Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World

Editor: Martin, Richard C.
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Gale

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-0-02-866269-5
Category: Religion & Theology - Islam
Image Count: 336
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Rich historical content is partnered with coverage of the issues, countries, and people that are important in todays world, allowing for an assessment of Islams influence on all areas of human activity throughout the Middle East, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas.

Share this

This book is found in the following Credo Collections:

Table of Contents

  • Introduction
  • List of Contributors
  • Thematic Outline
  • List of Illustrations
  • VOLUME 1
  • A
  • ʿABBAS, SHAH (978/1571–1038/1629) - Rudi Matthee
  • ABBASIDS - Matthew Gordon
  • ʿABD AL-WAHHAB, MUHAMMAD IBN (1115/1703–1206/1792) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • ʿABDUH, MUHAMMAD (1849–1905) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • ABODES (OF ISLAM, WAR, AND TREATY) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • ABU BAKR (573–634 CE) - Rizwi Faizer
  • ABU HANIFA (80/699–150/767) - Brannon Wheeler
  • ADAB - Jocelyn Sharlet
  • ADEN - Roxani Eleni Margariti
  • ADHAN - Muneer Goolam Fareed
  • AFGHANI, JAMAL AL-DIN (1838–1897) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • AFGHANISTAN - Margaret A. Mills
  • AGA KHAN - Azim Nanji
  • AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION - Daniel Martin Varisco
  • AHL AL-BAYT - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • AHL AL-HADITH R. - Kevin Jaques
  • AHL-E HADIS/AHL AL-HADITH - Barbara D. Metcalf
  • AHMAD KHAN, (SIR) SAYYID (1817–1898) - David Lelyveld
  • AHMADIYYA - Avril A. Powell
  • ʿAʾISHA (614–678 CE) - Saʿdiyya Shaikh
  • AKBAR (948/1542–1014/1605) - Gregory C. Kozlowski
  • AKHBARIYYA - Robert Gleave
  • ALAWITES - L. Clarke
  • ALEXANDRIA - Niall Finneran
  • ALGERIA Hugh Roberts
  • ʿALI (600–661 CE) - Diana Steigerwald
  • ALIGARH - David Lelyveld
  • ALLAH - Daniel C. Peterson
  • ALLAHU AKBAR - Mohammad Syifa A. Widigdo
  • ALMOHADS - Allen J. Fromherz
  • ALMORAVIDS - Peter B. Clarke
  • ANDALUS, AL- - Aaron W. Hughes
  • ANGELS Peter - Lamborn Wilson
  • ANIMALS - Sarra Tlili
  • APOSTASY - Ahmet Alibasic
  • ARAB LEAGUE - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • ARAB SPRING - Erica Kenney
  • ARABIA, PRE-ISLAM - Gordon D. Newby
  • ARABIC LANGUAGE - Kees Versteegh
  • ARABIC LITERATURE - Gert Borg
  • ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT - Martin Bunton
  • ARCHITECTURE - Nasser Rabbat
  • ARKOUN, MOHAMMED (1928–2010) - Ursula G¨unther
  • ART - Sheila S. Blair - Jonathan M. Bloom
  • ART STUDIES IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY - Abdalrazzaq Moaz - Margaret S. Graves
  • ʿASABIYYA - Aaron W. Hughes
  • ASAD, MUHAMMAD (1900–1992) - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • ASHʿARI, ABU AL-HASAN AL- (260/873–324/935 OR 936) - Erik Ohlander
  • ASKIYA MUHAMMAD (D. 945/1538) - Ousmane Oumar Kane
  • ASSASSINS - Farhad Daftary
  • ASTROLOGY - Ahmad S. Dallal
  • ASTRONOMY - Glen Van Brummelen
  • ʿATABAT - Neguin Yavari
  • ATATÜRK, MUSTAFA KEMAL (1881–1938) - A. Üner Turgay
  • ATHEISM - Ermin Sinanovic´
  • AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND - Erich Kolig
  • AWAMI LEAGUE - Sufia Uddin
  • AYATOLLAH (AR. AYATULLAH) - Robert Gleave
  • AYYUBIDS - Carole Hillenbrand
  • AZERBAIJAN, REPUBLIC OF - Touraj Atabaki
  • AZHAR, AL- - Diana Steigerwald
  • B
  • BAB, SAYYED ʿALI MUHAMMAD (1819–1850) - William McCants
  • BABIYYA - William McCants
  • BAGHDAD - Mona F. Hassan
  • BAGHDAD IN THE REPUBLICAN ERA - Richard C. Martin
  • BAHAʾI FAITH - John Walbridge
  • BAHRAIN - Emile Nakhleh
  • BALKANS, THE - Frances Trix
  • BALUCH - Brian Spooner
  • BANGLADESH - Iftekhar Iqbal
  • BANNA, HASAN AL- (1906–1949) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • BAʿ TH PARTY - F. Gregory Gause III
  • BEAUTY - Valerie Gonzalez
  • BEDOUIN - Frank H. Stewart
  • BERBERS - Hassan Rachik
  • BIDʿ - A Nico J. G. Kaptein
  • BIN LADEN, OSAMA (1957–2011) - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • BIOGRAPHY AND HAGIOGRAPHY - Marcia Hermansen
  • BIRUNI, AL- (362/973–C. 439/1048) - Mahan Mirza
  • BLASPHEMY - Hannah Erlwein
  • BODY, SIGNIFICANCE OF - Brannon Wheeler
  • BOKO HARAM - Iro Aghedo
  • BOURGHIBA, HABIB (1901–2000) - John Ruedy
  • BUDDHISM AND ISLAM - Johan Elverskog
  • BUKHARA - Florian Schwarz
  • BUKHARI, AL- (194/810–256/870) - Asma Afsaruddin
  • BYZANTINES - Nadia Maria El Cheikh
  • C
  • CAIRO - Aslam Farouk-Alli
  • CALIPHATE R. - Stephen Humphreys
  • CALLIGRAPHY - Sheila S. Blair - Jonathan M. Bloom
  • CAPITALISM - Timur Kuran
  • CENTRAL ASIA - James H. Meyer
  • CHILDHOOD - Elizabeth Warnock Fernea
  • CHINA - Jacqueline M. Armijo
  • CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM - Patrice C. Brodeur
  • CHRISTIAN-MUSLIM DIALOGUE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY - David L. Johnston
  • CLOTHING AND ADORNMENT - Hadas Hirsch
  • COINAGE - Warren C. Schultz
  • COLONIALISM - Jamal Malik
  • COMICS AND COMIC BOOKS - A. David Lewis
  • COMMANDING RIGHT AND FORBIDDING WRONG - Abbas Barzegar
  • COMMUNISM - Richard C. Campany
  • CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE - A. Rashied Omar
  • CONQUEST AND EXPANSION - Fred M. Donner
  • CONSENSUS - Ayman Shabana
  • CONSTITUTION OF MEDINA - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION IN IRAN - Ali Gheissari
  • CONSTITUTIONALISM - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • CONSULTATION - M. A. Muqtedar Khan
  • CONVERSION Peter B. Clarke
  • CONVERSION IN THE DIGITAL AGE - James B. Hoesterey
  • CRUSADES - Warren C. Schultz
  • D
  • DAMASCUS - Nancy A. Khalek
  • DANCE - Najwa Adra
  • DAʿ WA - David Westerlund - Christer Hedin - Torsten Janson
  • DEATH - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • DELHI - Rachana Rao Umashankar
  • DEMOCRACY AND DEMOCRATIZATION - Ali Banuazizi
  • DEMOGRAPHY - Youssef Courbage
  • DEOBAND - Barbara D. Metcalf
  • DEVOTIONAL LIFE - Gerard Wiegers
  • DHIKR - Feryal Salem
  • DIETARY LAWS - Muneer Goolam Fareed
  • DISPUTATION - Richard C. Martin
  • DIWAN - Michael Bevers
  • DOME OF THE ROCK - Sheila S. Blair - Jonathan M. Bloom
  • DRAMA AND THEATER - Marvin Carlson
  • DREAMS - Iain R. Edgar
  • DRUZE - Yusri Hazran
  • DUʿA - Muneer Goolam Fareed
  • E
  • EAST AFRICA - Patrick Desplat
  • EAST ASIA - Timothy Daniels
  • EBADI, SHIRIN (1947–) - Mahmood Monshipouri
  • ECONOMY AND ECONOMIC INSTITUTIONS - Nora Ann Colton
  • EDUCATION - Jonathan Berkey
  • EGYPT - Denis J. Sullivan
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION - Saleem Ali - Dawood Yasin
  • ESCHATOLOGY - David Cook
  • ETHICS AND SOCIAL ISSUES - Ebrahim Moosa
  • ETHICS IN RELIGIOUS AND PHILOSOPHICAL TEXTS - Azim Nanji
  • EUNUCHS - Jane Hathaway
  • EUROPE - Jørgen S. Nielsen
  • F
  • FADLALLAH, MUHAMMAD HUSAYN (1935–2010) - Mazyar Lotfalian
  • FARRAKHAN, LOUIS (1933–) - Justine Bakker
  • FASI, MUHAMMAD ʿALLAL AL- (1910–1974) - David L. Johnston
  • FATIMA (C. 605–12/633) - Ursula Günther
  • FATIMIDS - Sumaiya A. Hamdani
  • FATWA - Daniel C. Peterson
  • FEDAʾIYAN-E ISLAM - Fakhreddin Azimi
  • FEMINISM - Ghazala Anwar
  • FEZ - Claudia Gazzini
  • FILM AND MEDIA - Khatereh Sheibani
  • FINANCE AND BANKING - Sarah Tobin
  • FITNA - Sandra S. Campbell
  • FOOD - Paulina B. Lewicka
  • FUTUWWA - Reeva Spector Simon
  • G
  • GADDAFI, MUAMMAR (C. 1942–2011) - Maximilian Forte
  • GASPRINSKII, ISMAʿ IL BAY (1851–1914) - A. Üner Turgay
  • GENDER - Zayn R. Kassam
  • GENEALOGY - Marcia Hermansen
  • GENITAL CUTTING - Ellen Gruenbaum
  • GEOGRAPHY - Jean-Charles Ducene
  • GHANNUSHI, RASHID AL- (1941–) - Joel Rozen
  • GHAYBA(T) - Robert Gleave
  • GHAZALI, AL- (C. 450/1058–505/1111) - Ebrahim Moosa
  • GHAZALI, MUHAMMAD AL- (1917–1996) - Qamar-ul Huda
  • GHAZALI, ZAYNAB AL- (1917–2005) - Ursula Günther
  • GHAZNAVIDS - Walid A. Saleh
  • GLOBALIZATION - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • GRAFFITI - Yakein Abdelmagid
  • GRAMMAR AND LEXICOGRAPHY - Kees Versteegh
  • GREEK CIVILIZATION, IMPACT OF - Oliver Leaman
  • GÜLEN, FETHULLAH (1941–) - Doǧu Ergil
  • H
  • HADITH - Harald Motzki
  • HALLAJ, AL- (244/858–310/922) - Herbert W. Mason
  • HAMAS - Tamara Sonn
  • HANAFI, HASSAN (1935–) - Ahmad Moussalli
  • HAREM - Etin Anwar
  • HASAN AL-BASRI, AL- (21/624–110/728) - Suleiman A. Mourad
  • HELL - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • HERESIOGRAPHY - Aaron W. Hughes
  • HEZBOLLAH (HIZB ALLAH) - Tamara Sonn
  • HIJRA - Rizwi Faizer
  • HIJRI CALENDAR - Ahmad S. Dallal
  • HILLI, ʿALLAMAAL- (647/1250–725/1325) - Robert Gleave
  • HILLI, MUHAQQIQAL- (601/1205–675/1277) - Robert Gleave
  • HINDUISM AND ISLAM - Juan Eduardo Campo Anna Bigelow
  • HISBA - Robert Gleave
  • HISTORICAL WRITING - Konrad Hirschler
  • HOJJAT AL-ISLAM - Robert Gleave
  • HOJJATIEH SOCIETY - Majid Mohammadi
  • HOSAYNIYYA - Rasool Jaʿfariyan
  • HOSPITALITY - El-Sayed El-Aswad
  • HUMAN RIGHTS - Ann Elizabeth Mayer
  • HUMOR - Irfan A. Omar
  • HUSAYN (5/626–60/680) - Michael M. J. Fischer
  • HUSAYN, TAHA (1889–1973) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • I
  • ʿIBADAT - Gerard Wiegers
  • IBN AL-ʿARABI (560/1165–638/1240) - William C. Chittick
  • IBN BATTUTA (703/1304–C. 770/1369) - Thyge C. Bro
  • IBN HANBAL (164/780–241/855) - Susan A. Spectorsky
  • IBN KHALDUN (732/1332–808/1406) - R. Kevin Jaques
  • IBN MAJA (C. 209/824–274/887) - Asma Afsaruddin
  • IBN RUSHD (520/1126–595/1198) - Oliver Leaman
  • IBN SINA (370/980–428/1037) - Erik Ohlander
  • IBN TAYMIYYA (661/1263–728/1328) - James D. Pavlin
  • IBN TUFAYL (C. 499/1105–581/1185) - Lenn E. Goodman
  • IBRAHIM (ABRAHAM) - Reuven Firestone
  • IHSAN - M. A. Muqtedar Khan
  • IJTIHAD - Muneer Goolam Fareed
  • IKHWAN AL-SAFA - Azim Nanji
  • ʿILM - Waseem el-Rayes
  • IMAM - Muhammad Qasim Zaman
  • IMAMZADAH - Anne H. Betteridge
  • IMMIGRATION - Kambiz GhaneaBassiri
  • INDIA M. - Raisur Rahman
  • INDONESIA - Robert W. Hefner
  • INHERITANCE - Ian D. Edge
  • IQBAL, MUHAMMAD (C. 1877–1938) - David Lelyveld
  • IRAN - Elton Daniel
  • IRAQ - Thabit A. J. Abdullah
  • ISFAHAN - Rudi Matthee
  • ISHRAQI SCHOOL - S. H. Nasr
  • ISLAM - Feras Hamza
  • ISLAMIC JIHAD - Simon Ross Valentine
  • ISLAMIC REVOLUTION IN IRAN - Ali Banuazizi
  • ISLAMIC REVOLUTIONARY GUARD CORPS (IRGC) - Saeid Golkar
  • ISLAMIC SALVATION FRONT - David L. Johnston
  • ISLAMIC STATE (ISIS, ISIL, DAESH) - Simon Ross Valentine
  • ISLAMICATE SOCIETY - R. Kevin Jaques
  • ISLAMISM AND FUNDAMENTALISM - Abbas Barzegar
  • ISLAMOPHOBIA/ISLAMOPHILIA - Nathan C. Lean
  • ISMAʿIL I, SHAH (892/1487–930/1524) - Sholeh A. Quinn
  • ISRAEL - Abdulkader Sinno
  • ISTANBUL - Ipek Türeli
  • J
  • JAʿ FAR AL-SADIQ (C. 82/701–148/765) - Liyakat Takim
  • JAHILIYYA - Rizwi Faizer
  • JAMAʿAT-E ISLAMI - Jamal Malik
  • JAMʿIYAT-E ʿULAMA-E HIND - Jamal Malik
  • JAMʿIYAT-E ʿULAMA-E ISLAM - Jamal Malik
  • JAMʿIYAT-E ʿULAMA-E PAKISTAN - Jamal Malik
  • JERUSALEM - Nancy A. Khalek
  • JIHAD - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • JINNAH, MUHAMMAD ʿALI (1876–1948) - Rasul Bakhsh Rais
  • JORDAN - David Siddhartha Patel
  • JUDAISM AND ISLAM - Gordon D. Newby
  • K
  • KALAM - Parviz Morewedge - Richard C. Martin
  • KALAM: ASHʿARITES (ASHAʿIRA, ASHʿARIYYA) - M. Sait Özervarli
  • KALAM: KALAM IN THE MODERN PERIOD - Anthony R. Byrd
  • KALAM: MATURIDISM - Philip C. Dorroll
  • KALAM: MUʿTAZILITES, MUʿTAZILA - Mustafa Shah
  • KANO - Thyge C. Bro
  • KARAKI, SHAYKH ʿALI (D. 940/1533) - Rula Jurdi Abisaab
  • KARBALA - Diana Steigerwald
  • KAWAKIBI, ʿABD AL-RAHMAN AL- (C. 1849–1902) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • KEMAL, NAMEK (1840–1888) - Linda T. Darling
  • KHALID, KHALID MUHAMMAD (1920–1996) - William Shepard
  • KHAMENEI, ʿALI (1939–) - Mehdi Khalaji
  • KHAN - G. R. Garthwaite
  • KHAN, AHMAD REZA OF BAREILLY (1856–1921) - Barbara D. Metcalf
  • KHANQA (KHANAQA) - Feryal Salem
  • KHARIJITES - Hussam S. Timani
  • KHIDR, AL- H. Talat Halman
  • KHILAFAT MOVEMENT - Gail Minault
  • KHIRQA - Feryal Salem
  • KHIVA, KHANATE OF - Touraj Atabaki
  • KHOʾI, ABO AL-QASEM (1899–1992) - Majid Mohammadi
  • KHOJAS - Azim Nanji
  • KHOMEINI, RUHOLLAH (1902–1989) - Mehdi Khalaji
  • KINDI, AL- (C. 185/801–C. 256/870) - Jon D. McGinnis
  • KINGSHIP - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • KUFA - Neguin Yavari
  • KURDS - Denise Natali
  • KUWAIT - Geoffrey Emerson Lloyd Martin
  • VOLUME 2
  • L
  • LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN - John T. Karam
  • LAW - Osman Taştan
  • LAW, CUSTOMARY - Mustafa Baig
  • LAW, NATURAL - AnverM. Emon
  • LEBANON - Malek Abisaab
  • LEGAL SCHOOLS - Ayman Shabana
  • LIBERALISM - Charles Kurzman
  • LIBRARIES - John Walbridge
  • LIBYA - Simon Ross Valentine
  • M
  • MADRASA - Ebrahim Moosa
  • MAHDI - Marcia Hermansen
  • MAHDIST STATE, MAHDIYYA - Shamil Jeppie
  • MAJLIS - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • MAJLISI, MUHAMMAD BAQIR (1036/1627–1110/1698) - Rula Jurdi Abisaab
  • MAKASSAR, SHAYKH YUSUF (C. 1035/1626–1111/1699) - R. Michael Feener
  • MALAYSIA - Barbara Watson Andaya
  • MALCOLM X (1925–1965) - Edward E. Curtis
  • MALI - Gregory Mann
  • MALIK IBN ANAS (C. 89/708–179/795) - Jonathan Brockopp
  • MAMLUKS - Warren C. Schultz
  • MAʾMUN, AL- (169/786–218/833) - Muhammad Qasim Zaman
  • MANICHEANISM - Elton Daniel
  • MAPS AND MAPMAKING - Karen C. Pinto
  • MARJAʿ AL-TAQLID - Robert Gleave
  • MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE - Carolyn Baugh
  • MARTYRDOM - Daniel Brown
  • MASHHAD - Rasool Jaʿfariyan
  • MASLAHA - Richard C. Martin
  • MATHEMATICS - Glen Van Brummelen
  • MAUDUDI, ABU AL-Aʿ LA’ (1903–1979) - Jamal Malik
  • MAWLID/MAULID - El-Sayed El-Aswad
  • MAZALIM - Osman Taştan
  • MAZRUI - Randall L. Pouwels
  • MECCA AND MEDINA - Maya Yazigi
  • MEDICINE - Gail G. Harrison - Osman M. Galal
  • MIHRAB - Sheila S. Blair - Jonathan M. Bloom
  • MINBAR (MIMBAR) - Richard T. Antoun
  • MINORITIES: MINORITIES IN MUSLIM-MAJORITY COUNTRIES - Allen J. Fromherz
  • MINORITIES: MUSLIM MINORITIES IN THE WEST - Alexandre Caeiro
  • MIRACLES - Marcia Hermansen
  • MIʿRAJ - Frederick S. Colby Michael Sells
  • MODERNISM AND MODERNITY - Charles Kurzman
  • MOJAHEDIN-E KHALQ - Majid Mohammadi
  • MOJTAHED-SHABESTARI, MOHAMMAD (1937–) - Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
  • MOLLA - Kamran ScotAghaie
  • MOLLABASHI - Mansur Sefatgol
  • MONGOLS AND IL-KHANIDS - Charles Melville
  • MONTAZERI, HOSSEIN ALI (1922–2009) - Sussan Siavoshi
  • MOORS - Manuela Ceballos
  • MOROCCO - Knut S. Vikør
  • MOSADDEQ, MOHAMMAD (1882–1967) - Fakhreddin Azimi
  • MOSQUE - Patrick D. Gaffney
  • MOTAHHARI, MORTAZA (1920–1979) - Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
  • MUʿAWIYA (D. 60/680) - Suleman Dangor
  • MUBARAK, HOSNI (1928–) - Mario Ruiz
  • MUFTI - Muneer Goolam Fareed
  • MUGHALS - Iqtidar Alam Khan
  • MUHAMMAD ʿALI, DYNASTY OF - Joel Gordon
  • MUHAMMAD AL-NAFS AL-ZAKIYYA (D. 145/762) - Liyakat Takim
  • MUHAMMAD, THE PROPHET (C. 570–11/632) - Rizwi Faizer
  • MUHAMMAD, WARITH DEEN (1933–2008) - Edward E. Curtis
  • MUHAMMADIYAH (MUHAMMADIYYA) - Robert W. Hefner
  • MUHARRAM - David Pinault
  • MUHTASIB - Robert Gleave
  • MULLA SADRA (C. 980/1572–1050/1640) - S. H. Nasr
  • MURJIʾITES, MURJIʾA - Shalahudin Kafrawi
  • MUSIC, FORMS AND CONCEPTS - Munir Beken
  • MUSIC, MODERN - Anders Ackfeldt
  • MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD - David L. Johnston
  • MUSLIM IBN AL-HAJJAJ (C. 201/817–261/875) - Asma Afsaruddin
  • MYANMAR (BURMA) - Mark Woodward
  • N
  • NADER SHAH AFSHAR (1099/1688–1160/1747) - John R. Perry
  • NAJAF - Mazyar Lotfalian
  • NAQSHBANDIYYA - Dina Le Gall
  • NASAʾI, AL- (215/830–302/915) - Asma Afsaruddin
  • NASR, SEYYED HOSSEIN (1933–) - Mohammad H. Faghfoory
  • NASSER, GAMALABDEL (1918–1970) - Joel Gordon
  • NATION OF ISLAM - Aminah Beverly McCloud
  • NATIONALISM: ARAB - Nancy L. Stockdale
  • NATIONALISM: IRANIAN - Fakhreddin Azimi
  • NATIONALISM: TURKISH - A. Üner Turgay
  • NAWRUZ - Anne H. Betteridge
  • NETWORKS, MUSLIM - Bruce Lawrence miriam cooke
  • NIGERIA - Lady Jane Acquah
  • NIZAM AL-MULK (C. 408/1018–485/1092) - Warren C. Schultz
  • NORTH AMERICA: CANADA - Katherine Bullock
  • NORTH AMERICA: UNITED STATES - Abdulkader Sinno
  • NURI, FAZLALLAH (1843–1909) - Mohammad H. Faghfoory
  • NURSI, SAID (1876–1960) - A. Üner Turgay
  • O
  • OCCULT SCIENCES - Noah Gardiner
  • OIL AND GAS IN THE ECONOMIES OF THE MIDDLE EAST - Nader Habibi
  • OMAN - Marc Valeri
  • ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION (OIC) - May Darwich
  • ORIENTALISM - Ivan Kalmar
  • OTTOMANS - Donald Quataert
  • P
  • PAHLAVIS, THE (1925–1979) - Ali Banuazizi
  • PAKISTAN - Rasul Bakhsh Rais
  • PALESTINE - Joel Beinin
  • PAN-ARABISM - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • PAN-ISLAM - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • PAN-TURANISM - Touraj Atabaki
  • PARADISE - Juan Eduardo Campo
  • PASHTUNS - Robert Nichols
  • PEOPLE OF THE BOOK - Mohammad Hassan Khalil
  • PERSIAN GULF STATES - Matteo Legrenzi
  • PERSIAN LANGUAGE - Gernot Windfuhr
  • PERSIAN LITERATURE - Franklin Lewis
  • PHILIPPINES - Vivienne Angeles
  • PHILOSOPHY - Parviz Morewedge
  • PILGRIMAGE: HAJJ - Kathryn Kueny
  • PILGRIMAGE: ZIYARA - Richard C. Martin
  • PILLARS OF ISLAM - Timothy J. Gianotti
  • PLURALISM: LEGAL AND ETHNO-RELIGIOUS - Irene Schneider
  • PLURALISM: POLITICAL - Gudrun Kra¨mer
  • POLITICAL ISLAM - Gudrun Kra¨mer
  • POLITICAL THOUGHT - Louise Marlow
  • POSTMODERNISM - Geoffrey P. Nash
  • PROPERTY - Timur Kuran
  • PROPHETS - Brannon Wheeler
  • PUBLIC OPINION - Gabriele Marranci
  • Q
  • QADI (KADI, KAZI) - Ebrahim Moosa
  • QAʿIDA, AL- - Nathan S. French
  • QAJARS - Heidi A. Walcher
  • QANUN - Khaled M. Abou El Fadl
  • QARADAWI, YUSUF AL- (1926–) - R. Kevin Jaques
  • QATAR - Allen J. Fromherz
  • QAYRAWAN - Wesley A. Thiessen
  • QIBLA - Feryal Salem
  • QOM - Rasool Jaʿfariyan
  • QURʾAN - Farid Esack
  • QUTB, SAYYID (1906–1966) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • R
  • RABIʿA OF BASRA (C. 95/714–185/801) - Rkia E. Cornell
  • RAHMAN, FAZLUR (1919–1988) - Marcia Hermansen
  • RASHID, HARUN AL- (C. 146/763–193/809) - Sebastian G¨unther
  • RASULIDS - Daniel Martin Varisco
  • RAWZA-KHANI - Kamran ScotAghaie
  • REFORM: ARAB MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • REFORM: IRAN - Arman Azimi
  • REFORM: SOUTH ASIA - Ahrar Ahmad
  • REFORM: SOUTHEAST ASIA - Mark Woodward
  • REFUGEES IN THE CONTEMPORARY MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA - Janet Bauer
  • RELIGIOUS CREED - Ermin Sinanovic´
  • RELIGIOUS HOLIDAYS AND OBSERVANCES - Hina Azam
  • RENEWAL - John O. Voll
  • REVOLUTION: CLASSICAL ISLAM - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • RIBA - Timur Kuran
  • RIDA, RASHID (1865–1935) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • RIGHTLY GUIDED CALIPHS - Muhammad Qasim Zaman
  • RITUAL - Gerard Wiegers
  • RUMI, JALALUDDIN (604/1207–672/1273) - Franklin Lewis
  • RUSHDIE, SALMAN (1947–) - Amir Hussain
  • RUSSIA - Shireen T. Hunter
  • S
  • SAADAWI, NAWAL EL (1931–) - Mona N. Mikhail
  • SADAT, ANWAR AL- (1918–1981) - Joel Gordon
  • SADR, MUSA AL- (1928–1978?) - Majid Mohammadi
  • SAFAVIDS - Rudi Matthee
  • SAHARA - Ghislaine E. Lydon
  • SALADIN (C. 532/1137–589/1193) - Warren C. Schultz
  • SALAF - Amr Osman
  • SALAFIYYA - Laurent Bonnefoy
  • SAMARQAND - Frantz Grenet
  • SANHURI, ʿABD AL-RAZZAQ AL- (1895–1971) - Khaled M. Abou El Fadl
  • SASSANIANS - Henning L. Bauer
  • SAUDI ARABIA - Joseph Ke´chichian
  • SAYYID - Robert Gleave
  • SCIENCES - Sonja Brentjes
  • SECULARISM - Charles Kurzman
  • SECULARIZATION - Mahmood Monshipouri
  • SELJUQS - Saïd Amir Arjomand
  • SERMON - Patrick D. Gaffney
  • SEXUALITY - Hasan Azad
  • SHAFIʿI, AL- (C. 150/767–204/820) - Christopher Melchert
  • SHAHNAMEH - Dick Davis
  • SHALTUT, MAHMUD (1893–1963) - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • SHARIʿA - Jonathan Brockopp
  • SHARIʿATI, ʿALI (1933–1977) - Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi
  • SHARIF - Robert Gleave
  • SHAWKANI, MUHAMMAD AL- (1173/1760–1834) - Eirik Hovden
  • SHAYKH AL-ISLAM - Robert Gleave
  • SHAYKHIYYA - Paula Stiles
  • SHIʿA: EARLY - Devin Stewart
  • SHIʿA: IMAMI (TWELVER) - David Pinault
  • SHIʿA: ISMAʿ ILI - Farhad Daftary
  • SHIʿA: ZAYDI (FIVER) - Eirik Hovden
  • SHIRK - R. Kevin Jaques
  • SIRHINDI, SHAYKH AHMAD (972/1564–1034/1624) - Arthur F. Buehler
  • SISTANI, ʿALI (1930–) - Mehdi Khalaji
  • SLAVERY - Kecia Ali
  • SOCIAL MEDIA AND THE INTERNET - Gary R. Bunt
  • SOCIALISM - F. Gregory Gause III
  • SOMALIA - Raphael Chijioke Njoku
  • SOUL - Ebrahim Moosa
  • SOUTH AFRICA - Goolam Vahed
  • SOUTHEAST ASIA - Mark Woodward
  • STATE AND GOVERNMENT - M. A. Muqtedar Khan
  • SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA - Simon Ross Valentine
  • SUDAN AND SOUTH SUDAN - Richard Lobban
  • SUFISM - Carl W. Ernst
  • SUHRAWARDI, AL- (C. 549/1154–587/1191) - John Walbridge
  • SUICIDE - Rumee Ahmed
  • SUKAYNA (51/671–119/737) - Rizwi Faizer
  • SULTANATES, MODERN - OvamirAnjum
  • SUNNA - Daniel Brown
  • SUNNI-SHIʿA RELATIONS - Maria Dakake
  • SUYUTI, AL- (848/1445–911/1505) - Elizabeth Sartain
  • SYRIA - James A. Reilly
  • T
  • TABARI, AL- (C. 224/839–310/923) - Ulrika Mârtensson
  • TABLIGHI JAMAʿAT - Barbara D. Metcalf
  • TAFSIR - Kathryn Kueny
  • TAHMASP I, SHAH (919/1514–984/1576) - Sholeh A. Quinn
  • TAJ MAHAL - Hussein Keshani
  • TALIBAN IN AFGHANISTAN - Amin Tarzi
  • TALIBAN IN PAKISTAN - Simon Ross Valentine
  • TANZIMAT - Linda T. Darling
  • TAQIYYA - Robert Gleave
  • TAQLID - Robert Gleave
  • TARIQA - Carl W. Ernst
  • TAWHID - Mustafa Shah
  • TAʿZIYA (TAʿZIYEH) - Kamran Scot Aghaie
  • TERRORISM - Juan Eduardo Campo - Caleb Elfenbein
  • TIMBUKTU - Ousmane Oumar Kane
  • TIMURIDS - Paul D. Buell
  • TRADITIONALISM - R. Kevin Jaques
  • TRANSLATION - Lamin Sanneh
  • TRANSLATION ACTIVITY AND ACADEMIES, PREMODERN PERIOD - Daniel L. Newman
  • TRANSLATION ACTIVITY, MODERN PERIOD - Daniel L. Newman
  • TRAVEL AND TRAVELERS - Daniel Martin Varisco
  • TRIBALISM - Najwa Adra
  • TUNISIA - Allen J. Fromherz
  • TURABI, HASAN AL- (C. 1932–) - John O. Voll
  • TURKEY - Güneş Murat Tezcür
  • TURKISH LANGUAGE - Öner Özçelik
  • TURKISH LITERATURE - Selim S. Kuru
  • TUSI, MUHAMMAD IBN AL-HASAN (SHAYKH AL-TAʿIFA) (385/995–459/1067) - Robert Gleave
  • TUSI, NASIRAL-DIN (597/1201–672/1274) - Zayn R. Kassam
  • U
  • ULEMA - Robert Gleave
  • ʿUMAR (C. 581–644 CE) - Khalid Yahya Blankinship
  • UMAYYADS - Alfons H. Teipen
  • UMM KULTHUM (C. 1904–1975) - Virginia Danielson
  • UMMA - Abdullah Saeed
  • UNITED ARAB EMIRATES - Kristian Coates Ulrichsen
  • URDU LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE - Christopher Shackle
  • USULIYYA - Ahmad Kazemi Moussavi
  • ʿUTHMAN DAN FODIO (1754–1817) - Roman Loimeier
  • ʿUTHMAN IBN ʿAFFAN (D. 35/656) - Rizwi Faizer
  • V
  • VEILING - Ghazala Anwar
  • VELAYAT-E FAQIH - Robert Gleave
  • VENERATION OF SAINTS - El-Sayed El-Aswad
  • VERNACULAR ISLAM - Joyce Burkhalter Flueckiger
  • VIDEO GAMES - Vit Sisler
  • VIZIER - Richard C. Martin
  • W
  • WAHDAT AL-WUJUD - William C. Chittick
  • WAHHABIYYA - Sohail H. Hashmi
  • WAJIB AL-WUJUD - Shams C. Inati
  • WALI - Arthur F. Buehler
  • WALI ALLAH, SHAH (1114/1703- 1176/1762) 1114/1703-1176/1762) - Marcia Hermansen
  • WAQF - Gregory C. Kozlowski
  • WATER - Eirik Hovden
  • WEST AFRICA - Ousman Murzik Kobo
  • WEST, CONCEPTIONS OF - John O. Voll
  • WESTERN SCHOLARSHIP - David Cook
  • WINE - Kathryn Kueny
  • Y
  • YEMEN - Noha Sadek
  • YOUNG TURKS - Murat C. Mengüç
  • YOUSAFZAI, MALALA (1997–) - Ayesha S. Chaudhry
  • YOUTH - Charles W. Anderson
  • Z
  • ZABID - Edward J. Keall
  • ZAND, KARIM KHAN (C. 1117/1705 1193/1779) 117/1705-1193/1779) - John R. Perry
  • ZAR - Adeline Masquelier
  • ZOROASTRIANISM - Jamsheed K. Choksy
  • Glossary
  • Chronologies