Energy Management and Conservation Handbook

Editors: Kreith, Frank and Goswami, D. Yogi
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: CRC Press

Single-User Purchase Price: $199.99
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: Not Available
ISBN: 978-1-466-58516-4
Image Count: 216
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The updated Second Edition of this successful handbook includes chapters from leading experts on the economics and fiscal management of energy, with a focus on the tools available to advance efficiency and conservation measures. Updated coverage of renewable energy sources, energy storage technologies, energy audits for buildings and building systems, and demand-side management is provided.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Editors
  • Contributors
  • 1. Planning for Sustainability Frank Kreith
  • 1.1 Sustainability Principles in Management
  • 1.2 Management of Common Resources
  • 1.3 Water, Population, and Food Issues
  • References
  • 2. Transportation Terry Penney and Frank Kreith
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Alternative Fuels
  • 2.3 Well-to-Wheel Analysis
  • 2.4 Mass Transportation
  • 2.5 Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • 2.6 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • 2.7 Advanced Ground Transportation with Biomass Fuel
  • 2.7.1 Petroleum Requirement
  • 2.7.2 Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • 2.8 Future All-Electric System
  • 2.9 Hydrogen for Transportation
  • 2.10 Natural Gas as a Transitional Bridging Fuel
  • References
  • Online Resources
  • 3. Economics Methods Walter Short and Rosalie Ruegg
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Making Economically Efficient Choices
  • 3.3 Economic Evaluation Methods
  • 3.3.1 Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) Method
  • 3.3.2 Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) Method
  • 3.3.3 Net Present Value (NPV) or Net Benefits (NB) Method
  • 3.3.4 Benefit-to-Cost Ratio (BCR) or Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR) Method
  • 3.3.5 Internal Rate-of-Return (IRR) Method
  • 3.3.6 Overall Rate-of-Return (ORR) Method
  • 3.3.7 Discounted Payback (DPB) Method
  • 3.3.8 Other Economic-Evaluation Methods
  • 3.4 Risk Assessment
  • 3.4.1 Expected Value (EV) Analysis
  • 3.4.2 Mean-Variance Criterion (MVC) and Coefficient of Variation (CV)
  • 3.4.3 Risk-Adjusted Discount Rate (RADR) Technique
  • 3.4.4 Certainty Equivalent (CE) Technique
  • 3.4.5 Monte Carlo Simulation
  • 3.4.6 Decision Analysis
  • 3.4.7 Real Options Analysis (ROA)
  • 3.4.8 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 3.5 Building Blocks of Evaluation
  • 3.5.1 Structuring the Evaluation Process and Selecting a Method of Evaluation
  • 3.5.2 Discounting
  • 3.5.3 Discount Rate
  • 3.5.4 Inflation
  • 3.5.5 Analysis Period
  • 3.5.6 Taxes and Subsidies
  • 3.5.7 Financing
  • 3.5.8 Residual Values
  • 3.6 Economic Analysis Software for Renewable Energy Investments
  • 3.7 Summary
  • 3.8 Defining Terms
  • References
  • 4. Analysis Methods for Building Energy Auditing Moncef Krarti
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Types of Energy Audits
  • 4.2.1 Walk-Through Audit
  • 4.2.2 Utility Cost Analysis
  • 4.2.3 Standard Energy Audit
  • 4.2.4 Detailed Energy Audit
  • 4.3 General Procedure for a Detailed Energy Audit
  • 4.3.1 Step 1: Building and Utility Data Analysis
  • 4.3.2 Step 2: Walk-Through Survey
  • 4.3.3 Step 3: Baseline for Building Energy Use
  • 4.3.4 Step 4: Evaluation of Energy Savings Measures
  • 4.4 Common Energy Conservation Measures
  • 4.4.1 Building Envelope
  • 4.4.2 Electrical Systems
  • 4.4.3 Daylighting Controls
  • 4.4.4 HVAC Systems
  • 4.4.5 Compressed Air Systems
  • 4.4.6 Energy Management Controls
  • 4.4.7 Indoor Water Management
  • 4.4.8 Advanced Technologies
  • 4.5 Net-Zero Energy Retrofits
  • 4.6 Verification Methods of Energy Savings
  • 4.7 Summary
  • References
  • 5. Electrical Energy Management in Buildings Craig B. Smith and Kelly E. Parmenter
  • 5.1 Principal Electricity Uses in Buildings
  • 5.1.1 Introduction: The Importance of Energy Efficiency in Buildings
  • 5.1.2 Electricity Use in Residential and Commercial Buildings
  • 5.1.2.1 Residential Electricity Use
  • 5.1.2.2 Commercial Electricity Use
  • 5.2 Setting Up an Energy Management Program
  • 5.2.1 Review of Historical Energy Use
  • 5.2.2 Perform Energy Audits
  • 5.2.3 Identify Energy Management Opportunities
  • 5.2.4 Implement Changes
  • 5.2.5 Monitor the Program, Establish Goals
  • 5.2.6 Summary of Energy Management Programs
  • 5.3 Electricity-Saving Techniques by Category of End Use
  • 5.3.1 Residential HVAC
  • 5.3.2 Nonresidential HVAC
  • 5.3.2.1 Equipment Modifications (Control, Retrofit, and New Designs)
  • 5.3.2.2 Economizer Systems and Enthalpy Controllers
  • 5.3.2.3 Heat Recovery
  • 5.3.2.4 Thermal Energy Storage
  • 5.3.3 Water Heating
  • 5.3.3.1 Residential Systems
  • 5.3.3.2 Heat Recovery in Nonresidential Systems
  • 5.3.4 Lighting
  • 5.3.5 Refrigeration
  • 5.3.6 Cooking
  • 5.3.7 Residential Appliances
  • 5.3.7.1 Clothes Drying
  • 5.3.7.2 Clothes Washing
  • 5.3.7.3 Dishwashers
  • 5.3.7.4 General Suggestions for Residential Appliances and Electrical Equipment
  • 5.4 Closing Remarks
  • References
  • 6. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Control Systems Bryan P. Rasmussen, Jan F. Kreider, David E. Claridge, and Charles H. Culp
  • 6.1 Introduction: The Need for Control
  • 6.2 Modes of Feedback Control
  • 6.3 Basic Control Hardware
  • 6.3.1 Pneumatic Systems
  • 6.3.2 Electronic Control Systems
  • 6.4 Basic Control System Design Considerations
  • 6.4.1 Steam and Liquid Flow Control
  • 6.4.2 Airflow Control
  • 6.5 Example HVAC System Control Systems
  • 6.5.1 Outside Air Control
  • 6.5.2 Heating Control
  • 6.5.3 Cooling Control
  • 6.5.4 Complete Systems
  • 6.5.5 Other Systems
  • 6.6 Commissioning and Operation of Control Systems
  • 6.6.1 Control Commissioning Case Study
  • 6.6.1.1 Design Conditions
  • 6.6.1.2 Optimization of AHU Operation
  • 6.6.1.3 Optimization at the Terminal Box Level
  • 6.6.1.4 Water Loop Optimization
  • 6.6.1.5 Central Plant Measures
  • 6.6.1.6 Results
  • 6.6.2 Commissioning Existing Buildings
  • 6.7 Advanced Control System Design Topics
  • 6.7.1 Nonlinear Compensation
  • 6.7.1.1 Case Study: Nonlinear Compensation for Air Conditioning Expansion Valves
  • 6.7.2 Model Predictive Control
  • 6.7.2.1 Case Study: MPC for Air Conditioning Expansion Valves
  • 6.8 Summary
  • References
  • 7. Energy-Efficient Lighting Technologies and Their Applications in the Residential and Commercial Sectors Karina Garbesi, Brian F. Gerke, Andrea L. Alstone, Barbara Atkinson, Alex J. Valenti, and Vagelis Vossos
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Lighting Concepts
  • 7.2.1 Principles of Light Production
  • 7.2.2 Design of Energy-Efficient Lighting Systems
  • 7.2.3 Lighting, Human Health, and the Environment
  • 7.3 Lighting Technologies
  • 7.3.1 Incandescent
  • 7.3.1.1 Technology
  • 7.3.1.2 Changing Market
  • 7.3.2 Fluorescent
  • 7.3.2.1 Technology
  • 7.3.2.2 Changing Market
  • 7.3.3 Plasma Lighting
  • 7.3.3.1 Technology
  • 7.3.3.2 Changing Market
  • 7.3.4 Solid-State Lighting (LED and OLED)
  • 7.3.4.1 Technology
  • 7.3.4.2 Changing Market
  • 7.3.5 Lighting Controls
  • 7.3.5.1 Technology
  • 7.3.5.2 Changing Market
  • 7.3.6 Luminaires
  • 7.4 Cost-Effectiveness of Efficient Lighting Technology
  • 7.4.1 Life-Cycle Cost
  • 7.4.2 Current Cost of Ownership of Different Lamp Technologies
  • 7.5 Policy Approaches to Improve Lighting Energy Efficiency
  • 7.5.1 Minimum Energy Performance Standards
  • 7.5.2 Labeling and Certification
  • 7.5.3 Economic and Fiscal Incentives
  • 7.5.4 Bulk Purchasing and Procurement Specifications
  • 7.5.5 Building Codes
  • 7.6 Conclusions
  • Glossary
  • References
  • 8. Energy-Efficient Technologies: Major Appliances and Space Conditioning Equipment Eric Kleinert, James E. McMahon, Greg Rosenquist, James Lutz, Alex Lekov, Peter Biermayer, and Stephen Meyers
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Description of Major Appliances and Space Conditioning Equipment
  • 8.2.1 Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers
  • 8.2.2 Water Heaters
  • 8.2.3 Furnaces and Boilers
  • 8.2.4 Central Air Conditioning, Room Air Conditioners, and Ductless Minisplit Air Conditioners
  • 8.2.5 Heat Pumps
  • 8.2.6 Clothes Washers
  • 8.2.7 Clothes Dryers
  • 8.2.8 Dishwashers
  • 8.2.9 Cooktops and Ovens
  • 8.3 Current Production
  • 8.4 Efficient Designs
  • 8.4.1 Refrigerators and Freezers
  • 8.4.2 Improved Fan Motors
  • 8.4.3 Vacuum Insulation Panels
  • 8.4.4 Water Heaters
  • 8.4.4.1 Gas-Fired Storage Water Heater
  • 8.4.4.2 Heat Pump Water Heaters
  • 8.4.4.3 Solar Water Heaters
  • 8.4.5 Furnaces
  • 8.4.5.1 Condensing Furnaces
  • 8.4.5.2 Integrated Water Heaters and Furnaces
  • 8.4.6 Central Air Conditioning, Room Air Conditioners, and Ductless Minisplit Air Conditioners
  • 8.4.6.1 Electric Variable-Speed Air Conditioning
  • 8.4.6.2 Electric Two-Speed Air Conditioning
  • 8.4.6.3 Room Air Conditioners
  • 8.4.6.4 Ductless Minisplit Air Conditioners
  • 8.4.7 Heat Pumps
  • 8.4.7.1 Variable-Speed and Two-Speed Heat Pumps
  • 8.4.7.2 Gas-Fired Heat Pumps
  • 8.4.8 Distribution Systems
  • 8.4.9 Clothes Washers
  • 8.4.9.1 Horizontal-Axis Washers
  • 8.4.9.2 High-Spin-Speed Washers
  • 8.4.10 Clothes Dryers
  • 8.4.10.1 Microwave Dryers
  • 8.4.10.2 Heat Pump Dryers
  • 8.5 Cost Effectiveness of Energy-Efficient Designs
  • 8.6 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Author Note
  • References
  • 9. Heat Pumps Herbert W. Stanford III
  • 9.1 Heat Pump Concept
  • 9.2 Air-Source Heat Pumps
  • 9.2.1 Premium Efficiency Air-Source Heat Pumps
  • 9.2.2 Cold Climate Air-Source Heat Pumps
  • 9.2.3 Dual Fuel Air-Source Heat Pumps
  • 9.3 Water-Source Heat Pumps
  • 9.3.1 Closed-Circuit Water-Source Heat Pump Systems
  • 9.3.2 Closed-Circuit Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • 9.3.3 Open-Circuit Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • 9.3.4 Gas-Fired Engine-Driven Heat Pumps
  • 9.3.5 Heat Recovery Chiller/Heat Pump System
  • 9.3.6 Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump System
  • 9.4 Advanced-Technology Heat Pumps
  • 9.4.1 Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps
  • 9.4.2 Solar-Assisted Heat Pumps
  • Bibliography
  • 10. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Energy Management Craig B. Smith, Barney L. Capehart, and Wesley M. Rohrer, Jr.
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Industrial Energy Management and Efficiency Improvement
  • 10.2.1 Setting Up an Energy Management Program
  • 10.2.1.1 Phase 1: Management Commitment
  • 10.2.1.2 Phase 2: Audit and Analysis
  • 10.2.1.3 Phase 3: Implementation and Submeters
  • 10.2.2 Energy Audit Report
  • 10.2.2.1 Report Sections
  • 10.3 Improving Industrial Energy Audits
  • 10.3.1 Preventing Overestimation of Energy Savings in Audits
  • 10.3.2 Calculating Energy and Demand Balances
  • 10.3.2.1 Lighting
  • 10.3.2.2 Air Conditioning
  • 10.3.2.3 Motors
  • 10.3.2.4 Air Compressors
  • 10.3.2.5 Other Process Equipment
  • 10.3.2.6 Checking the Results
  • 10.3.3 Problems with Energy Analysis Calculations
  • 10.3.3.1 On-Peak and Off-Peak Uses: Overestimating Savings by Using the Average Cost of Electricity
  • 10.3.3.2 Motor Load Factors
  • 10.3.3.3 High-Efficiency Motors
  • 10.3.3.4 Motor Belts and Drives
  • 10.3.3.5 Adjustable-Speed Drives
  • 10.3.4 General Rules
  • 10.3.4.1 Decision Tools for Improving Industrial Energy Audits: OIT Software Tools
  • 10.3.4.2 Decision Tools for Industry: Order the Portfolio of Tools on CD
  • 10.3.4.3 Energy-Auditing Help from Industrial Assessment Centers
  • 10.4 Industrial Electricity End Uses and Electrical Energy Management
  • 10.4.1 Importance of Electricity in Industry
  • 10.4.2 Electric Drives
  • 10.4.3 Electrochemical Processes
  • 10.4.4 Electric Process Heat
  • 10.4.5 HVAC
  • 10.4.6 Lighting
  • 10.4.7 Electric Load Analysis
  • 10.4.8 Data Acquisition and Control Systems for Energy Management
  • 10.4.9 Web-Based Facility Automation Systems
  • 10.4.9.1 Energy Management Strategies for Industry
  • 10.4.9.2 Electric Drives and Electrically Driven Machinery
  • 10.4.9.3 Fans, Blowers, and Pumps
  • 10.4.9.4 Air Compressors
  • 10.4.9.5 Electrochemical Operations
  • 10.4.9.6 Electric Process Heat and Steam Systems
  • 10.4.9.7 Electrical Process Heat
  • 10.4.9.8 Heat Recovery
  • 10.4.9.9 Power Recovery
  • 10.4.9.10 Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Operation
  • 10.4.9.11 Lighting
  • 10.4.9.12 New Electrotechnologies
  • 10.4.9.13 General Industrial Processes
  • 10.4.9.14 Demand Management
  • 10.5 Thermal Energy Management in Industry
  • 10.5.1 Importance of Fuel Use and Heat in Industry
  • 10.5.2 Boiler Combustion Efficiency Improvement
  • 10.5.2.1 Combustion Control
  • 10.5.2.2 Waste-Heat Management
  • 10.5.2.3 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning
  • 10.5.2.4 Modifications of Unit Processes
  • 10.5.2.5 Optimizing Process Scheduling
  • 10.5.2.6 Cogeneration of Process Steam and Electricity
  • 10.5.2.7 Commercial Options in Waste-Heat Recovery Equipment
  • 10.6 Role of New Equipment and Technology in Industrial Energy Efficiency
  • 10.6.1 Industrial Energy Savings Potential
  • 10.6.2 The U.S. DOE Energy-Loss Study and the NAM Efficiency and Innovation Study
  • 10.6.3 The ACEEE Fan and Pump Study
  • 10.6.4 The LBL/ACEEE Study of Emerging Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies
  • 10.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 11. Electric Motor Systems Efficiency Aníbal T. de Almeida, Steve F. Greenberg, and Prakash Rao
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.1.1 Motor Types
  • 11.2 Motor Systems Efficiency
  • 11.2.1 Motor Efficiency
  • 11.2.1.1 Motor Efficiency: Energy Efficient, Premium Efficient, and Beyond
  • 11.2.1.2 Efficiency of Rewound Motors
  • 11.2.2 Recent Motor Developments
  • 11.2.2.1 Permanent-Magnet Motors
  • 11.2.2.2 Switched Reluctance Motors
  • 11.2.2.3 Synchronous Reluctance Motors
  • 11.2.2.4 Promising Industrial Motor Technologies
  • 11.2.3 Motor Speed Controls
  • 11.2.3.1 Mechanical and Eddy-Current Drives
  • 11.2.3.2 Multispeed Motors
  • 11.2.3.3 Electronic Adjustable-Speed Drives
  • 11.2.4 Motor Oversizing
  • 11.2.5 Power Quality
  • 11.2.5.1 Voltage Unbalance
  • 11.2.5.2 Voltage Level
  • 11.2.5.3 Harmonics and Electromagnetic Interference
  • 11.2.6 Distribution Losses
  • 11.2.6.1 Cable Sizing
  • 11.2.6.2 Reactive Power Compensation
  • 11.2.7 Mechanical Transmissions
  • 11.2.8 Maintenance
  • 11.3 Energy-Saving Applications of ASDs
  • 11.3.1 Pumps and Fans
  • 11.3.2 Centrifugal Compressors and Chillers
  • 11.3.3 Conveyors
  • 11.3.4 High-Performance Applications
  • 11.4 Energy and Power Savings Potential; Cost-Effectiveness
  • 11.4.1 Potential Savings in the Residential Sector
  • 11.4.2 Potential Savings in the Commercial Sector
  • 11.4.3 Potential Savings in the Industrial and Utility Sectors
  • 11.4.4 Cost-Effectiveness of ASDs
  • References
  • Bibliography
  • 12. Energy Storage Technologies Jeffrey P. Chamberlain, Roel Hammerschlag, and Christopher P. Schaber
  • 12.1 Overview of Storage Technologies
  • 12.2 Principal Forms of Stored Energy
  • 12.3 Applications of Energy Storage
  • 12.4 Specifying Energy Storage Devices
  • 12.5 Specifying Fuels
  • 12.6 Electrochemical Energy Storage
  • 12.6.1 Secondary Batteries
  • 12.6.1.1 Lead-Acid
  • 12.6.1.2 Lithium Ion
  • 12.6.1.3 Nickel–Cadmium
  • 12.6.1.4 Nickel Metal Hydride
  • 12.6.1.5 Sodium–Sulfur
  • 12.6.1.6 Zebra
  • 12.6.2 Flow Batteries
  • 12.6.2.1 Vanadium Redox
  • 12.6.2.2 Polysulfide Bromide
  • 12.6.2.3 Zinc Bromide
  • 12.6.2.4 Nonaqueous Redox Flow
  • 12.6.3 Electrolytic Hydrogen
  • 12.7 Direct Electric Storage
  • 12.7.1 Ultracapacitors
  • 12.7.2 SMES
  • 12.8 Mechanical Energy Storage
  • 12.8.1 Pumped Hydro
  • 12.8.2 Compressed Air
  • 12.8.3 Flywheels
  • 12.9 Direct Thermal Storage
  • 12.9.1 Sensible Heat
  • 12.9.1.1 Liquids
  • 12.9.1.2 Solids
  • 12.9.2 Latent Heat
  • 12.9.2.1 Phase Change
  • 12.9.2.2 Hydration-Dehydration Reactions
  • 12.9.2.3 Chemical Reaction
  • 12.10 Thermochemical Energy Storage
  • 12.10.1 Biomass Solids
  • 12.10.2 Ethanol
  • 12.10.3 Biodiesel
  • 12.10.4 Syngas
  • References
  • 13. Demand-Side Management Clark W. Gellings and Kelly E. Parmenter
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 What Is Demand-Side Management?
  • 13.3 Demand-Side Management and Integrated Resource Planning
  • 13.4 Demand-Side Management Programs
  • 13.4.1 Elements of the Demand-Side Management Planning Framework
  • 13.4.2 Targeted End-Use Sectors/Building Types
  • 13.4.3 Targeted End-Use Technologies/Program Types
  • 13.4.4 Program Implementers
  • 13.4.5 Implementation Methods
  • 13.4.6 Characteristics of Successful Programs
  • 13.4.6.1 Key Elements of Program Design
  • 13.4.6.2 Key Elements of Program Delivery
  • 13.5 Case Studies
  • 13.6 Conclusions
  • References