Handbook of Essential Oils

Editors: Husnu Can Baser, K. and Buchbauer, Gerhard
Publication Year: 2015
Publisher: CRC Press

Single-User Purchase Price: $199.95
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: Not Available
ISBN: 978-1-46-659046-5
Category: Science - Chemistry
Image Count: 458
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The second edition of Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications provides a much-needed compilation of information related to the development, use, and marketing of essential oils. It focuses particularly on the chemistry, pharmacology, and biological activities of essential oils, with contributions from a worldwide group of expert authorities on their historical, biological, regulatory, and biotransformation aspects.

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Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Editors
    • Contributors
    • Chapter 1 Introduction K. Hüsnü Can Başer and Gerhard Buchbauer
    • Introduction to First Edition
    • Introduction to Second Edition
    • Chapter 2 History and Sources of Essential Oil Research Karl-Heinz Kubeczka
    • 2.1 Ancient Historical Background
    • 2.2 First Systematic Investigations
    • 2.3 Research during the Last Half Century
    • 2.3.1 Essential Oil Preparation Techniques
    • 2.3.1.1 Industrial Processes
    • 2.3.1.2 Laboratory-Scale Techniques
    • 2.3.1.3 Microsampling Techniques
    • 2.3.2 Chromatographic Separation Techniques
    • 2.3.2.1 Thin-Layer Chromatography
    • 2.3.2.2 GC
    • 2.3.2.3 Liquid Column Chromatography
    • 2.3.2.4 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
    • 2.3.2.5 Countercurrent Chromatography
    • 2.3.3 Hyphenated Techniques
    • 2.3.3.1 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    • 2.3.3.2 High-Resolution GC-FTIR Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.3.3 GC-UV Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.3.4 Gas Chromatography-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.3.5 Gas Chromatography-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
    • 2.3.3.6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography
    • 2.3.3.7 HPLC-MS, HPLC-NMR Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.3.8 Supercritical Fluid Extraction–Gas Chromatography
    • 2.3.3.9 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography-Gas Chromatography
    • 2.3.3.10 Couplings of SFC-MS and SFC-FTIR Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.4 Identification of Multicomponent Samples without Previous Separation
    • 2.3.4.1 UV Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.4.2 IR Spectroscopy
    • 2.3.4.3 Mass Spectrometry
    • 2.3.4.4 13C-NMR Spectroscopy
    • References
    • Chapter 3 Sources of Essential Oils Chlodwig Franz and Johannes Novak
    • 3.1 “Essential Oil–Bearing Plants”: Attempt of a Definition
    • 3.2 Phytochemical Variation
    • 3.2.1 Chemotaxonomy
    • 3.2.2 Inter- and Intraspecific Variation
    • 3.2.2.1 Lamiaceae (Labiatae) and Verbenaceae
    • 3.2.2.2 Asteraceae (Compositae)
    • 3.3 Identification of Source Materials
    • 3.4 Genetic and Protein Engineering
    • 3.5 Resources of Essential Oils: Wild Collection or Cultivation of Plants
    • 3.5.1 Wild Collection and Sustainability
    • 3.5.2 Domestication and Systematic Cultivation
    • 3.5.3 Factors Influencing the Production and Quality of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants
    • 3.5.3.1 Genetic Variation and Plant Breeding
    • 3.5.3.2 Plant Breeding and Intellectual Property Rights
    • 3.5.3.3 Intraindividual Variation between Plant Parts and Depending on the Developmental Stage (Morpho- and Ontogenetic Variation)
    • 3.5.3.4 Environmental Influences
    • 3.5.3.5 Cultivation Measures, Contaminations, and Harvesting
    • 3.6 International Standards for Wild Collection and Cultivation
    • 3.6.1 GA(C)P: Guidelines for Good Agricultural (and Collection) Practice of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
    • 3.6.2 ISSC-MAP: The International Standard on Sustainable Wild Collection of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
    • 3.6.3 FairWild
    • 3.7 Conclusion
    • References
    • Chapter 4 Natural Variability of Essential Oil Components Éva Németh-Zámboriné
    • 4.1 Appearance of Variability
    • 4.2 Variability at Different Taxonomic Levels
    • 4.2.1 Species
    • 4.2.2 Populations
    • 4.3 Connections of Chemical Diversity with Other Plant Characteristics
    • 4.3.1 Propagation and Genetics
    • 4.3.2 Morphological Characteristics
    • 4.4 Morphogenetic and Ontogenetic Manifestation of the Chemical Variability
    • 4.5 Origin of Essential Oil Variability
    • 4.6 Chemotaxonomic Considerations
    • 4.7 Identification of Natural Variability
    • References
    • Chapter 5 Production of Essential Oils Erich Schmidt
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.1.1 General Remarks
    • 5.1.2 Definition and History
    • 5.1.3 Production
    • 5.1.4 Climate
    • 5.1.5 Soil Quality and Soil Preparation
    • 5.1.6 Water Stress and Drought
    • 5.1.7 Insect Stress and Microorganisms
    • 5.1.8 Location of Oil Cells
    • 5.1.9 Types of Biomass Used
    • 5.1.10 Timing of the Harvest
    • 5.1.11 Agricultural Crop Establishment
    • 5.1.12 Propagation from Seed and Clones
    • 5.1.13 Commercial Essential Oil Extraction Methods
    • 5.1.14 Expression
    • 5.1.15 Steam Distillation
    • 5.1.16 Concluding Remarks
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Chapter 6 Chemistry of Essential Oils Charles Sell
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Basic Biosynthetic Pathways
    • 6.3 Polyketides and Lipids
    • 6.4 Shik imic Acid Der ivatives
    • 6.5 Ter penoids
    • 6.5.1 Hemiterpenoids
    • 6.5.2 Monoterpenoids
    • 6.5.3 Sesquiterpenoids
    • 6.6 Synthesis of Essential Oil Components
    • References
    • Chapter 7 Analysis of Essential Oils Barbara d'Acampora Zellner, Paola Dugo, Giovanni Dugo, and Luigi Mondello
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 Classical Analytical Techniques
    • 7.3 Modern Analytical Techniques
    • 7.3.1 Use of GC and Linear Retention Indices in Essential Oil Analysis
    • 7.3.2 GC–MS
    • 7.3.3 Fast GC for Essential Oil Analysis
    • 7.3.4 GC–Olfactometry for the Assessment of Odor-Active Components of Essential Oils
    • 7.3.5 Gas Chromatographic Enantiomer Characterization of Essential Oils
    • 7.3.6 LC and LC Hyphenated to MS in the Analysis of Essential Oils
    • 7.3.7 Multidimensional Gas Chromatographic Techniques
    • 7.3.8 Multidimensional Liquid Chromatographic Techniques
    • 7.3.9 On line Couple d LC–GC
    • 7.4 General Considerations on Essential Oil Analysis
    • References
    • Chapter 8 Safety Evaluation of Essential Oils: Constituent-Based Approach Utilized for Flavor Ingredients—An Update Sean V. Taylor
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 ConstituentBased Evaluation of Essential Oils
    • 8.3 Scope of Essential Oils: Used as Flavor Ingredients
    • 8.3.1 Plant Sources
    • 8.3.2 Processing of Essential Oils for Flavor Functions
    • 8.3.3 Chemical Composition and Congeneric Groups
    • 8.3.4 Chemical Assay Requirements and Chemical Description of Essential Oil
    • 8.3.4.1 Intake of the Essential Oil
    • 8.3.4.2 Analytical Limits on Constituent Identification
    • 8.3.4.3 Intake of Congeneric Groups
    • 8.4 Safety Considerations for Essential Oils, Constituents, and Congeneric Groups
    • 8.4.1 Essential Oils
    • 8.4.1.1 Safety of Essential Oils: Relationship to Food
    • 8.4.2 Safety of Constituents and Congeneric Groups in Essential Oils
    • 8.5 Guide and Example for the Safety Evaluation of Essential Oils
    • 8.5.1 Introduction
    • 8.5.2 Elements of the Guide for the Safety Evaluation of the Essential Oil
    • 8.5.2.1 Introduction
    • 8.5.2.2 Prioritization of Essential Oil According to Presence in Food
    • 8.5.2.3 Organization of Chemical Data: Congeneric Groups and Classes of Toxicity
    • 8.5.3 Summary
    • References
    • Chapter 9 Metabolism of Terpenoids in Animal Models and Humans Walter Jäger and Martina Höferl
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Metabolism of Monoterpenes
    • 9.2.1 Borneol
    • 9.2.2 Camphene
    • 9.2.3 Camphor
    • 9.2.4 3-Carene
    • 9.2.5 Carvacrol
    • 9.2.6 Carvone
    • 9.2.7 1,4-Cineole
    • 9.2.8 1,8- Cineole
    • 9.2.9 Citral
    • 9.2.10 Citronellal
    • 9.2.11 p-Cymene
    • 9.2.12 Fenchone
    • 9.2.13 Geraniol
    • 9.2.14 Limonene
    • 9.2.15 Linalool
    • 9.2.16 Linalyl Acetate
    • 9.2.17 Menthofuran
    • 9.2.18 Menthol
    • 9.2.19 Menthone
    • 9.2.20 Myrcene
    • 9.2.21 α- and β-P i nene
    • 9.2.22 Pulegone
    • 9.2.23 α-Terpineol
    • 9.2.24 Terpinen-4-ol
    • 9.2.25 α- and β- Thujone
    • 9.2.26 Thymol
    • 9.3 Metabolism of Sesquiterpenes
    • 9.3.1 Caryophyllene
    • 9.3.2 Farnesol
    • 9.3.3 Longifolene
    • 9.3.4 Patchoulol
    • References
    • Chapter 10 Biological Activities of Essential Oils: An Update Gerhard Buchbauer and Ramona Bohusch
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Antibacterial Activity
    • 10.3 Antiviral Activity
    • 10.4 Antinociceptive Activity
    • 10.5 Anti-Inflammatory Activity
    • 10.6 Vasodilatory Activity
    • 10.7 Cytotoxic Activity
    • 10.8 Penetration-Enhancing Activity
    • References
    • Chapter 11 Antioxidative Properties of Essential Oils and Single Fragrance Compounds Gerhard Buchbauer and Marina Erkic
    • 11.1 Introduction
    • 11.2 Free Radicals
    • 11.2.1 ROS
    • 11.2.2 Reactive Nitrogen Species
    • 11.2.3 Synthesis of ROS
    • 11.2.4 Positive and Side Effects of Free Radicals
    • 11.3 Oxidative Stress
    • 11.4 Antioxidants
    • 11.5 Antioxidant Activity
    • 11.6 New Test Methods
    • 11.6.1 FRAP
    • 11.6.2 FRAP Assay
    • 11.6.3 CUPRAC Assay
    • 11.6.4 DMPD Assay
    • 11.7 Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oils
    • 11.8 Essential Oil Effect on Different Enzyme Functions and Free Radical Formation
    • 11.9 Conclusion
    • References
    • Chapter 12 Effects of Essential Oils in the Central Nervous System
    • 12.1 Central Nervous System Effects of Essential Oils in Humans Eva Heuberger
    • 12.1.1 Introduction
    • 12.1.2 Activation and Arousal: Definition and Neuroanatomical Considerations
    • 12.1.3 Influence of Essential Oils and Fragrances on Brain Potentials Indicative of Arousal
    • 12.1.3.1 Spontaneous Activity in the Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    • 12.1.3.2 Contingent Negative Variation
    • 12.1.4 Effects of Essential Oils and Fragrances on Selected Basic and Higher Cognitive Functions
    • 12.1.4.1 Alertness and Attention
    • 12.1.4.2 Learning and Memory
    • 12.1.4.3 Other Cognitive Tasks
    • 12.1.5 Conclusions
    • 12.2 Psychopharmacology of Essential Oils Domingos Sávio Nunes, Viviane de Moura Linck, Adriana Lourenço da Silva, Micheli Figueiró, and Elaine Elisabetsky
    • 12.2.1 Aromatic Plants Used in Traditional Medical Systems as Sedatives or Stimulants
    • 12.2.2 Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models
    • 12.2.2.1 Effects of Individual Components
    • 12.2.2.2 Effects of Inhaled Essential Oils
    • 12.2.3 Mechanism of Action Underlying Psychopharmacological Effects of Essential Oils
    • 12.2.4 Chemical Structures of Mentioned CNS Active Compounds
    • References
    • Chapter 13 Phytotherapeutic Uses of Essential Oils Robert Harris
    • 13.1 Introduction
    • 13.2 Allergic Rhinopathy
    • 13.3 Antihypotensive
    • 13.4 Antica rcinogenic
    • 13.5 Anti-Inflammatory
    • 13.6 Antimicrobial
    • 13.6.1 Antibacterial
    • 13.6.1.1 Acne
    • 13.6.1.2 Bacterial Vaginosis
    • 13.6.1.3 MRSA
    • 13.6.2 Antifungal
    • 13.6.3 Antiviral
    • 13.6.4 Microbes of the Oral Cavity
    • 13.6.4.1 Activity of Listerine® against Plaque and/or Gingivitis
    • 13.6.4.2 Antiviral Listerine®
    • 13.6.4.3 Activity of Essential Oils
    • 13.6.5 Controlling Microflora in Atopic Dermatitis
    • 13.6.6 Odor Management for Fungating Wounds
    • 13.7 Anxiety
    • 13.8 Cognitive Performance
    • 13.9 Dissolution of Hepatic and Renal Stones
    • 13.9.1 Gall and Biliary Tract Stones
    • 13.9.2 Renal Stones
    • 13.10 Functional Dyspepsia
    • 13.11 Gastroesophageal Refux
    • 13.12 Hyperlipoproteinemia
    • 13.13 Insecticidal
    • 13.13.1 Acaricidal Activity
    • 13.13.2 Pediculicidal Activity
    • 13.14 Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    • 13.15 Medical Examinations
    • 13.16 Mucositis
    • 13.17 Nausea
    • 13.18 Pain Relief
    • 13.18.1 Dysmenorrhea
    • 13.18.2 Headache
    • 13.18.3 Infantile Colic
    • 13.18.4 Joint Physiotherapy
    • 13.18.5 Muscle Strain
    • 13.18.6 Nipple Pain
    • 13.18.7 Osteoarthritis
    • 13.18.8 Postherpetic Neuralgia
    • 13.19 Postoperative Pain
    • 13.19.1 Breast Biopsy
    • 13.19.2 Cesarean Section
    • 13.19.3 Episiotomy
    • 13.19.4 Gastric Banding
    • 13.19.5 Prostatitis
    • 13.20 Pruritus
    • 13.21 Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis
    • 13.22 Respiratory Tract
    • 13.22.1 Menthol
    • 13.22.1.1 Antitussive
    • 13.22.1.2 Nasal Decongestant
    • 13.22.1.3 Inhibition of Respiratory Drive and Respiratory Comfort
    • 13.22.1.4 Bronchodilation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness
    • 13.22.1.5 Summary
    • 13.22.2 1,8-Cineole
    • 13.22.2.1 Antimicrobial
    • 13.22.2.2 Antitussive
    • 13.22.2.3 Bronchodilation
    • 13.22.2.4 Mucolytic and Mucociliary Effects
    • 13.22.2.5 Anti-Inflammatory Activity
    • 13.22.2.6 Pulmonary Function
    • 13.22.2.7 Summary
    • 13.22.3 Treatment with Blends Containing Both Menthol and 1,8-Cineole
    • 13.23 Snor ing
    • 13.24 Swallowing Dysfunction
    • 13.25 Conclusion
    • References
    • Chapter 14 In Vitro Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils Monographed in the European Pharmacopoeia 8th Edition Alexander Pauli and Heinz Schilcher
    • 14.1 Introduction
    • 14.1.1 Agar Diffusion Test
    • 14.1.2 Dilution Test
    • 14.1.3 Vapor Phase Test
    • 14.2 Results
    • 14.3 Discussion
    • References
    • Chapter 15 Aromatherapy with Essential Oils Maria Lis-Balchin
    • 15.1 Introduction
    • 15.1.1 Aromatherapy Practice in the United Kingdom and the United States
    • 15.2 Definitions of Aromatherapy
    • 15.3 Introduction to Aromatherapy Concepts
    • 15.3.1 Aromatherapy, Aromatology, and Aromachology
    • 15.3.2 Scientifically Accepted Benefts of Essential Oils versus the Lack of Evidence for Aromatherapy
    • 15.4 Historical Background to Aromatherapy
    • 15.4.1 Scented Plants Used as Incense in Ancient Egypt
    • 15.5 Perfume and Cosmetics: Precursors of Cosmetological Aromatherapy
    • 15.5.1 Three Methods of Producing Perfumed Oils by the Egyptians
    • 15.6 Medicinal Uses: Precursors of Aromatology or “Clinical” Aromatherapy
    • 15.6.1 Middle Ages: Use of Aromatics and Quacks
    • 15.7 Modern Perfumery
    • 15.8 Aromatherapy Practice
    • 15.8.1 Methods of Application of Aromatherapy Treatment
    • 15.9 Massage Using Essential Oils
    • 15.9.1 Massage Techniques
    • 15.10 Aromatherapy: Blending of Essential Oils
    • 15.10.1 Fixed Oils
    • 15.11 Internal Usage of Essential Oils by Aromatherapists
    • 15.12 Use of Pure or Synthetic Components
    • 15.13 Therapeutic Claims for the Application of Essential Oils
    • 15.13.1 False Claims Challenged in Court
    • 15.14 Physiological and Psychological Responses to Essential Oils and Psychophysiology
    • 15.15 Placebo Effect of Aromatherapy
    • 15.16 Safety Issue in Aromatherapy
    • 15.17 Toxicity in Humans
    • 15.17.1 Increase in Allergic Contact Dermatitis in Recent Years
    • 15.17.2 Photosensitizers
    • 15.17.3 Commonest Allergenic Essential Oils and Components
    • 15.17.4 Toxicity in Young Children: A Special Case
    • 15.17.5 Selected Toxicities of Common Essential Oils and Their Components
    • 15.18 Clinical Studies of Aromatherapy
    • 15.19 Recent Clinical Studies
    • 15.19.1 Aromatherapy in Dementia
    • 15.20 Past Clinical Studies
    • 15.20.1 Critique of Selected Clinical Trials
    • 15.21 Use of Essential Oils Mainly as Chemical Agents and Not for Their Odor
    • 15.21.1 Single-Case Studies
    • 15.22 Conclusion
    • References
    • Chapter 16 Essential Oils Used in Veterinary Medicine K. Hüsnü Can Başer and Chlodwig Franz
    • 16.1 Introduction
    • 16.2 Oils Attracting Animals
    • 16.3 Oils Repelling Animals
    • 16.4 Oils against Pests
    • 16.4.1 Insecticidal, Pest Repellent, and Antiparasitic Oils
    • 16.4.2 Fleas and Ticks
    • 16.4.3 Mosquitoes
    • 16.4.4 Moths
    • 16.4.5 Aphids, Caterpillars, and Whitefies
    • 16.4.5.1 Garlic Oil
    • 16.4.6 Ear Mites
    • 16.4.7 Antiparasitic
    • 16.5 Essential Oils Used in Animal Feed
    • 16.5.1 Ruminants
    • 16.5.2 Poultry
    • 16.5.2.1 Studies with CRINA® Poultry
    • 16.5.2.2 Studies with Herbromix®
    • 16.5.3 Pigs
    • 16.6 Essential Oils Used in Treating Diseases in Animals
    • References
    • Chapter 17 Use of Essential Oils in Agriculture Gerhard Buchbauer and Susanne Hemetsberger
    • 17.1 Introduction
    • 17.2 Essential Oils as Antipests
    • 17.2.1 Health and Environmental Impact of Botanical Antipests
    • 17.2.2 Pesticidal and Repellent Action of Essential Oils
    • 17.2.3 Development and Commercialization of Botanicals
    • 17.2.4 Examples of Essential Oils Used as Antipests
    • 17.2.4.1 Rosmarinus officinalis
    • 17.2.4.2 Thymus sp
    • 17.2.4.3 Syzygium aromaticum
    • 17.2.4.4 Muña
    • 17.2.4.5 Eucalyptus sp
    • 17.2.4.6 Satureja sp
    • 17.2.4.7 Ocimum sp
    • 17.2.4.8 Origanum sp
    • 17.2.4.9 Artemisia sp
    • 17.2.4.10 Mentha sp
    • 17.2.4.11 Cinnamomum sp
    • 17.2.4.12 Acorus sp
    • 17.2.4.13 Foeniculum vulgare
    • 17.2.4.14 Lavandula sp
    • 17.2.4.15 Carum sp
    • 17.2.4.16 Chenopodium ambrosoides
    • 17.3 Essential Oils as Herbicides
    • 17.3.1 Phytotoxicity
    • 17.3.2 Prospects of Organic Weed Control
    • 17.3.3 Examples of Essential Oils in Weed Control
    • 17.3.3.1 Thymus vulgaris
    • 17.3.3.2 Mentha sp
    • 17.3.3.3 Cymbopogon sp
    • 17.3.3.4 Eucalyptus sp
    • 17.3.3.5 L avandula sp
    • 17.3.3.6 Origanum sp
    • 17.3.3.7 Artemisia scoparia
    • 17.3.3.8 Zataria multiflora
    • 17.3.3.9 Tanacetum sp
    • 17.4 Essential Oils as Inhibitors of Various Pests
    • 17.4.1 Effect on Bacteria
    • 17.4.2 Effect on Fungi
    • 17.4.3 Effect on Viruses
    • 17.4.4 Effect on Nematodes
    • 17.5 Effect of Essential Oils on the Condition of the Soil
    • 17.5.1 Effects of Essential Oils on Microorganisms and Soil
    • 17.5.2 Examples of Essential Oils with an Effect on Soil Condition
    • 17.5.2.1 Mentha spicata
    • 17.5.2.2 Lavandula sp
    • 17.5.2.3 Salvia sp
    • 17.5.2.4 Myrtus communis
    • 17.5.2.5 Laurus nobilis
    • 17.5.2.6 Cymbopogon sp
    • 17.6 Essential Oils Used in Postharvest Disease Control
    • 17.6.1 Effects of Essential Oils on Stored-Product Pests
    • 17.6.2 Examples of Essential Oils Used on Stored Products
    • 17.6.2.1 Thymus zygis
    • 17.6.2.2 Cinnamomum sp
    • 17.6.2.3 Cymbopogoncitratus
    • 17.6.2.4 Laurus nobilis
    • 17.7 Conclusion
    • References
    • Chapter 18 Adulteration of Essential Oils Erich Schmidt and Jürgen Wanner
    • 18.1 Introduction
    • 18.1.1 General Remarks
    • 18.2 Definition and History
    • 18.3 Adulteration
    • 18.3.1 Unintended Adulteration
    • 18.3.2 Intentional Adulteration
    • 18.3.3 Prices
    • 18.3.4 Availability
    • 18.3.5 Demand of Clients
    • 18.3.6 Regulations
    • 18.3.7 Aging
    • 18.3.8 Cupidity
    • 18.3.9 Simple Sports?
    • 18.4 Possible Adulterations for Essential Oils
    • 18.4.1 Water
    • 18.4.2 Ethanol
    • 18.4.3 Fatty Oils or Mineral Oils
    • 18.4.4 High Boiling Glycols
    • 18.4.5 Oils from Other Parts of the Same Species or Other Species with Sim ilar Essential Oil Composition
    • 18.4.6 Related Botanical Species
    • 18.4.7 Fractions of Essential Oils
    • 18.4.8 Natural Isolates
    • 18.4.9 Chemically Derived Synthetic Compounds, Which Are Proved to Appear in Nature
    • 18.4.10 Steam Distilled Residues from Expression
    • 18.4.11 Enzymatically Produced Chemicals (Natural by Law)
    • 18.5 Methods to Detect Adulterations
    • 18.5.1 Organoleptic Methods
    • 18.5.1.1 Appearance and Color
    • 18.5.1.2 Odor
    • 18.5.1.3 Physical–Chemical Methods
    • 18.5.1.4 Calculation of Relationship Coefficient
    • 18.5.2 Analytical Methods
    • 18.5.2.1 General Tests
    • 18.5.2.2 Thin-Layer Chromatography
    • 18.5.2.3 Gas Chromatography (GC, GLC, HRGC, GC-FID, GC-MS)
    • 18.5.2.4 Chiral Analysis (Busch and Busch, 2006)
    • 18.5.2.5 GC-GC and GC×GC (Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, 2D GC)
    • 18.5.2.6 13C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance)
    • 18.6 Important Essential Oils and Their Possible Adulteration
    • 18.6.1 Ambrette Seed Oil
    • 18.6.2 Amyris Oil
    • 18.6.3 Angelica Oils
    • 18.6.4 Anise Fruit Oil
    • 18.6.5 Armoise Oil
    • 18.6.6 Basil Oils
    • 18.6.7 Bergamot Oil
    • 18.6.8 Bitter Orange Oil
    • 18.6.9 Bitter Orange Petitgrain Oil
    • 18.6.10 Cajeput Oil
    • 18.6.11 Camphor Oil
    • 18.6.12 Cananga Oil
    • 18.6.13 Caraway Oil
    • 18.6.14 Cardamom Oil
    • 18.6.15 Cassia Oil
    • 18.6.16 Cedar Leaf Oil
    • 18.6.17 Cedarwood Oils
    • 18.6.18 Celery Seed Oil
    • 18.6.19 Chamomile Oil Blue
    • 18.6.20 Chamomile Oil Roman
    • 18.6.21 Cinnamon Bark Oil
    • 18.6.22 Cinnamon Leaf Oil
    • 18.6.23 Citronella Oil
    • 18.6.24 Clary Sage Oil
    • 18.6.25 Clove Oils
    • 18.6.26 Coriander Fruit Oil
    • 18.6.27 Corymbia Citriodora Oil
    • 18.6.28 Corn Mint Oil
    • 18.6.29 Cumin Fruit Oil
    • 18.6.30 Cypress Oil
    • 18.6.31 Dill Oils
    • 18.6.32 Dwarf Pine Oil
    • 18.6.33 Elemi Oil
    • 18.6.34 Eucalyptus Oil
    • 18.6.35 Fennel Oil Sweet
    • 18.6.36 Fennel Oil Bitter
    • 18.6.37 Geranium Oils
    • 18.6.38 Grapefruit Oil
    • 18.6.39 Juniper Ber ry Oil
    • 18.6.40 Lavandin Oils
    • 18.6.41 Lavender Oil
    • 18.6.42 Lemon Oil
    • 18.6.43 Lemongrass Oil
    • 18.6.44 Lime Oil Distilled
    • 18.6.45 Lime Oil Expressed
    • 18.6.46 Litsea cubeba Oil
    • 18.6.47 Mandarin Oil
    • 18.6.48 Melissa Oil (Lemon Balm)
    • 18.6.49 Mentha citrata Oil
    • 18.6.50 Mountain Pine Oil
    • 18.6.51 Neroli Oil
    • 18.6.52 Nutmeg Oil
    • 18.6.53 Orange Oil Sweet
    • 18.6.54 Origanum Oil
    • 18.6.55 Palmarosa Oil
    • 18.6.56 Parsley Oil
    • 18.6.57 Pine Oil Siberian
    • 18.6.58 Patchouli Oil
    • 18.6.59 Pepper Oil
    • 18.6.60 Peppermint Oil
    • 18.6.61 Petitgrain Oil Paraguay Type
    • 18.6.62 Pimento Oils
    • 18.6.63 Rose Oil
    • 18.6.64 Rosemary Oil
    • 18.6.65 Rosewood Oil
    • 18.6.66 Sage Oil (Salva of ficinalis)
    • 18.6.67 Sage Oil Spanish Type
    • 18.6.68 Sandalwood Oil
    • 18.6.69 Spearmint Oils
    • 18.6.70 Spike Lavender Oil
    • 18.6.71 Star Anise Oil
    • 18.6.72 Tarragon Oil
    • 18.6.73 Tea Tree Oil
    • 18.6.74 Thyme Oil
    • 18.6.75 Turpentine Oil
    • 18.6.76 Vetiver Oil
    • 18.6.77 Ylang-Ylang Oils
    • References
    • Chapter 19 Biotransformation of Monoterpenoids by Microorganisms, Insects, and Mammals Yoshiaki Noma and Yoshinori Asakawa
    • 19.1 Introduction
    • 19.2 Metabolic Pathways of Acyclic Monoterpenoids
    • 19.2.1 Acyclic Monoterpene Hydrocarbons
    • 19.2.1.1 Myrcene
    • 19.2.1.2 Citronellene
    • 19.2.2 Acyclic Monoterpene Alcohols and Aldehydes
    • 19.2.2.1 Geraniol, Nerol, (+)- and (-)-Citronellol, Citral, and (+)- and (-)-Citronellal
    • 19.2.2.2 Linalool and Linalyl Acetate
    • 19.2.2.3 Dihydromyrcenol
    • 19.3 Metabolic Pathways of Cyclic Monoter penoids
    • 19.3.1 Monocyclic Monoterpene Hydrocarbon
    • 19.3.1.1 Limonene
    • 19.3.1.2 Isolimonene
    • 19.3.1.3 p-Menthane
    • 19.3.1.4 1-p-Menthene
    • 19.3.1.5 3-p-Menthene
    • 19.3.1.6 α-Terpinene
    • 19.3.1.7 γ-Ter pinene
    • 19.3.1.8 Terpinolene
    • 19.3.1.9 α-Phellandrene
    • 19.3.1.10 p- Cymene
    • 19.3.2 Monocyclic Monoterpene Aldehyde
    • 19.3.2.1 Perillaldehyde
    • 19.3.2.2 Phellandral and 1,2-Dihydrophellandral
    • 19.3.2.3 Cuminaldehyde
    • 19.3.3 Monocyclic Monoter pene Alcohol
    • 19.3.3.1 Menthol
    • 19.3.3.2 Neomenthol
    • 19.3.3.3 (+)-Isomenthol
    • 19.3.3.4 Isopulegol
    • 19.3.3.5 α-Terpineol
    • 19.3.3.6 (-)-Terpinen-4-ol
    • 19.3.3.7 Thymol and Thymol Methyl Ether
    • 19.3.3.8 Carvacrol and Carvacrol Methyl Ether
    • 19.3.3.9 Carveol
    • 19.3.3.10 Dihydrocarveol
    • 19.3.3.11 Piperitenol
    • 19.3.3.12 Isopiperitenol
    • 19.3.3.13 Perillyl Alcohol
    • 19.3.3.14 Carvomenthol
    • 19.3.4 Monocyclic Monoterpene Ketone
    • 19.3.4.1 a, β-Unsaturated Ketone
    • 19.3.4.2 Saturated Ketone
    • 19.3.4.3 Cyclic Monoterpene Epoxide
    • 19.4 Metabolic Pathways of Bicyclic Monoterpenoids
    • 19.4.1 Bicyclic Monoterpene
    • 19.4.1.1 α-Pinene
    • 19.4.1.2 β-Pinene
    • 19.4.1.3 (±)-Camphene
    • 19.4.1.4 3-Carene and Carane
    • 19.4.2 Bicyclic Monoterpene Aldehyde
    • 19.4.2.1 Myrtenal and Myrtanal…
    • 19.4.3 Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol
    • 19.4.3.1 Myrtenol
    • 19.4.3.2 Myrtanol
    • 19.4.3.3 Pinocarveol
    • 19.4.3.4 Pinane-2,3-Diol
    • 19.4.3.5 Isopinocampheol (3-Pinanol)
    • 19.4.3.6 Borneol and Isoborneol
    • 19.4.3.7 Fenchol and Fenchyl Acetate
    • 19.4.3.8 Verbenol
    • 19.4.3.9 Nopol and Nopol Benzyl Ether
    • 19.4.4 Bicyclic Monoterpene Ketones
    • 19.4.4.1 α-, β-Unsaturated Ketone
    • 19.4.4.2 Saturated Ketone
    • 19.5 Summary
    • 19.5.1 Metabolic Pathways of Monoterpenoids by Microorganisms
    • 19.5.2 Microbial Transformation of Terpenoids as Unit Reaction
    • References
    • Chapter 20 Biotransformation of Sesquiterpenoids, Ionones, Damascones, Adamantanes, and A romatic Compounds by Green Algae, Fungi, and Mammals Yoshinori Asakawa and Yoshiaki Noma
    • 20.1 Introduction
    • 20.2 Biotransformation of Sesquiterpenoids by Microorganisms
    • 20.2.1 Highly Efficient Production of Nootkatone (2) from Valencene (1)
    • 20.2.2 Biotransformation of Valencene (1) by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus wentii
    • 20.2.3 Biotransformation of Nootkatone (2) by Aspergillus niger
    • 20.2.4 Biotransformation of Nootkatone (2) by Fusarium culmorum and Botryosphaeria dothidea
    • 20.2.5 Biotransformation of (+)-1(10)-Aristolene (36) from the Crude Drug Nardostachys chinensis by Chlorella fusca, Mucor Species, and Aspergillus niger
    • 20.2.6 Biotransformation of Various Sesquiterpenoids by Microorganisms
    • 20.3 Biotransformation of Sesquiterpenoids by Mammals, Insects, and Cytochrome P-450
    • 20.3.1 Animals (Rabbits) and Dosing
    • 20.3.2 Sesquiterpenoids
    • 20.4 Biotransformation of Ionones, Damascones, and Adamantanes
    • 20.5 Biotransformation of Aromatic Compounds
    • References
    • Chapter 21 Industrial Uses of Essential Oils W. S. Brud
    • 21.1 Introduction
    • 21.2 History
    • 21.3 Fragrances
    • 21.4 Flavors
    • 21.5 Production and Consumption
    • 21.6 Changing Trends
    • 21.7 Conclusions
    • Acknowledgments
    • References
    • Further Readings
    • Websites
    • Chapter 22 Encapsulation and Other Programmed Release Techniques for Essential Oils and Volatile Terpenes Jan Karlsen
    • 22.1 Introduction
    • 22.2 Controlled Release of Volatiles
    • 22.3 Use of Hydrophilic Polymers
    • 22.4 Alginate
    • 22.5 Stabilization of Essential Oil Constituents
    • 22.6 Controlled Release of Volatiles from Nonvolatile Precursors
    • 22.7 Cyclodextrin Complexation of Volatiles
    • 22.8 Enhanced Biological Effect by Prolonged Delivery of Volatiles and Essential Oils
    • 22.9 Methods for Producing Prolonged Delivery Units of Volatiles
    • 22.10 Concluding Remarks
    • References
    • Chapter 23 Trade of Essential Oils Hugo Bovill
    • Reference
    • Chapter 24 Storage, Labeling, and Transport of Essential Oils Jens Jankowski, Jens-Achim Protzen, and Klaus-Dieter Protzen
    • 24.1 Marketing of Essential Oils: The Fragrant Gold of Nature Postulates Passion, Experience, and Knowledge
    • 24.2 Impact and Consequences on the Classification of Essential Oils as Natural but Chemical Substances in REACH
    • 24.3 Dangerous Substances and Dangerous Goods
    • 24.3.1 Material Safety Data Sheet
    • 24.4 Packaging of Dangerous Goods
    • 24.5 Labeling
    • 24.6 List of Regulations for the Consideration of Doing Business in the EU
    • Acronyms
    • References
    • Chapter 25 Aroma-Vital Cuisine: Healthy and Delightful Consumption by the Use of Essential Oils Maria M. Kettenring and Lara-M. Vucemilovic-Geeganage
    • 25.1 Basic Pr inciples of the Aroma-Vital Cuisine
    • 25.1.1 The Heart of Culinary Arts Is Based on Exquisite Ingredients and an Accomplished Rounding
    • 25.1.2 Quality Criteria and Specifics That Have to Be Adhered to While Handling Essential Oils for Food Prepa ration
    • 25.1.3 Storage
    • 25.1.4 Quantity
    • 25.1.5 Emulsifers and Forms of Administering
    • 25.1.6 To Add Spice with Natural Aromas in a Balanced Way
    • 25.1.7 Essential Oils Are Able to Lift Our Spirits As Well
    • 25.2 Small Culinary Trip: Aroma-Vital Cuisine Recipes and Introduction
    • 25.2.1 Menu
    • 25.2.2 Aroma-Vital Cuisine Recipes
    • 25.2.2.1 Basics
    • 25.2.2.2 Beverages
    • 25.2.2.3 Entrees
    • 25.2.2.4 Appetizer and Finger Food
    • 25.2.2.5 Main Course
    • 25.2.2.6 Dessert, Cakes, and Baked Goods
    • 25.2.2.7 Résumé
    • Chapter 26 Recent EU Legislation on Flavors and Fragrances and Its Impact on Essential Oils Jan C. R. Demyttenaere
    • 26.1 Introduction
    • 26.2 Former Flavoring Directive and Current Flavoring Regulation: Impact on Essential Oils
    • 26.2.1 Maximum Levels of “Restricted Substances”
    • 26.2.1.1 (Restricted Substances under Former) Flavoring Directive 88/388/EC
    • 26.2.1.2 (Restricted Substances under) New Flavoring Regulation 1334/2008/EC
    • 26.2.2 Definition of “Natural”
    • 26.2.2.1 (Definition of “Natural” under) Former Flavoring Directive 88/388/EC
    • 26.2.2.2 (Definition of “Natural” under) New Flavoring Regulation 1334/2008/EC
    • 26.3 Hazard Classification and Labeling of Flavors and Fragrances
    • 26.3.1 Orange Oil
    • 26.3.2 Nutmeg Oil
    • 26.4 Conclusion
    • 26.A Appendix
    • References