practice
    • Appendix G: Case Vignette One: White Male Worker With Chicana Client
    • Appendix H: Case Vignette Two: Woman of Color Worker With African American Client
    • Appendix I: Culturally Influenced Behaviors
    • Appendix J: Questions About Cross-Cultural Contacts
    • Appendix K: Imaginary Letter