Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods

Editor: Allen, Mike
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: SAGE Publications

Single-User Purchase Price: $869.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $1303.50
ISBN: 978-1-48-338143-5
Category: Social Sciences - Media & Communications
Image Count: 56
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Communication research is evolving and changing in a world of online journals, open-access, and new ways of obtaining data and conducting experiments via the Internet. Until now there has been no comprehensive A-to-Z reference work exploring methods specific to communication and media studies. Entries cover every step of the research process, from the creative development of research topics and questions to literature reviews, selection of best methods (whether quantitative, qualitative, or mixed) for analyzing research results and publishing research findings, whether in traditional media or via new media outlets.

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Table of Contents

    • About this Title
    • Editorial Board
    • Reader’s Guide
    • About the Editor
    • Contributors
    • Introduction
    • Volume 1
    • A
    • Abstract or Executive Summary
    • Academic Journal Structure
    • Academic Journals
    • Acculturation
    • Acknowledging the Contribution of Others
    • Activism and Social Justice
    • African American Communication and Culture
    • Agenda Setting
    • Alternative Conference Presentation Formats
    • Alternative News Media
    • American Psychological Association (APA) Style
    • Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
    • Analysis of Ranks
    • Analysis of Residuals
    • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
    • Analytic Induction
    • Anonymous Source of Data
    • Applied Communication
    • Archival Analysis
    • Archive Searching for Research
    • Archiving Data
    • Argumentation Theory
    • Artifact Selection
    • Asian/Pacific American Communication Studies
    • Association of Internet Researchers
    • Attenuation
    • Authoring: Telling a Research Story
    • Authorship Bias
    • Authorship Credit
    • Autoethnography
    • Autoregressive, Integrative, Moving Average (ARIMA) Models
    • Average Effect, Estimation of
    • Axial Coding
    • B
    • Bad News, Communication of
    • Basic Course in Communication
    • Between-Subjects Design
    • Bibliographic Research
    • Binomial Effect Size Display
    • Bivariate Statistics
    • Block Analysis
    • Blocking Variable
    • Blogs and Microblogs
    • Blogs and Research
    • Body Image and Eating Disorders
    • Bonferroni Correction
    • Bootstrapping
    • Burkean Analysis
    • Business Communication
    • C
    • Case Study
    • Categorization
    • Causality
    • Ceiling and Floor Effects
    • Chat Rooms
    • Chicago Style
    • Chi-Square
    • Citation Analyses
    • Citations to Research
    • Close Reading
    • Cloze Procedure
    • Cluster Analysis
    • Coding, Fixed
    • Coding, Flexible
    • Coding of Data
    • Cohen’s Kappa
    • Cohort
    • Communication and Aging Research
    • Communication and Culture
    • Communication and Evolution
    • Communication and Future Studies
    • Communication and Human Biology
    • Communication and Technology
    • Communication Apprehension
    • Communication Assessment
    • Communication Competence
    • Communication Education
    • Communication Ethics
    • Communication History
    • Communication Journals
    • Communication Privacy Management Theory
    • Communication Skills
    • Communication Theory
    • Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software
    • Computer-Mediated Communication
    • Confederates
    • Confidence Interval
    • Confidentiality and Anonymity of Participants
    • Conflict, Mediation, and Negotiation
    • Conflict of Interest in Research
    • Conjoint Analysis
    • Content Analysis: Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Content Analysis, Definition of
    • Content Analysis, Process of
    • Contrast Analysis
    • Control Groups
    • Controversial Experiments
    • Conversation Analysis
    • Copyright Issues in Research
    • Corporate Communication
    • Correlation, Pearson
    • Correlation, Point-Biserial
    • Correlation, Spearman
    • Correspondence Analysis
    • Counterbalancing
    • Covariance/Variance Matrix
    • Covariate
    • Covert Observation
    • Cramér’s V
    • Crisis Communication
    • Critical Analysis
    • Critical Ethnography
    • Critical Incident Method
    • Critical Race Theory
    • Critical Theory
    • Cronbach’s Alpha
    • Cross Validation
    • Cross-Cultural Communication
    • Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis
    • Cross-Sectional Design
    • Cultural Sensitivity in Research
    • Cultural Studies and Communication
    • Curvilinear Relationship
    • Cutoff Scores
    • Cyberchondria
    • D
    • Dark Side of Communication
    • Data
    • Data Cleaning
    • Data Reduction
    • Data Security
    • Data Transformation
    • Data Trimming
    • Databases, Academic
    • Debate and Forensics
    • Debriefing of Participants
    • Deception in Research
    • Decomposing Sums of Squares
    • Degrees of Freedom
    • Delayed Measurement
    • Demand Characteristics
    • Development of Communication in Children
    • Diaries
    • Diaspora
    • Dichotomization of Continuous Variable
    • Digital Media and Race
    • Digital Natives
    • Dime Dating
    • Disability and Communication
    • Discourse Analysis
    • Discriminant Analysis
    • Discussion Section
    • Distance Learning
    • Duncan Test
    • E
    • Educational Technology
    • Effect Sizes
    • Emergency Communication
    • Empathic Listening
    • English as a Second Language
    • Environmental Communication
    • Error Term
    • Errors of Measurement
    • Errors of Measurement: Attenuation
    • Errors of Measurement: Ceiling and Floor Effects
    • Errors of Measurement: Dichotomization of a Continuous Variable
    • Errors of Measurement: Range Restriction
    • Errors of Measurement: Regression Toward the Mean
    • Eta Squared
    • Ethical Issues, International Research
    • Ethics Codes and Guidelines
    • Ethnographic Interview
    • Ethnography
    • Ethnomethodology
    • Evidence-Based Policy Making
    • Ex Post Facto Designs
    • Experience Sampling Method
    • Experimental Manipulation
    • Experiments and Experimental Design
    • External Validity
    • Extraneous Variables, Control of
    • Volume 2
    • F
    • Facial Action Coding System
    • Factor, Crossed
    • Factor, Fixed
    • Factor, Nested
    • Factor, Random
    • Factor Analysis
    • Factor Analysis: Confirmatory
    • Factor Analysis: Evolutionary
    • Factor Analysis: Exploratory
    • Factor Analysis: Internal Consistency
    • Factor Analysis: Oblique Rotation
    • Factor Analysis: Parallelism Test
    • Factor Analysis: Rotated Matrix
    • Factor Analysis: Varimax Rotation
    • Factorial Analysis of Variance
    • Factorial Designs
    • False Negative
    • False Positive
    • Family Communication
    • Fantasy Theme Analysis
    • Feminist Analysis
    • Feminist Communication Studies
    • Field Experiments
    • Field Notes
    • Film Studies
    • Financial Communication
    • First-Wave Feminism
    • Fisher Narrative Paradigm
    • Fixed Effect Analysis
    • Fleiss System
    • Focus Groups
    • Foundation and Government Research Collections
    • Frame Analysis
    • Fraudulent and Misleading Data
    • Freedom of Expression
    • Frequency Distributions
    • Funding of Research
    • G
    • Game Studies
    • Garfinkeling
    • Gender and Communication
    • Gender-Specific Language
    • Generalization
    • GeoMedia
    • GLBT Communication Studies
    • GLBT People and Social Media
    • Grounded Theory
    • Group Communication
    • H
    • Health Care Disparities
    • Health Communication
    • Health Literacy
    • Hermeneutics
    • Heterogeneity of Variance
    • Heteroskedasticity
    • Hierarchical Linear Modeling
    • Hierarchical Model
    • Historical Analysis
    • Holsti Method
    • Homogeneity of Variance
    • Human Subjects, Treatment of
    • Human–Computer Interaction
    • Hypothesis Formulation
    • Hypothesis Testing, Logic of
    • I
    • Ideographs
    • Imagined Interactions
    • Implicit Measures
    • Individual Difference
    • Induction
    • Informant Interview
    • Informants
    • Informed Consent
    • Institutional Review Board
    • Instructional Communication
    • Interaction Analysis, Qualitative
    • Interaction Analysis, Quantitative
    • Intercoder Reliability
    • Intercoder Reliability Coefficients, Comparison of
    • Intercoder Reliability Standards: Reproducibility
    • Intercoder Reliability Standards: Stability
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Cohen’s Kappa
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Fleiss System
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Holsti Method
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Krippendorff’s Alpha
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Percent Agreement
    • Intercoder Reliability Techniques: Scott’s Pi
    • Intercultural Communication
    • Interdisciplinary Journals
    • Intergenerational Communication
    • Intergroup Communication
    • Internal Validity
    • International Communication
    • International Film
    • Internet as Cultural Context
    • Internet Research, Privacy of Participants
    • Internet Research and Ethical Decision Making
    • Interpersonal Communication
    • Interpretive Research
    • Interviewees
    • Interviews, Recording and Transcribing
    • Interviews for Data Gathering
    • Intraclass Correlation
    • Intrapersonal Communication
    • Invited Publication
    • J
    • Jealousy
    • Journalism
    • Journals
    • K
    • Kendall’s Tau
    • Krippendorff’s Alpha
    • Kruskal–Wallis Test
    • Kuder–Richardson Formula
    • L
    • Laboratory Experiments
    • Lag Sequential Analysis
    • Lambda
    • Language and Social Interaction
    • Latin Square Design
    • Latina/o Communication
    • Leadership
    • Least Significant Difference
    • Legal Communication
    • Library Research
    • Limitations of Research
    • Linear Regression
    • Linear Versus Nonlinear Relationships
    • Literature, Determining Quality of
    • Literature, Determining Relevance of
    • Literature Review
    • Literature Review, The
    • Literature Reviews, Foundational
    • Literature Reviews, Resources for
    • Literature Reviews, Strategies for
    • Literature Search Issues
    • Literature Sources, Skeptical and Critical Stance Toward
    • Log-Linear Analysis
    • Logistic Analysis
    • Longitudinal Design
    • M
    • Managerial Communication
    • Manipulation Check
    • Margin of Error
    • Markov Analysis
    • Marxist Analysis
    • Mass Communication
    • Massive Multiplayer Online Games
    • Massive Open Online Courses
    • Matched Groups
    • Matched Individuals
    • Maximum Likelihood Estimation
    • McNemar Test
    • Mean, Arithmetic
    • Mean, Geometric
    • Mean, Harmonic
    • Measurement Levels
    • Measurement Levels, Interval
    • Measurement Levels, Nominal/Categorical
    • Measurement Levels, Ordinal
    • Measurement Levels, Ratio
    • Measures of Central Tendency
    • Measures of Variability
    • Media and Technology Studies
    • Media Diffusion
    • Media Effects Research
    • Media Literacy
    • Median
    • Median Split of Sample
    • Message Production
    • Meta-Analysis
    • Meta-Analysis: Estimation of Average Effect
    • Meta-Analysis: Fixed-Effects Analysis
    • Meta-Analysis: Literature Search Issues
    • Meta-Analysis: Model Testing
    • Meta-Analysis: Random Effects Analysis
    • Meta-Analysis: Statistical Conversion to Common Metric
    • Meta-Ethnography
    • Metaphor Analysis
    • Methodology, Selection of
    • Methods Section
    • Metrics for Analysis, Selection of
    • Mixed Level Design
    • Volume 3
    • M (Cont.)
    • Mode
    • Model Testing
    • Modern Language Association (MLA) Style
    • Mortality in Sample
    • Multicollinearity
    • Multiplatform Journalism
    • Multiple Regression
    • Multiple Regression: Block Analysis
    • Multiple Regression: Covariates in Multiple Regression
    • Multiple Regression: Multiple R
    • Multiple Regression: Standardized and Raw Coefficients
    • Multitrial Design
    • Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA)
    • Multivariate Statistics
    • N
    • Narrative Analysis
    • Narrative Interviewing
    • Narrative Literature Review
    • Native American or Indigenous Peoples Communication
    • Naturalistic Observation
    • Negative Case Analysis
    • Neo-Aristotelian Criticism
    • New Media Analysis
    • New Media and Participant Observation
    • News Media, Writing for
    • Nonverbal Communication
    • Normal Curve Distribution
    • Null Hypothesis
    • O
    • Observational Measurement: Face Features
    • Observational Measurement: Proxemics and Touch
    • Observational Measurement: Vocal Qualities
    • Observational Research, Advantages and Disadvantages
    • Observational Research Methods
    • Observer Reliability
    • Odds Ratio
    • One-Group Pretest–Posttest Design
    • One-Tailed Test
    • One-Way Analysis of Variance
    • Online and Offline Data, Comparison of
    • Online Communities
    • Online Data, Collection and Interpretation of
    • Online Data, Documentation of
    • Online Data, Hacking of
    • Online Interviews
    • Online Learning
    • Online Social Worlds
    • Opinion Polling
    • Ordinary Least Squares
    • Organizational Communication
    • Organizational Ethics
    • Organizational Identification
    • Orthogonality
    • Outlier Analysis
    • Overidentified Model
    • P
    • p value
    • Panel Presentations and Discussions
    • Parasocial Communication
    • Parsimony
    • Partial Correlation
    • Participant Observation
    • Passing Theory
    • Path Analysis
    • Patient-Centered Communication
    • Pay to Review and/or Publish
    • Peace Studies
    • Peer Review
    • Peer Reviewed Publication
    • Pentadic Analysis
    • Percent Agreement
    • Performance Research
    • Performance Studies
    • Personal Relationship Studies
    • Persuasion
    • Phenomenological Traditions
    • Phi Coefficient
    • Philosophy of Communication
    • Physiological Measurement
    • Physiological Measurement: Blood Pressure
    • Physiological Measurement: Genital Blood Volume
    • Physiological Measurement: Heart Rate
    • Physiological Measurement: Pupillary Response
    • Physiological Measurement: Skin Conductance
    • Pilot Study
    • Plagiarism
    • Plagiarism, Self-
    • Poetic Analysis
    • Politeness Theory
    • Political Communication
    • Political Debates
    • Political Economy of Media
    • Popular Communication
    • Population/Sample
    • Pornography and Research
    • Postcolonial Communication
    • Post Hoc Tests
    • Post Hoc Tests: Duncan Multiple Range Test
    • Post Hoc Tests: Least Significant Difference
    • Post Hoc Test: Scheffe Test
    • Post Hoc Tests: Student–Newman–Keuls Test
    • Post Hoc Tests: Tukey Honestly Significant Difference Test
    • Poster Presentation of Research
    • Power Curves
    • Power in Language
    • Primary Data Analysis
    • Privacy of Information
    • Privacy of Participants
    • Probit Analysis
    • Professional Communication Organizations
    • Program Assessment
    • Pronomial Use and Solidarity
    • Propaganda
    • Psychoanalytic Approaches to Rhetoric
    • Public Address
    • Public Behavior, Recording of
    • Public Memory
    • Public Relations
    • Publication, Politics of
    • Publication Style Guides
    • Publications, Open-Access
    • Publications, Scholarly
    • Publishing a Book
    • Publishing Journal Articles
    • Q
    • Qualitative Data
    • Quantitative Research, Purpose of
    • Quantitative Research, Steps for
    • Quasi-Experimental Design
    • Quasi-F
    • Queer Methods
    • Queer Theory
    • R
    • Random Assignment
    • Random Assignment of Participants
    • Random Effects Analysis
    • Range
    • Raw Score
    • Reaction Time
    • Reality Television
    • Regression to the Mean
    • Relational Dialectics Theory
    • Relationships Between Variables
    • Reliability, Cronbach’s Alpha
    • Reliability, Kuder-Richardson Formula
    • Reliability, Split-Half
    • Reliability, Unitizing
    • Reliability of Measurement
    • Religious Communication
    • Repeated Measures
    • Replication
    • Reproducibility
    • Research, Inspirations for
    • Research Ethics and Social Values
    • Research Ideas, Sources of
    • Research Project, Planning of
    • Research Proposal
    • Research Question Formulation
    • Research Reports, Objective
    • Research Reports, Organization of
    • Research Reports, Subjective
    • Research Topic, Definition of
    • Researcher–Participant Relationships
    • Researcher–Participant Relationships in Observational Research
    • Respondent Interviews
    • Respondents
    • Response Style
    • Restriction in Range
    • Results Section
    • Rhetoric
    • Rhetoric, Aristotle’s: Ethos
    • Rhetoric, Aristotle’s: Logos
    • Rhetoric, Aristotle’s: Pathos
    • Rhetoric, Isocrates’
    • Rhetoric as Epistemic
    • Rhetorical and Dramatism Analysis
    • Rhetorical Artifact
    • Rhetorical Genre
    • Rhetorical Leadership
    • Rhetorical Method
    • Rhetorical Theory
    • Rigor
    • Risk Communication
    • Robotic Communication
    • Volume 4
    • S
    • Sample Versus Population
    • Sampling, Determining Size
    • Sampling, Internet
    • Sampling, Methodological Issues in
    • Sampling, Multistage
    • Sampling, Nonprobability
    • Sampling, Probability
    • Sampling, Random
    • Sampling, Special Population
    • Sampling Decisions
    • Sampling Frames
    • Sampling Theory
    • Scales, Forced Choice
    • Scales, Likert Statement
    • Scales, Open-Ended
    • Scales, Rank Order
    • Scales, Semantic Differential
    • Scales, True/False
    • Scaling, Guttman
    • Scheffe Test
    • Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
    • Science Communication
    • Scott’s Pi
    • Search Engines for a Literature Search
    • Secondary Data
    • Second Wave Feminism
    • Selective Exposure
    • Semiotics
    • Semi-Partial r
    • Sensitivity Analysis
    • Service Learning
    • Significance Test
    • Simple Bivariate Correlation
    • Simple Descriptive Statistics
    • Skewness
    • Small Group Communication
    • Snowball Subject Recruitment
    • Sobel Test
    • Social Cognition
    • Social Constructionism
    • Social Implications of Research
    • Social Media: Blogs, Microblogs, and Twitter
    • Social Network Analysis
    • Social Network Systems
    • Social Networks, Online
    • Social Presence
    • Social Relationships
    • Solomon Four-Group Design
    • Spam
    • Spirituality and Communication
    • Spontaneous Decision Making
    • Sports Communication
    • Stability
    • Standard Deviation and Variance
    • Standard Error
    • Standard Error, Mean
    • Standard Score
    • Statistical Conversion to Common Metric
    • Statistical Power Analysis
    • Stimulus Pretest
    • Strategic Communication
    • Structural Equation Modeling
    • Structuration Theory
    • Student-Newman-Keuls Method
    • Submission of Research to a Convention
    • Submission of Research to a Journal
    • Surrogacy
    • Survey: Contrast Questions
    • Survey: Demographic Questions
    • Survey: Dichotomous Questions
    • Survey: Filter Questions
    • Survey: Follow-Up Questions
    • Survey: Leading Questions
    • Survey: Multiple-Choice Questions
    • Survey: Negative-Wording Questions
    • Survey: Open-Ended Questions
    • Survey: Questionnaire
    • Survey: Sampling Issues
    • Survey: Structural Questions
    • Survey Instructions
    • Survey Questions, Writing and Phrasing Of
    • Survey Response Rates
    • Survey Wording
    • Surveys, Advantages and Disadvantages of
    • Surveys, Using Others’
    • Symbolic Interactionism
    • Synecdoche
    • T
    • Terministic Screens
    • Terrorism
    • Testability
    • Textual Analysis
    • Thematic Analysis
    • Theoretical Traditions
    • Third-Wave Feminism
    • Time Series Analysis
    • Time Series Notation
    • Title of Manuscript, Selection of
    • Training and Development
    • Transcription Systems
    • Treatment Groups
    • Triangulation
    • True Score
    • t-Test
    • t-Test, Independent Samples
    • t-Test, One Sample
    • t-Test, Paired Samples
    • Tukey Test
    • Turning Point Analysis
    • Two-Group Pretest–Posttest Design
    • Two-Group Random Assignment Pretest–Posttest Design
    • Type I Error
    • Type II Error
    • U
    • Underrepresented Groups
    • Univariate Statistics
    • Unobtrusive Analysis
    • Unobtrusive Measurement
    • V
    • Validity, Concurrent
    • Validity, Construct
    • Validity, Face and Content
    • Validity, Halo Effect
    • Validity, Measurement of
    • Validity, Predictive
    • Variables, Categorical
    • Variables, Conceptualization
    • Variables, Continuous
    • Variables, Control
    • Variables, Defining
    • Variables, Dependent
    • Variables, Independent
    • Variables, Interaction of
    • Variables, Latent
    • Variables, Marker
    • Variables, Mediating Types
    • Variables, Moderating Types
    • Variables, Operationalization
    • Video Games
    • Visual Communication Studies
    • Visual Images as Data Within Qualitative Research
    • Visual Materials, Analysis Of
    • Vote Counting Literature Review Methods
    • Vulnerable Groups
    • W
    • Wartime Communication
    • Within-Subjects Design
    • Writer’s Block
    • Writing a Discussion Section
    • Writing a Literature Review
    • Writing a Methods Section
    • Writing a Results Section
    • Writing Process, The
    • Z
    • Z Score
    • Z Transformation
    • Appendix A: Modern History of the Discipline of Communication
    • Appendix B: Resource Guide