The Carbon Footprint Handbook

Editor/Author Muthu, Subramanian Senthilkannan
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: CRC Press

Single-User Purchase Price: $189.95
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: Not Available
ISBN: 978-1-48-226222-3
Category: Science - Environmental sciences
Image Count: 158
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Thorough and detailed, The Carbon Footprint Handbook encompasses all areas of carbon footprint, including the scientific elements, methodological and technological aspects, standards, industrial case studies, and communication of carbon footprint results.

Share this

This book is found in the following Credo Collections:

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Editor
  • Contributors
  • SECTION I Methodological Aspects of Carbon Footprint
  • Chapter 1 The Science of Carbon Footprint Assessment - T.V. Ramachandra and Durga Madhab Mahapatra
  • 1.1 The Science of Carbon Footprint
  • 1.1.1 Importance and Need for Assessment
  • 1.1.2 Definition of C Footprint: A Brief Review
  • 1.1.3 Issues Related to Quantification: Methodological Issues
  • 1.1.4 GHG Emissions from Wastewater Sector
  • 1.2 C Footprint of Municipal Wastewater
  • 1.2.1 GHG Emissions for Wastewater Treatment Plant at Bengaluru
  • 1.2.2 Quantification of GHG Emissions in Treatment Plants
  • 1.3 Carbon Sequestration and Biofuel Prospects
  • 1.3.1 Materials and Methods
  • 1.3.1.1 Study Area
  • 1.3.1.2 Sampling: Algal Screening, Selection, and Densities
  • 1.3.1.3 Characterization of the Growth Environment and Water Quality
  • 1.3.1.4 Harvesting of Algal Biomass
  • 1.3.1.5 Monitoring the Growth
  • 1.3.1.6 Spectral Signature and Biochemical Composition Analysis by ATR-FTIR
  • 1.3.2 Lipid Extraction and Analysis
  • 1.3.2.1 Lipid Extraction
  • 1.3.2.2 Fatty Acid Composition Using GC–MS
  • 1.3.3 Scope for Biofuel as a Viable Energy Source in Cities of Karnataka
  • 1.3.3.1 Distribution, Morphological Features, and Cellular Characteristics of L. ovum
  • 1.3.4 Nutrient Requirements and Growth Conditions
  • 1.3.4.1 Nutrient Concentrations and L. ovum Growth at Wastewater-Treatment Units
  • 1.3.4.2 Monitoring of Algal Growth
  • 1.3.4.3 Lipid Composition by GC–MS Analysis
  • 1.3.4.4 C Sequestration in Wastewater Algae
  • 1.3.5 Viability of Algae-Based Biofuel as an Energy Source in Karnataka
  • 1.4 Integrated Wetlands Ecosystem to Mitigate Carbon Emissions
  • 1.4.1 Wetlands/Algae Pond as Wastewater Treatment Systems
  • 1.4.2 Integrated Wetland System
  • 1.4.2.1 Nutrients (Nitrates and Phosphates)
  • 1.4.2.2 BOD and COD
  • 1.4.3 Integrated Wastewater Management System
  • 1.4.4 Integrated Wetlands Ecosystem: Sustainable Model to Mitigate GHG Emissions
  • 1.4.4.1 Functional Aspects of the Integrated Wetland Systems
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Challenges and Merits of Choosing Alternative Functional Units - Benjamin C. McLellan
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Definitions
  • 2.1.2 Literature Review
  • 2.2 Impacts of the FU
  • 2.2.1 Case Study 1: Coffee
  • 2.2.2 Case Study 2: Cement and Concrete
  • 2.3 FUs for Policy and Decision Making
  • 2.3.1 Policy Making
  • 2.3.1.1 The Target Level: Organization as an FU
  • 2.3.1.2 The Level of Inducements—Actions and Accounts as FUs
  • 2.3.2 Consumer Products
  • 2.3.2.1 Single-Serve or Single-Item Consumable Products
  • 2.3.2.2 Multiserve or Multi-Item Consumable Products
  • 2.3.2.3 Durable Products
  • 2.3.3 Design and Industrial Operations
  • 2.3.4 Some FUs Applied in Industry
  • 2.3.5 Inappropriate Assignation of the FU
  • 2.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Methodology for Carbon Footprint Calculation in Crop and Livestock Production - Kun Cheng, Ming Yan, Genxing Pan, Ting Luo, and Qian Yue
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 GHG Emission Sources
  • 3.2.1 System Boundaries
  • 3.2.2 GHG Emission Sources in Crop Production
  • 3.2.2.1 Direct Emission
  • 3.2.2.2 Indirect Emission
  • 3.2.3 GHG Emission Sources in Livestock Production
  • 3.2.3.1 Direct Emissions
  • 3.2.3.2 Indirect Emission
  • 3.3 Carbon Footprint Calculation Methods
  • 3.3.1 Crop Production
  • 3.3.1.1 Direct Emissions
  • 3.3.1.2 Indirect Emissions
  • 3.3.1.3 CF Assessment
  • 3.3.2 Livestock Production
  • 3.3.2.1 Direct Emission
  • 3.3.2.2 Indirect Emissions
  • 3.3.2.3 Assessment of CF of Livestock Production
  • 3.4 Data Sources
  • 3.4.1 Emission Factors
  • 3.4.1.1 Crop Production
  • 3.4.1.2 Livestock Production
  • 3.4.2 Activity Data
  • 3.4.2.1 Statistical Data
  • 3.4.2.2 Field Survey Data
  • 3.5 Case Studies
  • 3.5.1 CF of Main Grain Crop Production in Shandong Province, China
  • 3.5.1.1 Scope and Objective
  • 3.5.1.2 Data Source
  • 3.5.1.3 CF Calculation
  • 3.5.1.4 Results
  • 3.5.1.5 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 3.5.1.6 Conclusions
  • 3.5.2 CF of Milk Production Based on a Site Survey in Sichuan Province, China
  • 3.5.2.1 Scope and Objective
  • 3.5.2.2 Data Source
  • 3.5.2.3 CF Calculation
  • 3.5.2.4 Results
  • 3.5.2.5 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 3.5.2.6 Conclusions
  • 3.5.3 Limitations and Recommendations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4 End of Life Scenarios and the Carbon Footprint of Wood Cladding - Andreja Kutnar and Callum Hill
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Role of Wood and Wood Products in the Bioeconomy
  • 4.2.1 Wood as Building Material
  • 4.2.1.1 External Wooden Claddings
  • 4.3 Life-Cycle Assessment
  • 4.3.1 Methodologies for Calculating Carbon Footprint of Bio-Based Materials
  • 4.3.2 LCA of Wood Products
  • 4.3.2.1 Carbon Storage in Wood Products
  • 4.3.3 Cascade Use of Wood
  • 4.4 Wood in Sustainable Buildings
  • 4.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Carbon Footprints and Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings of Alternative Synthetic Biofuels - Diego Iribarren, Jens F. Peters, Ana Susmozas, Pedro L. Cruz, and Javier Dufour
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Production of Synthetic Biofuels
  • 5.2.1 Fast Pyrolysis and Hydro-upgrading
  • 5.2.2 Indirect Gasification and FT Synthesis
  • 5.3 CF Framework
  • 5.3.1 Goal and Scope
  • 5.3.1.1 Pyrolysis-Based System (PYR-HT)
  • 5.3.1.2 Gasification-Based System (GAS-FT)
  • 5.3.2 Data Acquisition
  • 5.3.2.1 Agriculture
  • 5.3.2.2 PYR-HT Production Process
  • 5.3.2.3 GAS-FT Production Process
  • 5.3.2.4 Biofuel Use
  • 5.4 Results and Discussion
  • 5.4.1 Carbon Footprints and GHG Emission Savings
  • 5.4.2 Carbon Footprint as a Single Indicator
  • 5.4.2.1 A Thermodynamic Perspective
  • 5.4.2.2 An Environmental Perspective
  • 5.5 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Issues in Making Food Production GHG Efficient: Challenges before Carbon Footprinting - Divya Pandey and Madhoolika Agrawal
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Food-Producing Systems and GHG Emissions
  • 6.2.1 Crop Cultivation
  • 6.2.2 Livestock Rearing and Dairy
  • 6.2.3 Food Miles
  • 6.3 Scope of Reducing GHG Emissions from Croplands and Agricultural Soils as Carbon Offsetting Option
  • 6.3.1 Reducing Emissions from Crop Cultivation and Livestock Rearing
  • 6.3.2 Improving Food-Processing Efficiency
  • 6.3.3 Wise Packaging and Transport
  • 6.4 Carbon Footprinting as a Quantitative Representation of GHG Efficiency and Its Application to Food Production
  • 6.4.1 Counting C Sequestration
  • 6.4.2 Incorporating Land-Use Change
  • 6.4.3 The Case of Biofuels
  • 6.5 Case Studies
  • 6.5.1 Crop Cultivation
  • 6.5.2 Dairy and Meat Production
  • 6.6 Carbon Labeling and Policy Implications
  • 6.7 Recommendations for Further Research Directions
  • 6.8 Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Modeling the Carbon Footprint of Wood-Based Products and Buildings - Ambrose Dodoo, Leif Gustavsson, and Roger Sathre
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 GHG Assessment Standards
  • 7.3 Climate Implications of Wood Products and Buildings
  • 7.4 Definition of Functional Unit
  • 7.5 Indicators for Carbon Footprint Characterization
  • 7.6 Setting of System Boundaries
  • 7.6.1 Activity-Related System Boundaries
  • 7.6.1.1 Production Stage
  • 7.6.1.2 Operation Stage and Service Life
  • 7.6.1.3 Maintenance and Renovation
  • 7.6.1.4 End-of-Life Stage
  • 7.6.2 Time-Related System Boundaries
  • 7.6.3 Space-Related System Boundaries
  • 7.7 Accounting for Electricity Production
  • 7.8 Treatment of Allocation
  • 7.9 Key Recommendations and Outlooks
  • 7.10 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Applications of Carbon Footprint in Urban Planning and Geography - Taehyun Kim
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Background of CF Applications in Urban Planning and Geography
  • 8.3 Case Studies of CF Applications
  • 8.3.1 Household CF
  • 8.3.2 Individual CF
  • 8.3.3 Agricultural CF
  • 8.4 Conclusions
  • References
  • SECTION II Modeling Aspects of Carbon Footprint
  • Chapter 9 Quantifying Spatial–Temporal Variability of Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Urban Soils: From Local Monitoring to Regional Modeling - V.I. Vasenev, J.J. Stoorvogel, N.D. Ananyeva, K.V. Ivashchenko, D.A. Sarzhanov, A.S. Epikhina, I.I. Vasenev, and R. Valentini
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Urban Soils: A Potential Carbon Stock or Source?
  • 9.2.1 Soil as a Key Player of Carbon Cycle
  • 9.2.2 Urban Soils: Formation, Functioning, Specifics, and Impacts on Carbon Cycle
  • 9.2.3 Carbon Stocks in Urban Soils
  • 9.2.4 Carbon Fluxes from Urban Soils
  • 9.3 Methodological Aspects to Quantify Spatial–Temporal Variability of Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in Urban Soils
  • 9.3.1 Carbon Stocks
  • 9.3.1.1 Field Sampling of Urban Soils: Challenges and Constraints
  • 9.3.1.2 Laboratory Analysis of Urban Soil Carbon
  • 9.3.1.3 Quantifying, Modeling, and Mapping Carbon Stocks in Urban Areas
  • 9.3.2 Carbon Fluxes
  • 9.3.2.1 In Situ Measurement of Soil Carbon Efflux
  • 9.3.2.2 Laboratory Measurements of Carbon Fluxes
  • 9.3.2.3 Spatial Analysis and Modeling of Soil Carbon Fluxes
  • 9.4 Case Studies
  • 9.4.1 Introduction
  • 9.4.2 Spatial Variability of Urban Soils’ Microbial Carbon and Respiration in Contrast Bioclimatic and Functional Zones of Moscow Region
  • 9.4.2.1 Introduction
  • 9.4.2.2 Materials and Methods
  • 9.4.2.3 Results
  • 9.4.2.4 Discussions
  • 9.4.3 Spatial–Temporal Variability of In Situ Respiration in Urban Soils of South-Taiga and Forest-Steppe Vegetation Zones
  • 9.4.3.1 Introduction
  • 9.4.3.2 Materials and Methods
  • 9.4.3.3 Results
  • 9.4.3.4 Discussion
  • 9.4.4 Spatial Modeling and Mapping Carbon Stocks and Microbial Respiration in Highly Urbanized Moscow Region
  • 9.4.4.1 Introduction
  • 9.4.4.2 Materials and Methods
  • 9.4.4.3 Results
  • 9.4.4.4 Discussions
  • 9.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Urban Carbon Footprint Evaluation of a Central Chinese City: The Case of Zhengzhou City - Lipeng Hou and Rongqin Zhao
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Literature Review
  • 10.2.1 Researches on Carbon Emissions
  • 10.2.2 Researches on Carbon Footprint
  • 10.2.3 The Purpose of This Study
  • 10.3 Data and Methods
  • 10.3.1 Data Sources
  • 10.3.2 Accounting Categories
  • 10.3.3 Evaluation Methods
  • 10.3.3.1 Carbon Footprint of Energy Activities
  • 10.3.3.2 Carbon Footprint of Industrial Production
  • 10.3.3.3 Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Activities
  • 10.3.3.4 Carbon Footprint of Land Use
  • 10.3.3.5 Carbon Footprint of Wastes
  • 10.4 Results
  • 10.4.1 The Results of Urban Carbon Footprint
  • 10.4.1.1 Carbon Footprint of Energy Activities
  • 10.4.1.2 Carbon Footprint of Industrial Production
  • 10.4.1.3 Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Activities
  • 10.4.1.4 Carbon Footprint of Wastes
  • 10.4.1.5 Carbon Sinks of Land Use
  • 10.4.1.6 The Carbon Budget of Zhengzhou
  • 10.4.2 Urban Carbon Footprint Pressure Analysis
  • 10.4.2.1 Carbon Footprint Intensity and Carbon Footprint Productivity
  • 10.4.2.2 Decoupling Analysis of Economic Growth and Carbon Footprint
  • 10.4.3 The Prediction of Urban Carbon Footprint
  • 10.5 Conclusions and Policy Implications
  • 10.5.1 Conclusions
  • 10.5.2 Policy Implications
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Carbon Footprint Estimation from a Building Sector in India - Venu Shree, Varun Goel, and Himanshu Nautiyal
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Carbon Footprint Methodologies
  • 11.3 Past Studies Related to Carbon Footprint of Buildings
  • 11.4 Case Studies in India
  • 11.5 Energy Conservation in Buildings
  • 11.6 Recommendations
  • 11.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 12 The Carbon Footprint of Dwelling Construction in Spain - Jaime Solís-Guzmán, Patricia González-Vallejo, Alejandro Martínez-Rocamora, and Madelyn Marrero
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Spanish Dwelling Construction
  • 12.3 Quantifying Resource Consumption
  • 12.4 Methodology
  • 12.4.1 Emission Factors
  • 12.4.2 CF of Electricity
  • 12.4.3 CF of Water Consumption
  • 12.4.4 CF of Manpower: Food Consumption
  • 12.4.5 CF of Manpower: Mobility
  • 12.4.6 CF of Manpower: MSW
  • 12.4.7 CF of Construction Materials
  • 12.4.8 CF of Machinery
  • 12.4.9 CF of Construction and Demolition Waste
  • 12.5 Results
  • 12.5.1 Project Budget and Resources Database
  • 12.5.2 General Project Characteristics
  • 12.5.3 Overall Results
  • 12.6 Conclusions
  • 12.7 Limitations, Advantages, and Further Research
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Carbon Footprint: Calculations and Sensitivity Analysis for Cow Milk Produced in Flanders, a Belgian Region - Ray Jacobsen, Valerie Vandermeulen, Guido Vanhuylenbroeck, and Xavier Gellynck
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Background
  • 13.3 Methodology
  • 13.3.1 Standard and Method Used
  • 13.3.2 Scope and System Boundaries
  • 13.3.3 Functional Unit
  • 13.3.4 Allocation Method
  • 13.3.5 Land Use and Land-Use Change
  • 13.4 Data Sources
  • 13.4.1 Raw Materials and Farm Level
  • 13.4.2 Dairy Processing
  • 13.4.3 Dairy Processing: Data Description
  • 13.5 Data Analysis
  • 13.5.1 Emissions from Fodder Production
  • 13.5.1.1 Purchased Fodder
  • 13.5.1.2 Home-Grown Roughage
  • 13.5.2 Emissions from Cattle Breeding
  • 13.5.2.1 Energy Consumption Farm
  • 13.5.2.2 Animal Emissions: Rumen Fermentation
  • 13.5.3 Emissions—Manure Storage and Usage
  • 13.5.3.1 Methane
  • 13.5.3.2 Laughing Gas
  • 13.5.3.3 Manure Usage for Crop Production
  • 13.5.4 Emissions from Transport
  • 13.5.5 Emissions from Milk Processing
  • 13.6 Results
  • 13.6.1 The CF of Milk
  • 13.6.2 Milk Processing
  • 13.6.3 Total Result
  • 13.6.4 CF Sensitivity
  • 13.6.4.1 Impact of Estimating Indirect Laughing Gas Emissions
  • 13.6.4.2 Feed and Herd Characteristics
  • 13.6.4.3 Manure Storage/Disposal
  • 13.6.4.4 Influence of Allocation Method between Milk and Meat
  • 13.6.4.5 Energy in the Dairy Processing Plant and the Use of Heat Recuperation
  • 13.6.4.6 Influence of the Allocation Method between Several Dairy Products
  • 13.6.4.7 CF Range
  • 13.6.5 Mitigation Measures
  • 13.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Digitizing the Assessment of Embodied Energy and Carbon Footprint of Buildings Using Emerging Building Information Modeling - F.H. Abanda, A.H. Oti, and J.H.M. Tah
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Challenges Hindering the Uptake of BIM in Construction
  • 14.3 Sustainability Appraisal Using BIM Software: An Overview of Current Practices
  • 14.4 Embodied Energy and CO2 Analysis: An Overview
  • 14.5 Embodied Energy and CO2 Analysis: Computational Steps
  • 14.6 Implementation in Revit
  • 14.6.1 Description of the Model
  • 14.6.2 Quantity Takeoff
  • 14.7 Exploiting Model in Revit for Decision-Making Purposes
  • 14.7.1 Scenario 1: Model Is Complete and Perfect
  • 14.7.2 Scenario 2: Model Is Complete and Minor Changes Are to Be Made
  • 14.7.3 Scenario 3: Model Is Complete and Component Information Needs to Be Changed
  • 14.7.3.1 Carrying Out Changes through the Properties Palette
  • 14.7.3.2 Carrying Out Changes through the Edit Type Function
  • 14.8 Implementation in MS Excel
  • 14.9 Results and Analysis
  • 14.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • SECTION III Carbon Footprint Assessment—Case Studies
  • Chapter 15 Product Carbon Footprint: Case Study of a Critical Electronic Part (Subassembly of a Product) - Winco K.C. Yung and Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Methodology
  • 15.2.1 Scope
  • 15.2.1.1 Product System and Its Function(s)
  • 15.2.1.2 Functional Unit
  • 15.2.1.3 Data and Data Quality
  • 15.2.1.4 Cutoff Criteria and Cutoff
  • 15.2.1.5 Allocation Procedures
  • 15.2.1.6 Geographical and Time Boundary of Data
  • 15.2.1.7 System Boundary
  • 15.2.1.8 Relevant Assumptions in this Study
  • 15.2.1.9 Treatment of Electricity
  • 15.3 Carbon Footprint Analysis
  • 15.3.1 Carbon Footprint Calculation
  • 15.4 LCI for PCF
  • 15.4.1 LCI of “Raw Material” Stage
  • 15.4.1.1 Sources of Data
  • 15.4.1.2 Database Selection
  • 15.4.2 LCI of “Manufacturing” Stage
  • 15.4.3 LCI of “Transportation” Stage
  • 15.5 PCF Analysis 3 4
  • 15.5.1 Carbon Footprint Results in Component/Activity 3
  • 15.6 Life-Cycle Interpretation
  • 15.6.1 Results of Life-Cycle Interpretation
  • 15.6.2 Specific GHG Emissions and Removals
  • 15.6.3 Limitations
  • 15.6.3.1 Focus on a Single Environmental Issue
  • 15.6.3.2 Limitations Related to Assumptions
  • 15.6.3.3 Limitations Related to Methodology
  • 15.6.4 Disclosure and Justifcation of Value Choices
  • 15.6.5 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 15.6.5.1 Sensitivity Analysis of Significant Input Data in Material Stage
  • 15.6.5.2 Sensitivity Analysis of Significant Input Data in Manufacturing Stage
  • 15.6.6 Uncertainty Analysis
  • 15.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 16 GHG Emissions from Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Latin America - Leonor Patricia Güereca-Hernandez, María Guadalupe Paredes-Figueroa, and Adalberto Noyola-Robles
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Wastewater Treatment and GHG Emissions 3 5
  • 16.2.1 Carbon Dioxide Emissions
  • 16.2.2 Methane Emissions
  • 16.2.3 Nitrous Oxide Emissions
  • 16.3 Wastewater Management in LAC
  • 16.3.1 Wastewater Treatment Technologies
  • 16.3.2 Opportunities for Improving Sanitation in the Region
  • 16.4 CF of the Most Representative Wastewater Technologies in Latin America
  • 16.4.1 GHG Emission Calculation for LAC Representative Technologies (Baseline)
  • 16.4.2 CF for Cubic Meter of Wastewater Treated in LAC
  • 16.5 Technological Improvements for CF Reduction
  • 16.5.1 CF for the Wastewater Treatment Scenarios with Technological Improvements
  • 16.6 GHG Emissions by the Municipal Wastewater Treatment Sector in Mexico
  • 16.6.1 Current Municipal Wastewater Treatment in Mexico
  • 16.6.2 GHG Emissions Generated by the Management and Treatment of Wastewater in Mexico in 2010 and Its Projection for 2030
  • 16.7 Economic Aspects
  • 16.8 Final Remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Carbon Footprint of the Operation and Products of a Restaurant: A Study and Alternative Perspectives - Benjamin C. McLellan, Yoshiki Tanaka, Thi Thu Huyen Dinh, Huong Long Dinh, Piradee Jusakulvijit, Faizi Ashley Taro Freemantle, and Aibek Hakimov
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.1.1 Background of the Study Target
  • 17.1.2 Notes on the Educational Process
  • 17.1.3 Literature Review
  • 17.2 Methodology
  • 17.2.1 Scoping
  • 17.2.1.1 Functional Unit
  • 17.2.1.2 System Boundaries
  • 17.2.2 Data Collection
  • 17.2.2.1 Initial Data Collection Plan
  • 17.2.3 Inventory
  • 17.3 Results
  • 17.3.1 Product-Based CF
  • 17.3.2 Business-Based CF
  • 17.4 Discussion
  • 17.4.1 Equipment
  • 17.4.2 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 17.4.3 Comparing the Two Footprints
  • 17.4.4 Limitations of the Study
  • 17.5 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Cultivation of Microalgae: Implications for the Carbon Footprint of Aquaculture and Agriculture Industries - Kirsten Heimann, Samuel Cires, and Obulisamy P. Karthikeyan
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Biology of Microalgae: Cell Physiology and Photosynthesis
  • 18.2.1 Hetero- and Mixotrophy
  • 18.2.2 Photosynthesis (Autotrophy)
  • 18.2.3 Accessory Pigments for Light Harvesting
  • 18.2.4 Fertilization
  • 18.3 Critical Factors for Microalgal Growth
  • 18.3.1 Light and Temperature
  • 18.3.2 Fertilization
  • 18.3.3 Trace Metals
  • 18.4 Mass Cultivation Systems
  • 18.5 Bioproducts from Microalgae
  • 18.6 Case Study: Aquaculture Industry 4 1
  • 18.6.1 Goal and Scope
  • 18.6.2 Methodology
  • 18.7 Case Study: Agricultural Industry
  • 18.8 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Products - Bidisha Chakrabarti, S. Naresh Kumar, and H. Pathak
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Carbon Footprint
  • 19.3 Why Estimate the Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Products?
  • 19.4 How to Estimate the Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Products?
  • 19.5 Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Products
  • 19.6 Carbon Footprint of Livestock Sector
  • 19.7 Carbon Footprint of Piggery and Poultry
  • 19.8 Carbon Footprint of Fisheries
  • 19.9 Carbon Footprint of Food Habits
  • 19.10 Strategies to Reduce the Carbon Footprint of Agricultural Produce
  • 19.10.1 Growing Leguminous Crops
  • 19.10.2 Fertilizer Management
  • 19.10.3 Water Management
  • 19.10.4 Crop Cultivars
  • 19.10.5 Tillage Operation
  • 19.10.6 Use of N-Transformation Inhibitors
  • 19.10.7 Organic Manure
  • 19.10.8 Diversification of Cropping System
  • 19.10.9 Livestock Management
  • 19.10.10 Management Options for Fisheries
  • 19.10.11 Dietary Pattern
  • 19.11 Limitations and Scope for Future Research
  • 19.12 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20 The Carbon Footprint of Sugar Production in Eastern Batangas, Philippines - Teodoro C. Mendoza, Rex B. Demafelis, Anna Elaine D. Matanguihan, Justine Allen S. Malabuyoc, Richard V. Magadia Jr., Amabelle A. Pector, Klarenz A. Hourani, Lavinia Marie A. Manaig, and Jovita L. Movillon
  • 20.1 Introduction
  • 20.2 Methodology
  • 20.2.1 Goal, Scope, and Systems Boundary
  • 20.2.2 Source of Data
  • 20.2.3 Calculating the Carbon Footprint of Sugar Production
  • 20.2.3.1 Sugarcane Production at the Farm Level
  • 20.2.3.2 Sugarcane Milling
  • 20.2.3.3 Carbon Footprint of Factory Construction
  • 20.2.3.4 Carbon Emission from Hauling
  • 20.2.3.5 Carbon Emission from Factory Operation and Products
  • 20.2.3.6 Carbon Emission from Material Inputs
  • 20.2.3.7 Carbon Emission from Wastewater Treatment Facility
  • 20.2.4 Calculating Sequestered CO2 in Sugarcane Production
  • 20.2.4.1 Net CO2 Sequestration/Emissions
  • 20.3 Results
  • 20.3.1 The Carbon Footprint of Sugarcane Production at the Farm Level
  • 20.3.1.1 The Associated GHG Emission (Expressed in CO2 Equivalence) in Cane Burning
  • 20.3.2 Carbon Sequestered
  • 20.3.3 The Carbon Footprint of Sugarcane Milling
  • 20.3.3.1 Carbon Emission of Factory Construction
  • 20.3.3.2 Carbon Emission from Hauling
  • 20.3.3.3 Carbon Emission from Milling Operation
  • 20.3.3.4 Carbon Emission from Material Inputs
  • 20.3.3.5 Carbon Emission from Wastewater Treatment Facility
  • 20.3.4 Total Carbon Footprint of Raw Sugar Production (Sugarcane Production and Sugarcane Milling)
  • 20.3.5 Payback Period
  • 20.4 Discussions, Conclusion, and Recommendations
  • 20.4.1 Field Level
  • 20.4.2 Factory Level
  • References
  • Chapter 21 A Two-Phase Carbon Footprint Management Framework: A Case Study on the Rockwool Supply Chain - Eirini Aivazidou, Christos Keramydas, Agorasti Toka, Dimitrios Vlachos, and Eleftherios Iakovou
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 A Carbon Footprint Management Framework for Supply Chains
  • 21.2.1 Systematic Recording of the International Legislative Frameworks and Trends in Carbon Footprint Management
  • 21.2.2 Identification of the Best Practices in Supply Chain Carbon Footprint Management
  • 21.2.3 Setting of the Strategic Goals for Supply Chain Carbon Footprint Management
  • 21.2.4 Ranking of the Critical Operations and Identification of the Supply Chain Partners’ Role
  • 21.2.5 Measurement of the Total Supply Chain's Carbon Footprint
  • 21.2.6 Evaluation of the Outcomes and Reconsideration of the Goals
  • 21.2.7 Centralized and Decentralized Decision Making for Supply Chain Carbon Footprint Management
  • 21.2.8 Monitoring and Reporting of the Supply Chain's Carbon Footprint
  • 21.2.9 Reevaluation and Update of the Decisions
  • 21.3 Case Study: A Real-World Rockwool Supply Chain
  • 21.3.1 The Rockwool Supply Chain
  • 21.3.2 Implementation of the Carbon Footprint Management Framework
  • 21.3.2.1 Recording of the European Regulatory Framework
  • 21.3.2.2 Identifying the Best Practices of the Top Global Competitors
  • 21.3.2.3 Setting Goals for Carbon Footprint Management in the Rockwool Supply Chain
  • 21.3.2.4 Identifying the Critical Rockwool Supply Chain Operations and the Stakeholders’ Role
  • 21.3.2.5 Quantifying the Rockwool Supply Chain Carbon Footprint
  • 21.3.2.6 Evaluating Carbon Footprint Findings for Reconsidering the Goals
  • 21.3.2.7 Decision Making for Carbon Footprint Management in the Rockwool Supply Chain
  • 21.3.2.8 Monitoring and Reporting the Rockwool Supply Chain Carbon Footprint
  • 21.3.2.9 Reevaluating Outcomes for Updating the Carbon Footprint Management Decisions
  • 21.4 Conclusions and Recommendations
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Product Carbon Footprint Estimation of a Ton of Paper: Case Study of a Paper Production Unit in West Bengal, India - Debrupa Chakraborty
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.1.1 Background
  • 22.2 Methodology for Estimating PCF
  • 22.2.1 Process Description
  • 22.2.1.1 Paper Manufacturing Process
  • 22.2.1.2 Sheet Forming Section
  • 22.2.1.3 Press Section
  • 22.2.1.4 Drying
  • 22.2.1.5 Calendaring
  • 22.2.1.6 Reeling
  • 22.2.2 Study Boundary and Data Collection
  • 22.2.2.1 Study Boundary
  • 22.2.2.2 Data Collection
  • 22.2.2.3 Scope, Research Gaps, Assumptions, and Limitations of Study
  • 22.3 Results and Discussions
  • 22.4 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Appendix
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Product Carbon Footprint Assessment of a Personal Electronic Product: Case Study of an Electronic Scale - Winco K.C. Yung and Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Methodology
  • 23.2.1 Scope
  • 23.2.1.1 Product System and Its Function(s)
  • 23.2.1.2 Functional Unit
  • 23.2.1.3 Data and Data Quality
  • 23.2.1.4 Cut-Off Criteria and Cut-Offs
  • 23.2.1.5 Allocation Procedures
  • 23.2.1.6 Geographical and Time Boundary of Data
  • 23.2.1.7 System Boundary
  • 23.2.1.8 Relevant Assumptions in This Study
  • 23.2.1.9 Treatment of Electricity
  • 23.3 Carbon Footprint Analysis
  • 23.3.1 Carbon Emission Calculation
  • 23.4 Life-Cycle Inventory for PCF
  • 23.4.1 Life-Cycle Inventory of “Raw Material” Stage
  • 23.4.1.1 Sources of Data
  • 23.4.2 Life-Cycle Inventory of “Manufacturing” Stage
  • 23.4.2.1 Process Flow in “Manufacturing” Stage
  • 23.4.3 Life-Cycle Inventory of “Transportation and Storage” Stage
  • 23.4.4 Life-Cycle Inventory of “Use” Stage
  • 23.4.5 Life-Cycle Inventory of “End-of-Life” Stage
  • 23.5 Life-Cycle Impact Assessment of PCF Analysis
  • 23.6 Life-Cycle Interpretation
  • 23.6.1 Results of Life-Cycle Interpretation
  • 23.6.2 Specific GHG Emissions and Removals
  • 23.6.3 Limitations
  • 23.6.3.1 Focus on a Single Environmental Issue
  • 23.6.3.2 Limitations Related to the Assumptions
  • 23.6.3.3 Limitations Related to the Methodology
  • 23.6.4 Disclosure and Justification of Value Choices
  • 23.6.5 Sensitivity Analysis
  • 23.6.5.1 Sensitivity Analysis of Significant Input Data in Material Stage
  • 23.6.5.2 Sensitivity Analysis of Significant Input Data in Manufacturing Stage
  • 23.6.5.3 Sensitivity Analysis of Use Profile
  • 23.6.5.4 Sensitivity Analysis of End-of-Life Scenarios
  • 23.6.6 Uncertainty Analysis
  • 23.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References