Companion to the History of Science

Editor: Lightman, Bernard
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Wiley

Single-User Purchase Price: $195.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $292.50
ISBN: 978-1-11-862077-9
Category: Science
Image Count: 39
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The Wiley Blackwell Companion to the History of Science is a single volume companion that discusses the history of science as it is done today, providing a survey of the debates and issues that dominate current scholarly discussion, with contributions from leading international scholars.

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Table of Contents

  • About the Editor
  • About the Contributors
  • Acknowledgements
  • Introduction
  • References
  • Chapter One: Historiography of the History of Science
  • Constructing Scientific Knowledge, Socially
  • Doing Scientific Things with Scientific Things: Practice and Materiality
  • Moving Knowledge Around: Communication and Circulation
  • Scaling History of Science
  • References
  • Part I: Roles
  • Chapter Two: Learned Man and Woman in Antiquity and the Middle Ages
  • Greek Mathematicians in the Hellenic Cities
  • Families of Scholars in Persian and Hellenistic Uruk
  • Scholars as Clients in Warring States to Early Han China
  • A Roman Physician and a Roman Mathematician
  • Contexts of Scholarship in Sanskrit Sciences
  • Translators and Other Scholars in Abbasid Baghdad
  • Mandarins and Calendar Reform
  • Salaried Scholars in Damascus
  • Scholarly Women in the Ancient and Medieval Periods
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Three: Go-Betweens, Travelers, and Cultural Translators
  • Connecting Cultures in Recent Historiography
  • Travel and Translation
  • Brokering in the Cultural and Social Sciences
  • Go-Betweens Enter Science Studies
  • An Example
  • Whither Go-Betweens Today?
  • References
  • Chapter Four: The Alchemist
  • References
  • Chapter Five: The Natural Philosopher
  • The Natural Philosopher in the University; Mathematics and Physics
  • Experimenters
  • Ideal Types and Natural Philosophers
  • Role: Public or Private?
  • Societies and Experiment
  • Natural Philosophy and Natural History
  • References
  • Chapter Six: The Natural Historian
  • The Early Modern Naturalist
  • The Enlightenment Naturalist
  • The Nineteenth-Century Naturalist
  • The Modern Naturalist
  • References
  • Chapter Seven: Invisible Technicians, Instrument-makers and Artisans
  • Instrumental Knowledge
  • Behind the Scenes
  • Assembly-line Knowledge
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Eight: Scientific Illustrators
  • Debates between Darwin and Illustrators of his Books
  • Early Stages
  • The Illustrator as an Interpreter of Nature
  • The System of Conventions in the Illustrator's Profession
  • The Illustrator and the Economy of Scientific Books
  • The Industry of Illustrated Scientific Books
  • Women Illustrators
  • Construction of a Visual Scientific Culture
  • The Photography Revolution
  • References
  • Chapter Nine: The Human Experimental Subject
  • Prisoners
  • Slaves
  • Patients
  • Children
  • Self-experiment
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Ten: Amateurs
  • Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as Foil
  • Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as Proto-Professional
  • Defining Modern Science: The Amateur as the Professional's Inverse
  • Re-mapping the Amateur Sphere: Historiographic Challenges to the Standard Narrative
  • Appropriating Scientific Authority from within Amateur Realms: Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Ecologies of Knowledge
  • History of Science's Amateurs: The Question of Where the Center Lies
  • References
  • Chapter Eleven: The Man of Science
  • References
  • Chapter Twelve: The Professional Scientist
  • A Middling Sort of Science
  • Supporting and Subverting their Sponsors
  • Professionals Unbound
  • End of an Epoch?
  • References
  • Part II: Places and Spaces
  • Chapter Thirteen: The Medieval University1
  • Pre-university Education
  • Universities and Scholastic Culture
  • New Directions
  • References
  • Chapter Fourteen: The Observatory
  • Early Observatories
  • China
  • The Islamic World
  • Tycho Brahe
  • The Seventeenth Century
  • The Eighteenth Century
  • Giant Reflectors
  • The First Half of the Nineteenth Century
  • Magnetism
  • The Observatory as Laboratory
  • The Rise of American Observatories
  • Space Observatories
  • References
  • Chapter Fifteen: The Court
  • Engineering, Instruments, and Practical Mathematics
  • Cosmology and Philosophical Speculation
  • “New Things” and the Medici
  • Collections, Wonder, and the Order of Nature
  • Curiosities and Visual Knowledge
  • Gender, “Human Empire,” and Global Knowledge
  • Medicine, Pharmacy, and Society
  • References
  • Chapter Sixteen: Academies and Societies
  • New Philosophies and New Forums
  • Enlightened Sociability and the Growth of Civil Society
  • High and Low Science
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Seventeen: Museums and Botanical Gardens
  • Renaissance and Early Modern Collections
  • Museums, Gardens, and the Modern State
  • Science, Education, and Popular Culture
  • Conclusion: the hybrid spaces of popular science
  • References
  • Chapter Eighteen: Domestic Space
  • Situating the Domestic Production of Scientific Knowledge
  • Gender and Domestic Productions
  • Domesticity, Social Class, and Professionalization
  • Domesticity by Design
  • Domestication through Popularization
  • Future Research
  • References
  • Chapter Nineteen: Commercial Science
  • Science in Twentieth-Century Corporate Laboratories
  • Science in Nineteenth-Century Capitalist Enterprises
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty: The Field
  • The Field as Category and Place
  • Many Fields
  • Places and Practices
  • Practitioners
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-One: The Laboratory
  • A Brief History of the Laboratory
  • Lab Studies as a Field: Past, Present, and Future
  • The Laboratory at the Intersection: Practice, Pedagogy, and Material Culture
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Two: Modern School and University
  • Early Modern Universities and Schools
  • The Enlightenment and Compulsory School Education
  • The Research University Revolution
  • University Expansion and Technoscientific Innovation
  • References
  • Part III: Communication
  • Chapter Twenty-Three: Manuscripts
  • Transmission of Texts
  • Textual Criticism
  • Visual Images
  • Tradition and Innovation
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Four: The Printing Press
  • De-centering Gutenberg from the Print Revolution
  • From Book to Text and Back Again
  • Locating the Scientific Book
  • Facsimiles and Digitization
  • The World of Print
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Five: Correspondence Networks
  • The Republic of Letters, Sixteenth–Eighteenth Centuries
  • Exchanging Information, Opinions, and Objects
  • Scientific Correspondence in the Nineteenth Century
  • Europe and the Wider World
  • The Universal Postal Union and Beyond
  • Corpora of Correspondence, Archival and Published
  • Digital Humanities and the Future of Research on Correspondence Networks
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Six: Translations
  • The First Turn: Modern Histories of “Arabic Science” in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
  • The Second Turn: Antique to Early Modern Encounters with Translation in East Asia and Beyond
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Seven: Journals and Periodicals
  • The Seventeenth Century
  • The Eighteenth Century
  • The Nineteenth Century
  • The Twentieth Century
  • Scientific Authorship
  • Editors and Reviewing Processes
  • Distribution and Readership
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Eight: Textbooks
  • Expectations
  • Past Tenses
  • Demarcation
  • Disciplines
  • Futures
  • References
  • Chapter Twenty-Nine: Lectures
  • Visualizing Science
  • Voicing Science
  • Body Language
  • Auditors and Auditoriums
  • Legacies
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty: Film, Radio, and Television
  • Film: Science on the Silver Screen
  • Radio: Broadcasting Science over the Airwaves
  • Television: Science in Every Living Room
  • References
  • Part IV: Tools of Science
  • Chapter Thirty-One: Timing Devices
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Two: Weights and Measures
  • Historiography on Weights and Measures
  • Measurement: Politics and Economy
  • Decimal Metric System
  • Globalization of the Metric System
  • Social Forces of Metrication
  • The Metric System and Its Adversaries
  • Moral Economy of Measurement and Opposition to Metrological Reform
  • Concluding Remark
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Three: Calculating Devices and Computers
  • Calculation “By Hand”
  • Analog Computing
  • Electronic Computing, Numerical Analysis, and Simulation
  • Beyond Artillery, Bombs, and Particles
  • Big Data Avant Big Data
  • Data Infrastructures
  • The Social Organization of Expertise
  • Hubris and Materiality
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Four: Specimens and Collections
  • Defending Collections
  • Making Collections Scientific
  • Modernizing Collections in the Twentieth Century
  • Conclusions
  • Guide to Further Readings
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Five: Recording Devices
  • Spontaneous Reproduction
  • Expanding and Replacing
  • In Philosophy of Science
  • The Disappearing Device
  • From Media Studies to Poststructuralism
  • Desires
  • Recording and Quantification
  • Servant instruments
  • The Personal Equation
  • The Modern Subject and the Discipline of Psychology
  • Art and Hand-drawings
  • Altered Distances
  • Recorded History
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Six: Microscopes
  • Origins
  • Hooke and After
  • The Development of the Instrument Trade
  • The Microscope in the Nineteenth Century
  • Modern Microscopy
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Seven: Telescopes
  • The Early Refractor
  • The Beginning of the Reflector
  • Telescopes in Observatories
  • New Telescopes and Audiences in the Eighteenth Century
  • The Large Reflector: William Herschel and His Successors
  • The Essential Tool of Modern Astronomy
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Eight: Prisms, Spectroscopes, Spectrographs, and Gratings
  • The Prism—From a Toy to a Tool
  • Dark Lines in the Solar Spectrum: Wollaston and Fraunhofer
  • The Emergence of Spectrum Analysis: Swan, Bunsen, and Kirchhoff
  • Multifacetted Applications of Spectroscopy
  • Solar Physics and Chemistry: The Origins of Astrophysics
  • Diffraction Gratings and Precision Spectroscopy
  • References
  • Chapter Thirty-Nine: Diagrams
  • Theoretical Approaches
  • Diagrams in the History of Science
  • Paper Tools
  • Maps
  • Tables
  • Graphs
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter Forty: Three-Dimensional Models
  • Introduction
  • Models in Research
  • Models as Representations
  • Models and their Audiences
  • Models Mass-produced for Teaching
  • Modeling Nature
  • Guide to Further Reading and Further Viewing
  • References