Ideas and Movements That Shaped America: From the Bill of Rights to "Occupy Wall Street"

Editors: Green, Michael S. and Stabler, Scott L.
Publication Year: 2015
Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Single-User Purchase Price: $294.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $441.00
ISBN: 978-1-61-069251-9
Category: History - World history
Image Count: 157
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Presenting accessibly written information for general audiences as well as students and researchers, this work examines the evolution of American society and thought from the nation's beginnings to the twenty-first century. It covers the seminal ideas and social movements that define who we are as Americans-from the ideas that underpin the Bill of Rights to slavery, the Civil Rights movement, and the idea of gay rights-even if U.S. citizens often strongly disagree on these topics. The set's unique perspective serves to depict how American society has evolved from the nation's beginnings to the present, revealing how Americans as a people have acted and responded to key ideas and movements.

Share this

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Chronology
  • A
  • Abolition
  • Emancipation Proclamation (January 1, 1863)
  • Affirmative Action
  • Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
  • African American Civil Rights Movement
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964 (July 2, 1964)
  • Agrarianism
  • “Introduction: A Statement of Principles” from I'll Take My Stand: The South and the Agrarian Tradition by Twelve Southerners (1930)
  • American Missionary Movement
  • “A Layman's Thoughts on Layman's Work” by Henry W. Jessup (September 1893)
  • Americanization
  • Speech by Louis Brandeis on True Americanism (July 5, 1915)
  • Anarchist Movement
  • “What Is Anarchism?” from Alexander Berkman's Now and After: The ABC of Communist Anarchism (1929)
  • Animal Rights Movement
  • An Act for the More Effectual Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (New York State) (1867)
  • Anticommunism
  • North Atlantic Treaty (April 4, 1949)
  • Anti-Federalism
  • Patrick Henry's Speech “Dangerous Ambiguities” (July 5, 1788)
  • Anti-Immigration
  • Immigration Act of 1924 (Johnson-Reed Act) (May 26, 1924)
  • Anti-Lynching Movement
  • “Lynch Law in America” by Ida B. Wells-Barnett (January 1900)
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Article by Henry Ford in The Dearborn Independent Newspaper (1920)
  • Antislavery
  • Hinton Rowan Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It (1857)
  • Anti-Smoking Movement
  • Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (June 22, 2009)
  • Antiwar Movement (Vietnam Era)
  • Testimony of John F. Kerry to the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations (April 22, 1971)
  • Asian Rights Movement
  • Chinese Exclusion Act (May 6, 1882)
  • B
  • Back to Africa Movement
  • “Declaration of the Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World”: The Principles of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) (August 13, 1920)
  • Beat Movement
  • Part I of Allen Ginsberg's Howl (1955)
  • Big Oil
  • President Jimmy Carter's Address to the Nation on Energy and National Goals (“The Malaise Speech”) (July 15, 1979)
  • Bill of Rights
  • U.S. Bill of Rights (December 15, 1791)
  • Bimetallism
  • William Jennings Bryan's “Cross of Gold” Speech (July 9, 1896)
  • Birth Control Movement
  • Correspondence of Margaret Sanger and Katharine Dexter McCormick (1948–1955)
  • Black Islamist Movement
  • Elijah Muhammad Addressing a Meeting of His Followers (1964) (Photograph)
  • Black Power Movement
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Cointelpro Memo Regarding the Activities of the Black Panther Party (BPP) (May 13, 1969)
  • Born-Again Movement
  • President Jimmy Carter's Remarks at the 26th Annual National Prayer Breakfast (February 2, 1978)
  • Boycotts
  • Code of the City of Montgomery, Alabama (1952)
  • C
  • Canal Construction
  • Robert Fulton's Letter to Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin, as Appended to the Secretary's Report on Public Roads and Canals (1808)
  • Capital Punishment
  • Furman v. Georgia (1972)
  • Capitalism
  • “Chapter 1: Of the Division of Labour” from Adam Smith's An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • Catholicism
  • Address of Senator John F. Kennedy to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association (September 12, 1960)
  • Chattel Slavery
  • Chapter 1 from Frederick Douglass's Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave (1845)
  • Chicano Rights
  • Cesar Chávez's Address to the Commonwealth Club of California (November 9, 1984)
  • Children's Rights
  • United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child (November 20, 1989)
  • Christian Fundamentalism
  • “The Descent of the Modernists” (Illustration)
  • Civil Disobedience
  • Journal of John Woolman on War Taxes (1750s)
  • Henry David Thoreau's “Essay on Civil Disobedience” (1849)
  • Preamble to the Knights of Labor Constitution (1878)
  • Civil Service Reform
  • Pendleton Act (January 16, 1883)
  • Colonization
  • Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain (Treaty of Paris) (December 10, 1898)
  • Columbian Exchange
  • Letter of Christopher Columbus to Luis de Santángel (February 15, 1493)
  • Commercialization
  • President Calvin Coolidge's Address Before the American Association of Advertising Agencies (October 27, 1926)
  • Communism
  • The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1848)
  • Conscription
  • The Atlanta Constitution: “Wilson Working for Conscription: President Gets Behind General Staff's Plan for Raising Army—Much Opposition to Conscription” (April 10, 1917)
  • Conservation Movement
  • President Theodore Roosevelt's Opening Address to the White House Conference of Governors (May 13, 1908)
  • Conservatism
  • Ronald Reagan's “A Time for Choosing” Speech (October 27, 1964)
  • Constitutionalism
  • Chapter XII from John Locke's “Second Treatise of Government” (1689)
  • Consumerism
  • Wealth Against Commonwealth by Henry Demarest Lloyd (1894)
  • Containment
  • George Kennan's “Long Telegram” (February 22, 1946)
  • Corporatism
  • President Grover Cleveland's State of the Union Address (December 3, 1888)
  • Counterculture
  • Announcement in the Newspaper Rag: “This Thursday Is Gentle Thursday the Celebration of Our Belief That There Is Nothing Wrong with Fun” (October 31, 1966)
  • Creationism vs. Evolution
  • Testimony of Stephen Jay Gould, McLean v. Arkansas (1981)
  • Crime
  • Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law 107–296)
  • D
  • Darwinism
  • Transcript of Clarence Darrow's Examination of William Jennings Bryan During the Scopes Monkey Trial (July 20, 1925)
  • Democracy
  • Constitution of the United States (Ratified June 21, 1788)
  • Diplomacy
  • President Ronald Reagan's Final Radio Address to the Nation (January 14, 1989)
  • Disability Rights Movement
  • Draft Disability Rights Legislation (1942)
  • Disease Eradication
  • Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication (December 31, 1993)
  • Divorce
  • California Family Law Act (September 5, 1969)
  • E
  • Education
  • The New England Primer (1843)
  • Elections
  • “Waltham Wide Awake,” Boston Daily Advertiser (October 9, 1860)
  • Electoral System
  • Article II, Section 1 of the U.S. Constitution (1787)
  • Enlightenment
  • Thomas Paine's “Of the Religion of Deism: Compared with the Christian Religion, and the Superiority of the Former Over the Latter” (1804)
  • Environmental Movement
  • Henry David Thoreau's Walden; or, Life in the Woods (1854)
  • Eugenics
  • Margaret Sanger's “The Eugenic Value of Birth Control Propaganda” (1921)
  • Exodusters
  • Report of the Select Committee of the United States Senate to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States (1880)
  • Expatriates
  • Expatriation Act (July 27, 1868)
  • F
  • Fascism
  • Testimony of General Smedley Butler Before the McCormack-Dickstein Committee (1934)
  • Federalism
  • Clinton v. City of New York (June 25, 1998)
  • Feminist Movement
  • The SCUM Manifesto (Society for Cutting Up Men) by Valerie Solanas (1967)
  • Fitness Movement
  • Luther H. Gulick's Introduction to The Body Builder by Robert J. Roberts (1916)
  • Fordism
  • My Life and Work by Henry Ford with Samuel Crowther (1922)
  • Foreign Alliances
  • President George Washington's Farewell Address (September 17, 1796)
  • Foreign Interventionism
  • President Woodrow Wilson's Address to Congress on the Mexican Crisis (April 20, 1914)
  • Free Love Movement
  • Woodhull and Claflin's Weekly (August–October 1871)
  • Free Speech Movement
  • Statement Issued by University of California at Berkeley, Student Organizations (October 2, 1964)
  • Free Trade
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1994)
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (January 16, 1786)
  • Freedom of Speech
  • First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (December 15, 1791)
  • An Act for the Punishment of Certain Crimes Against the United States (July 14, 1798)
  • Freedom of the Press
  • The New York Times Co. v. United States (June 30, 1971)
  • The Frontier
  • Frederick Jackson Turner's “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (July 12, 1893)
  • G
  • Gay Rights
  • Vermont Civil Unions Act (2000)
  • Great Awakening
  • Jonathan Edwards's Sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741)
  • Great Society
  • President Lyndon Johnson's “Great Society” Speech (May 22, 1964)
  • Gun Control Movement
  • District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)
  • H
  • Harlem Renaissance Movement
  • The Big Sea: An Autobiography by Langston Hughes (1940)
  • Health Care Reform
  • President Barack Obama's Speech on Health Care to Congress (September 9, 2009)
  • Higher Education Movement
  • Morrill Land Grant College Act (1862)
  • Hippies
  • “Notes to Tourists: Roll Down Your Windows” (1967)
  • HIV/AIDS Awareness
  • Ordinance Passed by San Francisco Board of Supervisors Prohibiting Discrimination on the Basis of AIDS and Associated Conditions (November 5, 1985)
  • Homesteading
  • Homestead Act (May 20, 1862)
  • Human Rights
  • “The Four Freedoms Turn 70: Ensuring Economic, Political, and National Security in the 21st Century” by Michael H. Posner (March 24, 2011)
  • I
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) (November 6, 1986)
  • Arizona's Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (Arizona SB 1070) (April 23, 2010)
  • Immigration
  • Proclamation by President Calvin Coolidge Setting Quotas Under the Immigration Act of 1924
  • Imperialism
  • Theodore Roosevelt's Speech at the Hamilton Club in Chicago (April 10, 1899)
  • Indian Removal
  • Chief Joseph's Lament (1879)
  • Indian Rights
  • Report by John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior (1938)
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Alexander Hamilton's Report on Manufactures (December 5, 1791)
  • Information Age
  • Tony Silvia's Global News: Perspectives on the Information Age (2001)
  • Oral History Interview with Vinton Cerf by Donald Nielson in Mountain View, California (November 7, 2007)
  • Internet Nation
  • “Information Management: A Proposal” by Tim Berners-Lee (March 1989)
  • Islamic Fundamentalism
  • Dr. Joshua Muravchik of the American Enterprise Institute Speaks on Ways in Which Islamic Fundamentalism Impedes American Foreign Policy Interests (September 21, 1993)
  • Isolationism
  • Former President Herbert Hoover's “Gibraltar America” Address (December 20, 1950)
  • J
  • Jim Crow
  • “The Black Laws” by Bishop B. W. Arnett (1886)
  • Judicial Activism
  • Marbury v. Madison (1803)
  • Judicial Review
  • The Federalist No. 78 (Alexander Hamilton) (May 28, 1788)
  • K
  • Keynesian Economics
  • Letter of Jean-Baptiste Say to Thomas Malthus on Political Economy and Stagnation of Commerce (1821)
  • L
  • Labor Movement
  • “With Drops of Blood the History of the Industrial Workers of the World Has Been Written” by “Big Bill” Haywood (1919)
  • Liberalism
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt's Acceptance Speech to the Democratic National Convention (July 2, 1932)
  • Libertarianism
  • Libertarian Party Platform (June 17, 1972)
  • Literacy
  • Retaliatory Legislation Enacted in Virginia After the Nat Turner Rebellion to Prohibit the Teaching of Slaves, Free Negroes, or Mulattoes to Read or Write (1831)
  • Lost Cause
  • Edward A. Pollard's The Lost Cause: A New Southern History of the War of the Confederates (1866)
  • M
  • Manifest Destiny
  • “The Great Nation of Futurity” by John L. O'Sullivan (November 1839)
  • Marriage
  • Marriage Certificate for Joseph and Mary Province (February 26, 1866)
  • Mass Communication
  • Edward R. Murrow's Speech to the Radio-Television News Directors Association (October 15, 1958)
  • Mass Production
  • Testimony of Henry Ford in Lawsuit Brought by John F. and Horace E. Dodge (1916)
  • Mercantilism
  • Sugar Act (April 5, 1764)
  • Military-Industrial Complex
  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address to the Nation (January 17, 1961)
  • Miscegenation
  • Cartoon: “Miscegenation or the Millennium of Abolitionism” (1864)
  • Cartoon: “The Miscegenation Ball” (1864)
  • Modern Medicine
  • “A Criticism of Modern Medicine,” a Journal of the American Medical Association Editorial (April 10, 1926)
  • Modernization
  • Seadevil Conquers America by Felix von Luckner (1928)
  • Monetary Policy
  • Preface of Irving Fisher's The Purchasing Power of Money: Its Determination and Relation to Credit Interest and Crises (1912)
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • President James Monroe's 1823 Message to Congress Spelling Out the Monroe Doctrine (December 2, 1823)
  • Moral Majority
  • Listen America by Jerry Falwell (1980)
  • Remarks at an Ecumenical Prayer Breakfast in Dallas, Texas, by President Ronald Reagan (August 23, 1984)
  • Mormonism
  • Articles of Faith (1842)
  • Muckraking
  • “The Man with the Muck-rake” by President Theodore Roosevelt (April 14, 1906)
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (June 30, 1906)
  • N
  • National Bank/Federal Reserve System
  • Alexander Hamilton's Second Report on the Further Provision Necessary for Establishing Public Credit (December 13, 1790)
  • Nativism
  • American Party Platform (1856)
  • New Left Movement
  • “Letter to the New Left” by C. Wright Mills (1960)
  • Nonviolent Resistance
  • “Doom and Passion Along Rt. 45” by Thomas B. Morgan (November 1962)
  • Nuclear Power Movement
  • Staff Report to the President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island (October 1979)
  • Nuclear Proliferation
  • Letter of Albert Einstein to President Franklin D. Roosevelt (August 2, 1939)
  • Nullification
  • Kentucky Resolution (November 19, 1798)
  • Virginia Resolution (December 24, 1798)
  • O
  • Occupy Movement
  • News Conference by President Barack Obama (October 6, 2011)
  • P
  • Pan-Africanism
  • W.E.B. Du Bois's Speech “To the Nations of the World” (July 25, 1900)
  • “If You Believe the Negro Has a Soul” by Marcus Garvey (1921)
  • Patriotism
  • Alexander Hamilton's Oath of Allegiance to the United States, Taken at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania (May 12, 1778)
  • Peace Movement (Late 19th Century)
  • “The Message of Peace” by Julia Ward Howe (1899)
  • Political Parties
  • Republican Party Platform of 1856
  • Pop Culture
  • Excerpt from No. 1 in The Jesse James Stories, a Dime Novel Series (1901)
  • Populism
  • Populist Party Platform (July 1892)
  • Presidential Power
  • The Federalist #70 by Alexander Hamilton (1788)
  • Prison/Penitentiary Reform
  • “Education as a Factor in Prison Reform” by Charles Dudley Warner (February 1886)
  • Privacy
  • USA PATRIOT Improvement and Reauthorization Act (March 8, 2006)
  • Pro-Choice Movement
  • “Birth Control or Abortion?” by Margaret Sanger (December 1918)
  • Progressive Income Tax
  • Pollock v. Farmers’ Loan & Trust Company (May 20, 1895)
  • Sixteenth Amendment (February 3, 1913)
  • Progressivism
  • The Jungle by Upton Sinclair (1906)
  • Prohibition
  • Volstead Act (October 28, 1919)
  • Prostitution
  • Fighting the Traffic in Young Girls or, War on the White Slave Trade by Ernest A. Bell (1910)
  • Protestantism
  • Billy Graham's Sermon “Christ's Answer to the World” (1958)
  • R
  • Racism
  • “According to the Condition of the Mother,” a Virginia Statute (1662)
  • Reconstruction
  • Ordinance Relative to the Police of Negroes or Colored Persons Within the Corporate Limits of the Town of Franklin [Louisiana] (July 28, 1865)
  • Telegram from Thomas Conway, Assistant Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, to Major George R. Davis, Union Commander in Franklin (August 10, 1865)
  • Red Power Movement
  • Alcatraz Proclamation (1969)
  • Representation
  • “Common Sense” by Thomas Paine (1776)
  • Reproductive Rights
  • Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992)
  • Republicanism
  • The Essex Result (April 29, 1778)
  • Letter of Thomas Jefferson to John Taylor (May 28, 1816)
  • Right to Die
  • Oregon Death with Dignity Act (October 27, 1997)
  • Right to Life
  • Roe v. Wade (January 22, 1973)
  • Roadways (1800–Present)
  • Toll Roads and Free Roads: Message from the President of the United States to the United States Congress (April 27, 1939)
  • Romanticism
  • “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” by Washington Irving (1802)
  • S
  • Secession
  • A Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union (January 9, 1861)
  • Second Great Awakening
  • “A Camp Meeting Heats Up” from Frances Trollope's Domestic Manners of Americans (1829)
  • Sectionalism
  • “Sectionalism,” The National Era (September 21, 1854)
  • Sedition
  • Sedition Act of 1918
  • Self-Governance
  • “Chapter XII: Political Associations in the United States” from Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America (1835)
  • Separation of Church and State
  • Letter of President Thomas Jefferson to the Danbury Baptist Association (January 1, 1802)
  • Separation of Powers
  • The Federalist #47 by James Madison (January 30, 1788)
  • Sex in American Society
  • Testimony Before Congress by Charles Keckner on Department of Health and Human Services Abstinence Education Programs (April 23, 2008)
  • Social Darwinism
  • Herbert Spencer's Social Statics, or The Conditions Essential to Happiness Specified, and the First of Them Developed (1851)
  • Social Gospel
  • “The Social Creed of the Churches,” Published by the Federal Council of Churches (December 4, 1908)
  • Social Security
  • Social Security Act (August 14, 1935)
  • Socialism
  • “How I Became a Socialist” by Helen Keller (November 3, 1912)
  • Southern Rights Movement
  • Southern Manifesto on Integration (March 12, 1956)
  • Space Exploration
  • President John F. Kennedy's Speech to a Joint Session of Congress (May 25, 1961)
  • Spoils System
  • Speech of New York Senator William L. Marcy to the U.S. Senate (January 25, 1832)
  • States’ Rights (Antebellum, Memory, Contemporary)
  • South Carolina Ordinance of Secession (December 20, 1860)
  • Student Rights Movement
  • Port Huron Statement (June 15, 1962)
  • Suburbanization
  • National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (June 29, 1956)
  • T
  • Taxation
  • California Proposition 13 (1978)
  • Tea Party Movement
  • A Tea Party Manifesto (August 17, 2010)
  • Temperance Movement
  • “Advice to Young Women and Young Men” from The Temperance Almanac (1836)
  • Terrorism
  • Press Conference of Secretary of State Colin Powell (September 11, 2001)
  • Title IX
  • Statements of Reps. Louise Slaughter and Lynn Woolsey in Support of Title IX (March 27, 2003)
  • Transcendentalism
  • “Nature” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1836)
  • Trust-Busting
  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
  • U
  • Unionization
  • National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) (1935)
  • Urban Renewal
  • Chapter 1 from Twenty Years at Hull-House by Jane Addams (1910)
  • Urbanization
  • How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York by Jacob Riis (1914)
  • Utopian Movements
  • A Modell of Christian Charity by John Winthrop (1630)
  • V
  • Veterans’ Rights
  • The Story of the American Legion by George Seay Wheat (1919)
  • Violent Protest
  • Statement by President Lyndon B. Johnson Following the Restoration of Order in Los Angeles (August 15, 1965)
  • Voting Rights
  • Shelby County v. Holder (2013)
  • W
  • War as Policy
  • President Woodrow Wilson's War Message to Congress (April 2, 1917)
  • War on Drugs
  • President Ronald Reagan's Radio Address on Federal Drug Policy (October 2, 1982)
  • War on Poverty
  • President Lyndon B. Johnson's Special Message to the Congress Proposing a Nationwide War on the Sources of Poverty (March 16, 1964)
  • War on Terror
  • President George W. Bush's Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People (September 20, 2001)
  • Water Rights
  • Coffin v. Left Hand Ditch Co. (1882)
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)
  • Report: “NSC 68: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security” (April 7, 1950)
  • Welfare State
  • Congressman Paul Ryan on the Affordable Care Act (2014)
  • Western Expansion/Exploration
  • Shadow and Light: An Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Centuries by Mifflin Wistar Gibbs (1902)
  • Western Lore
  • “The Outcasts of Poker Flat” by Bret Harte (1869)
  • White Supremacy/Power
  • George Lincoln Rockwell's In Hoc Signo Vinces (1960)
  • Women's Rights Movement (19th Century)
  • “Declaration of Sentiments” (1848) and Dedication to the History of Woman Suffrage (1887)
  • Women's Suffrage
  • “Miss Alice Paul on Hunger Strike,” The New York Times (November 7, 1917)
  • Y
  • Yellow Journalism
  • Cartoon: “The Yellow Press” by Louis M. Glackens (October 12, 1910)
  • Youth Movement
  • Organizing Pamphlet for Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) National Action, Chicago (October 8–11, 1969)
  • Z
  • Zionism
  • Address to the Extraordinary Zionist Conference by Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver (May 9, 1942)
  • Bibliography
  • Editors and Contributors