Dictionary of Developmental Biology and Embryology

Editor/Author Dye, Frank J.
Publication Year: 2012
Publisher: Wiley

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-118-07651-4
Category: Science - Biology
Image Count: 69
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

The Dictionary of Developmental Biology and Embryology, Second Edition is the first comprehensive reference focused on the field's terms, research, history, and people. This authoritative A-to-Z resource covers classical morphological and cytological terms along with those from modern genetics and molecular biology.

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Table of Contents

  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • A
  • A23187
  • abaxial
  • abdominal cavity
  • ABO blood typing system
  • aboral surface
  • abortifacient
  • abortion
  • abortus
  • abruptio placentae
  • abscisic acid (ABA)
  • abscission
  • accessory sex glands
  • accutane
  • Acetabularia
  • acetylated histones
  • acetylation
  • Achaete
  • achondroplasia
  • acid blob
  • acoelomate
  • acrania
  • acrocentric chromosome
  • acrocephaly
  • acrogen
  • acron
  • acrosin
  • acrosomal filament
  • acrosomal vesicle
  • acrosome
  • acrosome reaction
  • acrotrophic ovariole
  • actin
  • actinomycin D
  • activation of the egg
  • activator
  • active immunity
  • activin
  • adaptive developmental plasticity
  • adaxial
  • adaxial cells
  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  • adepithelial cells
  • adherens junctions
  • adipocytes
  • adrenal glands
  • adrenal hyperplasia
  • adrenaline
  • adrenergic neurons
  • adult hemoglobin
  • adult stem cells
  • adventitious
  • AER
  • aequorin
  • afterbirth
  • after-ripening
  • agamospermy
  • agenesis
  • aggregation
  • aging
  • AGM region
  • Agnatha
  • agnatha
  • AIDS
  • air space
  • albinism
  • albino
  • albumen
  • albumin
  • albuminous seed
  • alcohol
  • alecithal eggs
  • aleurone
  • aleurone layer
  • algae
  • alkaline phosphatase
  • allantoic diverticulum
  • allantoic stalk
  • allantoic vesicle
  • allantois
  • allele
  • allelic series
  • Allman George (1812–1898)
  • allogamy
  • allometric growth
  • allometry
  • allosteric enzymes
  • alopecia
  • alternation of generations
  • alternative RNA splicing
  • alveolar period
  • alveoli
  • amelia
  • ameloblasts
  • Ametabola
  • ametabolous
  • AMF
  • AMH
  • amino acids
  • ammocoete
  • ammonia
  • ammonotelic organisms
  • amnio-cardiac vesicles
  • amniocentesis
  • amniocyte
  • amnion
  • -amnios-
  • amniota
  • amniote egg
  • amniotes
  • amniotic cavity
  • amniotic fluid
  • amniotic folds
  • amniotic sac
  • amoebocyte
  • amorphous
  • Amphibia
  • amphibians
  • amphiblastic cleavage
  • amphimixis
  • Amphioxus
  • amplexus
  • ampulla
  • anagenesis
  • anal agenesis
  • anal evagination
  • anal membrane
  • anal plate
  • anal stenosis
  • analgesic
  • analogous
  • analogous organs
  • anamniota
  • anamniotes
  • anaphase
  • anatomic position
  • -andr-
  • androecium
  • androgen insensitivity syndrome
  • androgenesis
  • androgenic merogony
  • androgens
  • anencephaly
  • aneuploid
  • angioblasts
  • angiogenesis
  • angiogenetic clusters
  • angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)
  • angiopoietins
  • angiosperms
  • animal
  • animal cap
  • animal gradient
  • animal hemisphere
  • animal pole
  • animalculist
  • animalization
  • animalized
  • animal-vegetal axis
  • animism
  • aniridia
  • anisogamy
  • ankyloglossia
  • anlage
  • annual
  • anoikis
  • anovulation
  • Antennapedia complex
  • Antennapedia gene
  • anteriad
  • anterior group Hox genes
  • anterior intestinal portal
  • anterior neuropore
  • anterior organizing center
  • anterior pole
  • anterior tip
  • anterior visceral endoderm
  • anteroposterior axis
  • anther
  • anther sac
  • antheridiophore
  • antheridium
  • antheridogen
  • Anthropocene
  • anticlinal divisions
  • anticodon
  • antifertilizin
  • antifungal symbiotic bacteria
  • anti-Müllerian duct hormone
  • anti-Müllerian factor
  • antipodal cells
  • antisense oligonucleotides
  • antisense RNA
  • antral vacuoles
  • antrum
  • Anura
  • anus
  • aorta
  • aorta-gonad-mesonephros region
  • aortic arches
  • Apaf-1
  • apical dominance
  • apical ectodermal cap
  • apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
  • apical meristem
  • apical notch
  • Apoda
  • apomixis (apogamy)
  • apoplastic continuity
  • apoptosis
  • apospory
  • appendage buds
  • appendicular skeleton
  • appendix
  • appositional growth
  • Apterygota
  • aqueduct of Sylvius
  • Arabidopsis
  • archegonium
  • archencephalon
  • archenteron
  • archenteron roof
  • archeocyte
  • archeocytes
  • archetype
  • architectural transcription factor
  • area opaca
  • area opaca vasculosa
  • area opaca vitellina
  • area pellucida
  • area placentalis
  • Aristotle (384–322 b.c.)
  • aromatase
  • arrector pili muscle
  • “arrival of the fittest”
  • arteries
  • arthrotome
  • artificial insemination
  • Ascaris
  • Ascaris megalocephala
  • ascidians (sea squirts)
  • asexual reproduction
  • assembly factor
  • astrocyte
  • astrotactin
  • asymmetric cell divisions
  • atavism
  • ATP
  • atrazine
  • atresia
  • atretic follicles
  • atrial septal defect
  • atrichoblasts
  • atrioventricular canal
  • atrium
  • attitude
  • auditory nerves
  • auditory placodes
  • auditory vesicles
  • auricularia
  • autocrine growth factor
  • autocrine signaling
  • autogamous
  • autonomic ganglia
  • autonomic nerves
  • autonomic nervous system
  • autonomous specification
  • autophilous
  • autopod
  • autopoietic
  • autoregulation
  • autoschizis
  • autosomal mutations
  • autosomes
  • auxiliary sex glands
  • auxin
  • Aves
  • avidin
  • axes
  • axial patterning
  • axial placentation
  • axial protocadherin
  • axial skeleton
  • axiation
  • axillary
  • axoneme
  • axons
  • azoospermia
  • AZT
  • B
  • B cells
  • B lymphocytes
  • backbone
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron
  • Baer Karl Ernst von (1792–1876)
  • Balbiani rings
  • Baldwin effect
  • Balfour Francis (1851–1882)
  • Balfour's law
  • balloon catheterization
  • banding techniques
  • Barker hypothesis
  • Barr body
  • Bartholin's glands
  • basal
  • basal body temperature (BBT) method
  • basal cell
  • basal disc
  • basal lamina
  • basal layer
  • basal level transcription
  • basal placentation
  • base pair
  • basement membrane
  • base-pairing rules
  • basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)
  • basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family
  • basic leucine zipper (bZip)
  • basic leucine zipper (bZip) family
  • Bateson William (1861–1926)
  • battery
  • Bauchstück
  • Bauplan (Baupläne)
  • B-catenin
  • Bcl-2 genes
  • Beadle George Wells (1903–1989)
  • Beermann Wolfgang (1921–2000)
  • Beneden Edouard Van (1846–1910)
  • BFU-E
  • bicoid
  • bicoid mRNA
  • bicoid protein
  • bicornuate uterus
  • biennial
  • bifurcate
  • bifurcation point
  • bilaminar embryonic disc
  • bilateral cleavage
  • bilateral symmetry
  • Bilateria
  • Bildungstrieb
  • bindin
  • bindin receptor
  • binding site
  • binocular vision
  • biochemical cytodifferentiation
  • biofilms
  • Biogenesis
  • Biogenetic Law
  • bioinformatics
  • biological mother
  • bipinnaria larva
  • bipotential stage
  • birth
  • birth canal
  • birth defect
  • birthday
  • bisphenol A (BPA)
  • bithorax complex (BX-C)
  • bivalent
  • bladder
  • -blast
  • blast cell
  • blastema
  • blastocoel
  • blastocyst
  • blastocyst cavity
  • blastocyte
  • blastoderm
  • blastodermic vesicle
  • blastodisc
  • blastogenesis
  • blastokinesis
  • blastomeres
  • blastopore
  • blastopore lips
  • blastozooid
  • blastula
  • blastulation
  • block to polyspermy
  • blood islands
  • blood plasma
  • blood-testis barrier
  • Blumenbach Johann Friedrich (1752–1840)
  • BMP
  • BMP4
  • BMP4 and BMP7
  • body cavity
  • body contruction theory
  • body folds
  • body stalk
  • bone marrow
  • bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)
  • Bonellia viridis
  • Bonnet Charles (1720–1793)
  • Born Gustav (1851–1900)
  • bottle cells
  • boundary sequences
  • Bounoure Louis (1934–)
  • Boveri Theodor (1862–1915)
  • Bowman's capsule
  • brachial
  • brachy-
  • brachydactyly
  • Brachyury
  • brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)
  • brain vesicles
  • branchial
  • branchial arches
  • branchial chamber
  • branchial clefts
  • branchial fistula
  • branchial furrows
  • branchial grooves (furrows)
  • branchiomere
  • brassinosteroids
  • BRCA1
  • breech presentation
  • Briggs Robert (1911–1983)
  • broad ligament of the uterus
  • bronchioles
  • bronchus
  • brown fat cells
  • bryophytes
  • bryostatin
  • buccal cavity
  • bud
  • budding
  • bulb
  • bulbourethral gland
  • bulbous arteriosus
  • bulge
  • Bunker Eng Chang (1811–1874)
  • bursa copulatrix
  • burst-forming unit, erythroid (BFU-E)
  • bushy chorion
  • C
  • C-cadherin
  • C. elegans
  • C-value
  • C-value paradox
  • cadastral genes
  • cadherins
  • caeno-
  • caenogenesis
  • caenomorphosis
  • Caenorhabditis elegans
  • calcium phosphate
  • callus
  • calvaria
  • calyces
  • calyx
  • CAM
  • cambium
  • Cambrian
  • Cambrian explosion
  • Camerarius Rudolph (1665–1721)
  • CAMs
  • canalicular period
  • canalization (developmental robustness)
  • cancer stem cell hypothesis
  • candidate gene mapping
  • canonical
  • capacitation
  • capillaries
  • caput epididymis
  • carapacial ridge
  • carbohydrate
  • carcinoma
  • cardiac bifida
  • cardiac cells
  • cardiac jelly
  • cardiac muscle
  • cardiac myoblasts
  • cardiac neural crest
  • cardiac prominence
  • cardinal veins
  • cardioblast
  • cardiogenic mesoderm
  • cardiomyocytes
  • carotid arteries
  • carpel
  • carpellate flowers
  • carrier
  • cartilage
  • cascade of embryonic inductions
  • cascade of protein phosphorylations
  • caspases
  • catalyst
  • catalyze
  • cataract
  • catenins
  • catheterization
  • cauda epididymis
  • caudad
  • caudal
  • caudal intestinal portal (CIP)
  • caudal knob
  • caudal mRNA
  • caul
  • cavitation
  • CBFA1
  • Cbfa1 gene
  • Cdc
  • cdk
  • cDNA
  • cecum
  • ced genes
  • -cele
  • cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)
  • cell arrangements
  • cell autonomous genes
  • cell–cell adhesion
  • cell cycle
  • cell differentiation
  • cell elongation
  • cell fusion
  • cell hybridization
  • cell hypertrophy
  • cell junctions
  • cell lineage
  • cell lineage restriction
  • cell lineage studies
  • cell-mediated immunity
  • cell proliferation
  • cell-sorting
  • cellular affinity
  • cellular blastoderm
  • cellular ecosystem
  • cellulose
  • cement gland
  • Cenozoic Era
  • central cell
  • central dogma of molecular biology
  • central group Hox genes
  • central nervous system (CNS)
  • central zone
  • centrioles
  • centrolecithal eggs
  • centromere
  • centrosome
  • cephalad
  • cephalic
  • cephalic neural crest
  • cephalic precocity
  • cephalic presentation
  • cephalochordates
  • -cephaly
  • Cerberus
  • cerci
  • cerebellum
  • cerebral hemispheres
  • cerebral vesicles
  • cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
  • cerebrum
  • cervical canal
  • cervical cap
  • cervical flexure
  • cervical mucus
  • cervical plug
  • cervical sinus
  • cervix uteri
  • cesarean section
  • CFU-E
  • CFU-GM
  • CFU-Meg
  • CFU-M,L
  • CFU-S
  • Chabry Laurent (1855–1894)
  • chalaza(e)
  • chancre
  • chasmogamous
  • checkpoints
  • chemical teratogens
  • chemoaffinity hypothesis
  • chemoattractant
  • chemorepellent
  • chemotaxis
  • chemotherapeutic drugs
  • chiasmata
  • chick
  • Child Charles Manning (1869–1954)
  • childbirth
  • chimera
  • Chironomus
  • chlamydia
  • chloasma
  • cholinergic neurons
  • Chondrichthyes
  • chondrocranium
  • chondrocytes
  • chondrogenesis
  • chondroskeleton
  • chordamesoderm
  • Chordata
  • chordate
  • chordate characteristics
  • chordin
  • chordoneural hinge
  • chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM)
  • choriocarcinoma
  • chorion
  • chorion frondosum
  • chorion laeve
  • chorionic plate
  • chorionic sac
  • chorionic villi
  • chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  • choroid fissure
  • choroid plexus
  • chromaffin cell
  • chromatid
  • chromatin
  • chromatin diminution
  • chromatophores
  • Chromosomal Theory of Heredity
  • chromosome bands
  • chromosome diminution
  • chromosome elimination
  • chromosome puffs
  • chromosomes
  • cilia
  • circadian clocks
  • circuit
  • circulation
  • circulatory arcs
  • cis regulation
  • cis-regulatory element
  • cistron
  • c-Kit protein
  • clade
  • class II promoter
  • class switching
  • cleavage
  • cleavage embryogenesis
  • cleavage furrow
  • cleavage nucleus
  • cleavage patterns
  • cleft lip
  • cleft palate
  • cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD)
  • cleidoic egg
  • cleistogamous
  • cloaca
  • cloacal membrane
  • cloacal plate
  • clonal analysis
  • clonal restriction
  • clonal selection theory
  • clone
  • cloning
  • clubfoot
  • c-mos
  • Cnidaria
  • cnidarians
  • CNS
  • co-activator
  • cochlea
  • codominance
  • codons
  • Coelenterata
  • coelenterates
  • coeloblastula
  • coelom
  • coelomate
  • coenobium
  • coenocyte
  • cohesion proteins
  • coitus
  • coitus interruptus
  • colcemid
  • colchicine
  • coleoptile
  • coleorhizae
  • colinear
  • colinearity
  • collagen
  • collagen, type IV
  • collecting tubules
  • colliculi
  • colors
  • combinatorial
  • combinatorial regulation
  • commensalism
  • commisure
  • commitment
  • committed stems cells
  • community effect
  • compaction
  • comparative embryology
  • compartments
  • compensatory mutation
  • compensatory regeneration
  • competence
  • competence factor
  • competence map
  • competence transfer
  • complete flower
  • conceptacle
  • conception
  • conceptus
  • condensation
  • conditional development
  • conditional mutation
  • conditional specification
  • cone
  • congenital
  • congenital anomalies
  • congenital dislocation of the hip
  • congenital syphilis
  • conjoined twins
  • conjugation
  • Conklin Edwin Grant (1863–1952)
  • connecting stalk
  • conservation
  • constitutive
  • constitutive heterochromatin
  • constitutive mutation
  • constraints
  • contact guidance
  • contact inhibition
  • contact placenta
  • continuity of the germplasm
  • contraception
  • contractile proteins
  • contractile ring
  • contraction
  • contragestion
  • conus arteriosus
  • convergence
  • convergent extension
  • cooperativity
  • co-option
  • copulation
  • cord blood
  • co-repressor
  • cork cambium
  • cornea
  • corolla
  • corona dispersing enzyme
  • corona penetrating enzyme (CPE)
  • corona radiata
  • corpora allata
  • corpora bigemina
  • corpora quadrigemina
  • corpus
  • corpus albicans
  • corpus epididymis
  • corpus hemorrhagicum
  • corpus luteum
  • corpuscles of Meissner
  • correlated progression
  • cortex
  • cortical granules
  • cortical reaction
  • cortical rotation
  • cortices
  • cotyledons
  • covalent bond
  • Cowper's glands
  • CpG islands
  • cranial ectodermal placodes
  • cranial flexure
  • cranial ganglia
  • cranial nerves
  • cranial neural crest
  • cranial vault
  • craniobuccal pouch
  • craniorachischisis
  • cranium
  • Cretaceous-Paleocene discontinuity
  • Cretaceous Period
  • cri du chat
  • -crine
  • critical day length
  • critical periods in development
  • crossing over
  • crossopterygians
  • cross-talk
  • crura cerebri
  • cryogenic storage
  • cryptic genetic variation
  • cryptochrome
  • cryptogam
  • cryptorchidism
  • crystallins
  • CSF
  • Ctenophora
  • culmination
  • cumulus
  • cumulus oophorus
  • cutis plate
  • cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
  • cyclin-dependent kinase
  • cyclins
  • cyclopamine
  • cyclopia
  • cyclostomes
  • cystic duct
  • cystocytes
  • cytochalasin B
  • cytodifferentiation
  • cytogenetics
  • cytokines
  • cytokinesis
  • cytokinins
  • cytology
  • cytomegalovirus
  • cytonemes
  • cytoplasm
  • cytoplasmic bridges
  • cytoplasmic determinant
  • cytoplasmic incompatibility
  • cytoplasmic localization
  • cytoplasmic matrix
  • cytoplasmic organelles
  • cytoplasmic rearrangements
  • cytosine methylation
  • cytoskeletal proteins
  • cytoskeleton
  • cytostatic factor
  • cytotrophoblast
  • cytotrophoblastic shell
  • D
  • -dactyly
  • Dareste Camille (1822–1899)
  • Darwin Charles (1809–1882)
  • Darwin and embryology
  • dauer
  • dauer larva
  • dauer larva pathway
  • dauer stage
  • dauerblastula
  • daughter cells
  • DAX1 gene
  • daylength
  • de novo methylases
  • deacetylated histones
  • Decapentaplegic (Dpp) gene
  • decapentaplegic protein
  • decidua
  • decidua basalis
  • decidua capsularis
  • decidua parietalis
  • decidua reaction
  • deciduous placenta
  • dedifferentiation
  • deep homology
  • deep layer (cells)
  • defect experiment
  • defensins
  • delamination
  • deletion
  • Delta-Notch system
  • denatured DNA
  • denatured protein
  • dendrites
  • dental papilla
  • Dentalium
  • denticles
  • dentin
  • dentinoblast
  • deoxyribonucleic acid
  • deoxyribonucleotides
  • dependent development
  • derivative
  • dermal papilla
  • dermal tissue
  • dermatome
  • dermis
  • dermomyotome
  • descent
  • descent with modification
  • descriptive embryology
  • desiccation
  • desmosomes
  • determinants
  • determinate cleavage
  • determination
  • determinative development
  • deuterencephalic
  • deuterostomes
  • Deuterostomia
  • deutocerebrum
  • deutoplasm
  • development
  • developmental anatomy
  • developmental biologist
  • developmental biology
  • developmental constraints
  • developmental domains
  • developmental estrogen syndrome
  • developmental evolutionary synthesis
  • developmental genes
  • developmental geneticist
  • developmental genetics
  • developmental modularity
  • developmental Northern blot
  • developmental origin of health and disease (DOHD) hypothesis
  • developmental plasticity
  • developmental program
  • developmental robustness
  • developmental switches
  • developmental symbiosis
  • developmental systems theory (DST)
  • Devonian
  • dextrotropic cleavage
  • diacylglycerol (DAG)
  • diakinesis
  • diapause
  • diaphragm
  • diaphragmatic hernia
  • diaphysis
  • dickkopf
  • dicots
  • dicotyledonous plants
  • dictyate
  • Dictyostelium discoideum
  • diencephalon
  • diestrus
  • diethylstilbesterol (DES)
  • differential adhesion hypothesis
  • differential cell affinities
  • differential gene expression
  • differential RNA splicing
  • differential substrate affinity hypothesis
  • differentiation
  • differentiation inducing factor
  • diffuse placenta
  • digestive proteins
  • digestive system
  • digestive tube
  • digit
  • dihydrotestosterone
  • dilatation and evacuation (D & E)
  • dilatation stage of labor
  • dimer
  • dimorphic
  • diocoel
  • dioecious
  • dipleurula
  • diplobiont
  • diploblastic
  • diploblasts
  • diploid
  • diploid merogony
  • diplont
  • diplontic life cycle
  • diplospory
  • diplotene stage
  • Diptera
  • direct development
  • disc
  • discoblastula
  • discogastrula
  • discoid
  • discoidal cleavage
  • Discontinuity, Theory of
  • disjunction
  • disk
  • disomy
  • disparity
  • disruptions
  • dissociation
  • distal
  • Distal-less
  • distal tip cell
  • divergence
  • diversity
  • diverticulum
  • dividing egg
  • dizygotic twins
  • DNA
  • DNA-binding domain
  • DNA methylation
  • DNA microarrays (DNA chips)
  • DNA microchip
  • DNA replication
  • DNA synthesis
  • DNase footprinting
  • DNase hypersensitive sites
  • DNase protection assay
  • Dolly
  • domain
  • domains of commitment
  • dominant
  • dominant negative mutation
  • dominant negative protein
  • dominant-recessive inheritance
  • dormancy
  • dorsal
  • dorsal
  • dorsal aortae
  • dorsal axial mesoderm
  • dorsal closure
  • dorsal determinant
  • dorsal lip of the blastopore
  • dorsal mesocardium
  • dorsal mesoderm
  • dorsal protein
  • dorsalization
  • dorsalizing factors
  • dorsoventral axis
  • dorsum
  • dosage compensation
  • double assurance hypothesis
  • double fertilization
  • double-negative gate
  • down-mutation
  • downregulation
  • downstream
  • Down's syndrome
  • Driesch Hans (1867–1941)
  • Drosophila
  • dry sperm
  • dual gradient model
  • duct of Cuvier
  • duct of Santorini
  • duct of Wirsung
  • ductus arteriosus
  • ductus choledochus
  • ductus deferens
  • ductus venosus
  • duodenum
  • duplex uterus
  • duplication
  • dyad
  • dynamic anatomy
  • dynein
  • dysgenesis
  • dysplasia
  • E
  • E-cadherin
  • ecdysis
  • ecdysone
  • ecdysone receptors
  • Ecdysozoa
  • Echinoderm Theory
  • eclosion
  • ECM
  • eco-evo-devo
  • eco-devo
  • ecological developmental biology
  • ecological evolutionary developmental biology
  • ecomorph
  • ecotype
  • ectoderm
  • ectodermal placodes
  • ectodysplasin (EDA) cascade
  • ectogenesis
  • ectogony
  • ectomere
  • ectomesenchyme
  • ectopic embryos
  • ectopic kidney
  • ectopic pregnancy
  • ectoplacental cone
  • edema
  • Ediacara
  • Edwards Robert (1925–)
  • effacement
  • efferent ductules
  • EGF
  • EGF receptors
  • egg
  • egg activation
  • egg capsules
  • egg chamber
  • egg chemistry
  • egg coats
  • egg cylinder
  • egg follicle
  • egg grooming
  • egg jelly
  • egg physics
  • egg shell
  • egg tube
  • egg water
  • eggs
  • einsteckung
  • ejaculate
  • ejaculation
  • ejaculatory ducts
  • electron microscope
  • electroporation
  • emboitement
  • emboly
  • embryo
  • embryo bank
  • embryo body plan
  • embryo defenses
  • embryo sac
  • embryo transfer (ET)
  • embryoblast
  • embryogenesis
  • embryogeny
  • embryologist
  • embryology
  • embryonal carcinoma (EC)
  • embryonal region
  • embryonate
  • embryonic
  • embryonic-abembryonic axis
  • embryonic axis
  • embryonic cell cycle
  • embryonic disc
  • embryonic ectoderm
  • embryonic endoderm
  • embryonic germ (EG) cells
  • embryonic induction
  • embryonic mesoderm
  • embryonic period
  • embryonic pole
  • embryonic shield
  • embryonic stem cells (ES cells)
  • embryopathy
  • embryophytes
  • embryotomy
  • embryotroph
  • emulsify
  • enamel hypoplasia
  • enamel knot
  • enamel organ
  • encapsulated nerve endings
  • encapsulation
  • -encephaly
  • end bud
  • endoblast
  • endocardial cushion tissue
  • endocardial primordia
  • endocardial tube
  • endocardium
  • endochondral ossification
  • endocrine cells
  • endocrine disruptors
  • endocrine factors
  • endocrine mimics (endocrine disruptors)
  • endocrine signaling
  • endoderm
  • endoderm determinant
  • endolymphatic duct
  • endomere
  • endomesoderm
  • endometriosis
  • endometrium
  • Endopterygota
  • endoskeleton
  • endosperm
  • endosperm cell
  • endosteal osteoblasts
  • endosymbiosis
  • endothelial cells
  • endotheliochorial placenta
  • endothelins
  • energids
  • engagement
  • engrailed
  • enhanceosome
  • enhancer
  • enhancer modularity
  • enhancer trap
  • entelechy
  • enterocoel
  • enterocoely
  • entoblast
  • entoderm
  • Entwicklungsmechanik
  • enveloping layer
  • environmental integration
  • environmental mismatch hypothesis
  • enzyme-linked receptors
  • enzymes
  • EP-cadherin
  • epaxial muscles
  • ependyma
  • ependymal cells
  • Eph receptors
  • ephrin proteins
  • epialleles
  • epiblast
  • epiboly
  • epicardium
  • epicotyl
  • epidermal cells
  • epidermal ectoderm
  • epidermal growth factor (EGF)
  • epidermis
  • epididymis
  • epigaster
  • epigenesis
  • epigenetic assimilation
  • epigenetic change
  • epigenetic inheritance
  • epigenetic methylation
  • epigenetic origin of adult diseases
  • epigenetic progenitor model
  • epigenetic theory
  • epimere
  • epimorphic regeneration
  • epimorphosis
  • epimyocardial primordium
  • epimyocardial tube
  • epimyocardium
  • epinephrine
  • epineural sinus
  • epiphyseal fusion
  • epiphyseal growth plates
  • epiphyses
  • epistasis
  • epithelial cadherin
  • epithelial cells
  • epithelialization
  • epithelial-mesenchymal interactions
  • epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions
  • epitheliochorial placenta
  • epithelium
  • epoophoron
  • equator
  • equivalence group
  • ERK
  • erythroblast
  • erythroblastosis fetalis
  • erythrocyte
  • erythroid progenitor cell (BFU-E)
  • erythropoiesis
  • erythropoietin
  • ES cells
  • esophageal atresia
  • esophagus
  • estrogen
  • estrous cycle
  • estrus
  • ethylene
  • eucaryotes
  • euchromatin
  • eukaryotes
  • euploid
  • eustachian tubes
  • Eutheria
  • euviviparity
  • euviviparous
  • evagination
  • evanescent
  • even-skipped
  • “evo-devo”
  • evolution
  • evolutionarily conserved regions
  • evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo)
  • evolutionary embryology
  • Evolutionary Synthesis
  • evolutionary tree
  • exalbuminous seed
  • excretion
  • exocoelom
  • exocytosis
  • exogastrula
  • exogastrulation
  • exon
  • exon shuffling
  • Exopterygota
  • exoskeleton
  • expansin
  • experimental embryology
  • explant
  • explantation
  • expressivity
  • expulsion
  • exstrophy
  • exstrophy of the bladder
  • extant
  • extension
  • external auditory meatus
  • external os
  • external rotation
  • extinct
  • extracellular matrix (ECM)
  • extraembryonic
  • extraembryonic coelom
  • extraembryonic endoderm
  • extraembryonic membranes
  • extraembryonic mesoderm
  • extrauterine fetus
  • exuviae
  • F
  • Fabricius Hieronymus (1537–1619)
  • facultative heterochromatin
  • fallopian tubes
  • fascicles
  • fasciclins
  • fat bodies
  • fate map
  • fecundation
  • fecundity
  • fertile
  • fertilin proteins
  • fertility awareness methods
  • fertilization
  • fertilization cone
  • fertilization consequences
  • fertilization envelope
  • fertilization membrane or fertilization envelope
  • fertilizin
  • Fertilizin Theory
  • fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
  • fetal hemoglobin
  • fetal membranes
  • fetal origins of adult disease (FOAD) hypothesis
  • fetal period
  • fetal plasticity
  • fetoscopy
  • fetus
  • fetus in fetu
  • FGF
  • FGF receptors
  • FGF2
  • fibroblast growth factor (FGF)
  • fibronectin
  • field
  • field of organization
  • field-specific selector gene
  • filopodia
  • fimbria
  • fin fold
  • first polar body
  • FISH
  • fission
  • fistula
  • flagellum
  • flexion
  • flexures
  • floor plate
  • floral
  • floral meristem
  • floral meristem identity genes
  • floral organ identity genes
  • flowering control gene (FLC)
  • fluorescence in situ hydridization
  • foam
  • focus
  • Fol Hermann (1845–1892)
  • folic acid (vitamin B12)
  • follicle
  • follicle cells
  • follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  • follicular stem cell
  • follistatin
  • fontanelles
  • foot activator gradient
  • foot inhibitor gradient
  • foramen cecum
  • foramen ovale
  • foramen primum
  • foramen secundum
  • foramina of Monro
  • forebrain
  • forebrain protuberance
  • foregut
  • founder animal
  • founder cell
  • fourth ventricle
  • fraternal twins
  • free-central placentation
  • free nerve terminations
  • freemartin
  • French flag
  • frizzleds
  • frogs
  • frontal plane
  • frontonasal process
  • frontonasal prominence
  • fructose
  • fruit
  • Fucus
  • functional genomics
  • fundus
  • Fungi
  • funiculus
  • fusogen
  • fusome
  • G
  • Go
  • G1
  • G1 checkpoint
  • G2
  • G2 checkpoint
  • G proteins
  • gain-of-function mutation
  • gallbladder
  • gametangium
  • gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
  • gamete recognition proteins
  • gametes
  • gametic meiosis
  • gametogenesis
  • gametophyte
  • gametophyte generation
  • ganglion
  • ganglion cells
  • ganglion mother cell
  • gap genes
  • gap junctions
  • Garstang Walter (1868–1949)
  • Gartner's ducts
  • Gastraea Theory
  • gastrocoel
  • gastrula
  • gastrulate
  • gastrulation
  • Gegenbaur Karl (1826–1903)
  • gel mobility shift assay
  • gemma
  • gemmation
  • gemmule formation
  • gemmules
  • gene
  • gene alteration
  • gene cloning
  • gene clusters
  • gene complex
  • gene divergence
  • gene duplication
  • gene expression
  • gene family
  • gene knockout
  • gene targeting
  • general transcription factors (GTFs)
  • generative cell
  • genetic accommodation
  • genetic assimilation
  • genetic code
  • genetic diversity
  • genetic heterogeneity
  • genetic mosaics
  • genetic redundancy
  • genetic screen
  • genetic sex
  • genetic toolbox
  • geneticist
  • genetics
  • genistein
  • genital folds
  • genital herpes
  • genital papilla
  • genital pores
  • genital ridge
  • genital swellings
  • genital tubercle
  • genitalia
  • genome
  • genome duplication
  • genomic equivalence
  • genomic imprinting
  • genomics
  • genotype
  • Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire Etienne (1772–1844)
  • germ band
  • germ band stage
  • germ cell determinants
  • germ cell-less (gcl)
  • germ cells
  • germ layers
  • germ line
  • germ-line mutation
  • germ plasm
  • germ plasm theory
  • germ ring
  • germ wall
  • germarium
  • germinal crescent
  • germinal disc
  • germinal epithelium
  • germinal neuroepithelium
  • germinal vesicle
  • germination
  • germplasm
  • gerontology
  • gestate
  • gestation
  • gestation period
  • gestational mother
  • gibberellic acid (GA)
  • gill arches
  • gill (branchial) chamber
  • gill clefts
  • gill plates
  • gill slits
  • gills
  • glands of Littré
  • glaucoma
  • glial cells
  • glial growth factor (GGF)
  • glial guidance
  • glioblasts
  • globular stage embryo
  • glomerular filtrate
  • glomerulus
  • -glossia
  • glucose
  • Gluecksohn-Schoenheimer Salome
  • glutathione
  • glycoprotein
  • glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
  • gnathostomes
  • Goldschmidt Richard (1878–1958)
  • Golgi apparatus
  • gonadal ridges
  • gonadotrophin
  • gonadotropin
  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
  • gonads
  • gonial syncytia
  • gonidia
  • gonocytes
  • gonorrhea
  • gonotome
  • goosecoid
  • Graaf Regnier de (1641–1673)
  • Graafian follicle
  • gradient
  • gradualism
  • granulocytes
  • granulosa cells
  • gray crescent
  • gray matter
  • great fault of embryology
  • green fluorescent protein
  • grex
  • Grobstein Clifford (1916–1998)
  • ground meristem
  • ground tissue
  • growth
  • growth cone
  • growth factor
  • growth hormone
  • growth plate closure
  • guard mother cell
  • Gurdon Sir John Bertrand (1933–)
  • gurken gene
  • gurken protein
  • gut
  • gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
  • GVBD
  • gymnosperms
  • -gyn-
  • gynandromorphs
  • gyne
  • gynoecium
  • gynogenesis
  • gynomerogony
  • gyri
  • H
  • Haeckel Ernst (1834–1919)
  • hair germ
  • hairy gene
  • Haldane J. S. (1860–1936)
  • Haller Albrecht von (1708–1777)
  • halteres
  • Hamburger Viktor (1900–2001)
  • Hammerling Joachim (1901–1980)
  • haplodiploidy
  • haplodiplontic life cycle
  • haploid
  • haploinsufficiency
  • haplont
  • haptotaxis
  • hard palate
  • harelip
  • Harris J. Arthur (1880–1930)
  • Harrison Ross Granville (1879–1959)
  • Hartsoeker Nicolaas (1656–1725)
  • Harvey William (1578–1657)
  • hatching
  • hCG
  • head activator gradient
  • head fold
  • head inhibitor gradient
  • head kidney
  • head mesoderm
  • head process
  • head process stage
  • heart development
  • heart murmur
  • heart stage embryo
  • heat shock
  • heat shock proteins (Hsp)
  • hedgehog
  • hedgehog receptor
  • hedgehog signal transduction pathway
  • Heilbrunn Lewis Victor (1892–1959)
  • Hellin's Law
  • hemangioblasts
  • hematopoiesis
  • hematopoietic
  • hematopoietic inductive environments (HIMs)
  • hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
  • Hemichordata
  • hemichordate
  • Hemichordate Theory
  • Hemimetabola
  • hemimetabolous
  • hemisected
  • hemizygous
  • hemochorial placenta
  • hemodichorial placenta
  • hemoendothelial placenta
  • hemogenic endothelial cells
  • hemoglobin
  • hemolytic disease of the newborn
  • hemorrhage
  • hemotrichorial placenta
  • Hensen's node
  • hepatectomy
  • hepatic diverticulum
  • hepatic duct
  • hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)
  • Herbst Curt (1866–1946)
  • hermaphrodite
  • hermaphroditic
  • hermaphroditism
  • hernia
  • herpes simplex virus (HSV)
  • Hertwig Wilhelm August Oscar (1849–1922)
  • Hertwig’ s Law
  • heteroblastic
  • heterochromatin
  • heterochronic mutation
  • heterochrony
  • heterocyberny
  • heterogamy
  • heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA)
  • heterogony
  • heterokaryon
  • heterometry
  • heteromorphosis
  • heteroplastic transplantation
  • heterosporous
  • heterotaxis
  • heterothallus
  • heterotopic graft
  • heterotopy
  • heterotypy
  • heterozygous
  • Heuser's membrane
  • hibernal
  • hierarchy
  • high mobility group (HMG)-box factors
  • higher vertebrates
  • hindbrain
  • hindgut
  • hinge regions
  • His Wilhelm (1831–1904)
  • histioblasts
  • histoblasts
  • histodifferentiation
  • histogenesis
  • histolysis
  • histone acetylation
  • histone acetyltransferase
  • histone deacetylases
  • histone methylation
  • histone methyltransferases
  • histones
  • Historical Periods of Embryology
  • History of Evolutionary Biology
  • histotypic aggregation
  • HIV
  • HMG protein
  • holandric genes
  • holoblastic
  • Holometabola
  • holometabolous
  • Holtfreter Johannes (1901–1992)
  • Hom-C
  • homeobox
  • homeobox genes
  • homeodomain
  • homeodomain family
  • homeodomain protein
  • homeoprotein
  • homeorhesis
  • homeosis
  • homeothermic
  • homeotic complex (Hom-C)
  • homeotic gene
  • homeotic mutation
  • homeotic selector genes
  • homoiogenetic
  • homolecithal eggs
  • homologous
  • homologous chromosomes
  • homologous developmental pathways
  • homologous genes
  • homologous organs
  • homologous recombination
  • homologous regulatory genes
  • homologs
  • homology
  • homonomous
  • homophilic binding
  • homoplasy
  • homosporous
  • homothallus
  • homozygous
  • homunculus
  • hopeful monster
  • hopeless monsters
  • horizontal division
  • horizontal transmission
  • hormone response elements
  • hormones
  • hornworts
  • horseshoe kidney
  • Horstadius Sven (1898–1996)
  • housekeeping genes
  • Hox genes
  • Hox proteins
  • hub
  • Hubel, David (1926–)
  • human accelerated regions (HARs)
  • Human Genome Project
  • humoral immunity
  • hunchback
  • hunchback protein
  • Hunter John (1728–1793)
  • Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome
  • Huxley Thomas Henry (1825–1895)
  • hyalin
  • hyaline membrane
  • hyaline membrane disease
  • hyaluronic acid
  • hyaluronidase
  • hybrid merogony
  • hydatidiform mole
  • Hydra
  • hydro-
  • hydrocephalus
  • hydrocephaly
  • hydrogen bonds
  • hydrolytic
  • hydronephrosis
  • 20-hydroxyecdysone
  • Hymenoptera
  • hyoid arches
  • hyomandibular furrows
  • hyomandibular pouches
  • hypaxial muscles
  • hyperactivation
  • hypermetamorphism
  • hypermorphosis
  • hyperplasia
  • hypertrichosis
  • hypha
  • hypoblast
  • hypobranchial eminence
  • hypocotyl
  • hypomere
  • hypophysis
  • hypoplasia
  • hypostome
  • I
  • ichthyosis congenita
  • ICM
  • ICSI
  • identical twins
  • IGF
  • IL
  • Illyanassa obsoleta (Nassarius obsoletus)
  • imaginal
  • imaginal buds
  • imaginal discs
  • imaginal molt
  • imago
  • imbibition
  • immature ovum
  • immediate adaptive responses
  • immortality of the germplasm
  • immunoglobulin superfamily CAMs
  • imperfect flower
  • imperforate anus
  • imperforate hymen
  • implantation
  • imprinting
  • IMZ
  • in cis
  • in situ
  • in situ hybridization
  • in trans
  • in utero
  • in utero surgery
  • in vitro
  • in vitro fertilization (IVF)
  • in vivo
  • inborn errors of metabolism
  • incomplete flower
  • incubation
  • indeciduate placenta
  • independent development
  • indeterminate cleavage
  • India ink
  • indifferent stage
  • indirect development
  • individualization
  • individuation
  • indoleacetic acid (IAA)
  • induced labor
  • induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells)
  • inducer
  • inducing factors
  • induction
  • indusium
  • inferior
  • inferior vena cava
  • inflorescence
  • inflorescence meristem
  • infundibulum
  • ingression
  • inguinal ring
  • inheritance of acquired characteristics
  • initials
  • inner cell mass (ICM)
  • innervate
  • inositol triphosphate (IP3)
  • insectivores
  • instar
  • instars
  • instructive interaction
  • insulator
  • insulator sequences
  • insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)
  • integrins
  • integuments
  • intercalary meristems
  • intercalated discs
  • intercalation
  • intercourse
  • interdigital necrotic zone
  • interior necrotic zone
  • interkinesis
  • interlaminar jelly
  • Interleukin-2 (IL-2)
  • Interleukin-3 (IL-3)
  • intermediate filaments
  • intermediate inheritance
  • intermediate layer
  • intermediate mesoderm
  • intermediate spermatogonia
  • internal rotation
  • internodes
  • interphase
  • intersex
  • interspecies epigenesis
  • interspecific incompatibility
  • interstitial cells of Leydig
  • interstitial growth
  • interstitial tissue
  • intervening sequence
  • interventricular septum
  • interventricular sulcus
  • intervertebral discs
  • intervillous spaces
  • intracellular signal transduction
  • intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • intraembryonic
  • intramembranous ossification
  • intraspecific incompatibility
  • intrauterine device
  • intron
  • invagination
  • inversion
  • invertebrates
  • involuting marginal zone (IMZ) cells
  • involution
  • ionophores
  • iris
  • irregular cleavage
  • islets of Langerhans
  • isogamy
  • isolation experiment
  • isolecithal
  • isomerism
  • isometric growth
  • isthmus
  • iteroparous
  • IUD (intrauterine device)
  • IVF
  • J
  • Jacob Francois (1920–)
  • JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway
  • jaundice of newborn
  • jelly coat
  • Jenkinson J. W. (1871–1915)
  • jervine
  • jugular veins
  • Just Ernest J. (1883–1941)
  • juvenile
  • juvenile hormone
  • juvenile phase
  • juxtacrine factors
  • juxtacrine signaling
  • K
  • kairomones
  • Kallman syndrome
  • Kartagener's syndrome
  • karyogamy
  • karyokinesis
  • karyoplasm
  • karyotype
  • keel
  • Keller explant
  • keratin
  • keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)
  • keratinocytes
  • KGF
  • kinases
  • kinesin
  • kinetochore
  • Klinefelter's syndrome
  • klotho gene
  • knockin
  • knockout
  • Koller's sickle
  • Kölliker Albrecht von (1817–1905)
  • Kolreuter Joseph (1733–1806)
  • Kovalevsky Aleksandr O. (1840–1901)
  • Kowalevsky Aleksandr O. (1840–1901)
  • Kupffer's cells
  • Kupffer's vesicle
  • L
  • labeled pathways hypothesis
  • labiogingival lamina
  • labioscrotal folds
  • labor
  • labyrinth
  • labyrinthodonts
  • lactation
  • lactiferous ducts
  • lacunae
  • lacZ gene
  • lamellipodia
  • lamina basalis
  • lamina terminalis
  • laminin
  • lampbrush chromosomes
  • lancelets
  • Langerhans cells
  • Lankester Ray (1847–1929)
  • lanugo
  • laparoscopy
  • laparotomy
  • large offspring syndrome
  • larva
  • Larvacea
  • larval molt
  • laryngotracheal groove
  • latebra
  • laterad
  • lateral
  • lateral body folds
  • lateral geniculate nucleus
  • lateral lingual swellings
  • lateral meristem
  • lateral mesoderm
  • lateral palatine processes
  • lateral plate mesoderm
  • lateral somitic frontier
  • lateral ventricles
  • latitudinal division
  • Law of Independent Assortment
  • Law of Segregation
  • LD50
  • leaf axils
  • leaf development
  • leaf primordia
  • lectin
  • lectin interaction
  • Leeuwenhoek Antony van (1632–1723)
  • leghemoglobin
  • lens placodes
  • lens vesicles
  • leptotene
  • level-interactive modular array
  • Levi-Montalcini Rita (1909–)
  • levonorgestrel
  • levotropic cleavage
  • Lewis Edward B. (1918–2004)
  • Lewis Warren (1870–1964)
  • Leydig cells
  • lie
  • life expectancy
  • ligand
  • ligation, tubal
  • Lillie F. R. (1870–1947)
  • Lim genes
  • LIM-homeodomain proteins
  • limb buds
  • limb field
  • limbs
  • linea nigra
  • lineage
  • lineage-based information
  • lineage diagram
  • lineage labels
  • lineage-restricted stem cells
  • lineage studies
  • lipid
  • lipovitellin
  • liquor folliculi
  • litter
  • Littré's glands
  • liver bulge
  • liver primordium
  • liverworts
  • lobster-claw deformity
  • locule
  • locus
  • locus control regions (LCRs)
  • Loeb Jacques (1859–1924)
  • long-day plants
  • long-germ development
  • Lophotrochozoa
  • loss-of-function mutation
  • lower vertebrates
  • lumbar rib
  • lumen
  • luminal surface
  • lung bud
  • lungs
  • luteinizing hormone (LH)
  • luteotropin
  • lymphoid precursor cell
  • Lyon hypothesis
  • Lysenko Trofim (1898–1976)
  • lysins
  • lysosomal storage diseases
  • lysosomes
  • lysozyme
  • M
  • M checkpoint
  • M-phase promoting factor (MPF)
  • macrocephaly
  • macroevolution
  • macrogamete
  • macroglossia
  • macrolecithal eggs
  • macromeres
  • macromolecules
  • macrophyll
  • macrostomia
  • macula
  • maintenance methylases
  • malformations
  • Malpighi Marcello (1628–1694)
  • Malpighian layer
  • Malpighian tubules
  • Mammalia
  • mammalian embryos
  • mammary glands
  • mammary ridges
  • mandible
  • mandibular arches
  • Mangold Hilde (1898–1924)
  • Mangold Otto (1891–1962)
  • mantle layer
  • MAP
  • MAP kinase
  • MAPK
  • MAPs
  • marginal cells
  • marginal layer
  • marginal sinus
  • marginal zone
  • marine invertebrates
  • marrow
  • marsupial
  • marsupium
  • Mash-1
  • MASH1 gene
  • master regulatory genes
  • maternal effect genes
  • maternal effects stage
  • maternal-fetal co-development
  • maternal inheritance
  • maternal message
  • maternal mRNA
  • maternal proteins
  • mathematical modeling
  • matrotrophy
  • maturation divisions
  • maturation-promoting factor (MPF)
  • maxilla
  • maxillary processes
  • maximum life span
  • mazopathy
  • mechanoreceptors
  • Meckel Johann Friedrich (1781–1833)
  • Meckel's cartilage
  • Meckel's diverticulum
  • meconium
  • mediad
  • medial palatine process
  • medial plane
  • mediastinum testis
  • mediolateral axis
  • medulla
  • medullary cord(s)
  • medullary folds
  • medullary plate
  • megagametogenesis
  • megagametophyte
  • megalecithal eggs
  • megalocephaly
  • megaphyll
  • megasporangium
  • megaspore
  • megaspore mother cell
  • megasporocyte
  • megasporogenesis
  • megasporophyll
  • meiolecithal eggs
  • meiosis
  • meiosis and the life cycle
  • meiotic chromosome terminology
  • MEK
  • melanin
  • melanocyte stem cell
  • melanocytes
  • melanoma
  • -melia
  • meltrins
  • membrana granulosa
  • membranous labyrinth
  • memory cells
  • menarche
  • Mendel Gregor (1822–1884)
  • mendelian
  • meningocele
  • meningocephalocele
  • meningomyelocele
  • menopause
  • menses
  • menstrual age
  • menstrual cycle
  • mericlinal chimeras
  • meridional division
  • meridional plane
  • meristem
  • meristic variation
  • Merkel cells
  • Merkel's tactile disc
  • meroanencephaly
  • meroblastic
  • merogone
  • merogony
  • meroistic oogenesis
  • meroistic ovariole
  • meromelia
  • MESA
  • mesectoderm
  • mesencephalon
  • mesenchymal cell
  • mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)
  • mesenchyme
  • mesenchyme-to-epithelium transitions
  • mesendoderm
  • mesenteries
  • mesenteron rudiments
  • mesentoblasts
  • mesentoderm
  • mesocoel
  • mesoderm
  • mesoderm induction
  • mesodermal mantle
  • mesogastrium
  • mesoglea
  • mesolecithal eggs
  • mesomere
  • mesomeres
  • mesometencephalic fold
  • mesonephric ducts
  • mesonephric ridge
  • mesonephric tubules
  • mesonephros
  • mesorchium
  • mesosalpinx
  • mesovarium
  • Mesozoic Era
  • messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • Metabola
  • metacentric chromosome
  • metacoel
  • metadiscoidal placenta
  • metafemales
  • metagenesis
  • metalloproteinases
  • metallothioneins
  • metamere
  • metamerism
  • metamorphic climax
  • metamorphic molt
  • metamorphosis
  • metanephric diverticulum
  • metanephrogenous mesoderm
  • metanephros
  • metaphase
  • metaphase chromosome spread
  • metaphase plate
  • metaplasia
  • metastasis
  • metatela
  • Metatheria
  • metazoa
  • metazoan development
  • Metchnikoff Elie (1845–1916)
  • metencephalon
  • methoprene
  • Methuselah gene
  • methylation
  • methylation erasure
  • microarray
  • microbial consortia
  • microcephaly
  • microevolution
  • microfilament
  • microgamete
  • microgametogenesis
  • microgametophyte
  • microglossia
  • microinjection
  • microlecithal eggs
  • micromeres
  • microphyll
  • micropyle
  • microRNAs (miRNAs)
  • microspikes
  • microsporangium
  • microspore
  • microspore mother cell
  • microsporocyte
  • microsporogenesis
  • microsporophyll
  • microstomia
  • microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)
  • microtrabecular lattice
  • microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs)
  • microtubule-organizing centers (MTOCs)
  • microtubules
  • micturition
  • midblastua transition (MBT)
  • midbrain
  • midgut
  • midgut loop
  • midpiece
  • mifepristone
  • migration
  • Mintz, Beatrice (1921–)
  • Minute technique
  • MIS
  • miscarriage
  • MITF
  • mitochondria
  • mitochondrial cloud
  • mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (mtrRNA)
  • mitogen
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)
  • mitogenic
  • mitosis
  • mitosis-promoting factor (MFP)
  • mitotic recombination
  • mitral valve
  • mittelschmerz
  • mixed cranial nerves
  • mixed nerves
  • model organisms
  • Modern Synthesis
  • modularity
  • molar pregnancy
  • mold
  • molecular clock
  • molecular cloning
  • molecular parsimony
  • molting
  • monocarpic plants
  • monocots
  • monocotyledonous plants
  • Monod Jacques Lucien (1910–1976)
  • monoecious
  • monomer
  • monophyletic
  • monophyletic group
  • monosomy
  • monospermy
  • monotremes
  • monozygotic twins
  • monster
  • Morgan Thomas Hunt (1866–1945)
  • morning sickness
  • morph
  • morphallactic regeneration
  • morphallaxis
  • morphogen
  • morphogen receptor gradient
  • morphogenesis
  • morphogenetic constraints
  • morphogenetic determinants
  • morphogenetic fields
  • morphogenetic furrow
  • morphogenetic gradient
  • morphogenetic law
  • morphogenetic movements
  • morpholino
  • morphology
  • morphospecies
  • morula
  • mosaic
  • mosaic behavior
  • mosaic determination
  • mosaic development
  • mosaic pleiotropy
  • motifs
  • motor cranial nerves
  • motor proteins
  • movement proteins
  • mucopolysaccharides
  • mucous gland
  • mucus
  • Muller Fritz (1822–1897)
  • Müller Johannes Peter (1801–1858)
  • Müllerian ducts
  • Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS)
  • multicellular
  • multicellularity
  • multifactorial inheritance
  • multigravida
  • multinucleated
  • multiple allelism
  • multiple pregnancy
  • multipotent cardiac progenitor cells
  • multipotent stem cells
  • mural trophoblast
  • muscle spindles
  • mushroom
  • mutagenesis screens
  • mutagenized
  • mutagens
  • mutation
  • mutualism
  • mutualistic consortia
  • mycelium
  • mycorrhiza
  • mycosporines
  • myelencephalon
  • myelin
  • myelination
  • myelocoel
  • myeloid precursor cell
  • myeloschisis
  • myoblasts
  • myocardium
  • myocoel
  • MyoD
  • MyoD family
  • myoepithelial cells
  • myofibrils
  • myogenesis
  • myogenic bHLH
  • myomere
  • myoplasm
  • myosin
  • myotome
  • myotubes
  • N
  • N-acetylglucosaminadase
  • N-acetylglucosamine:galactosyltransferase
  • N-cadherin
  • nanos
  • nanos mRNA
  • nanos protein
  • nares
  • nasal passages
  • nasal pits
  • nasal placodes
  • nasal septum
  • nasofrontal process
  • nasolacrimal groove
  • nasolateral processes
  • nasomedial processes
  • nasopalatine duct
  • nasopharynx
  • native DNA
  • native protein
  • natural selection
  • nebenkern
  • neck of the latebra
  • neck neural crest
  • necrosis
  • Needham Joseph (1900–1995)
  • Nematoda
  • Nemertea
  • neoblasts
  • neo-Darwinism
  • neoplasia
  • neoplasm
  • neoteny
  • nephrocoel
  • nephrogenic cord
  • nephrogenic tissue
  • nephron
  • nephrostomes
  • nephrotome
  • nephrotomic plate
  • nerve
  • nerve growth factor (NGF)
  • nerve tracts
  • netrins
  • network
  • neural cadherin
  • neural canal
  • neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM)
  • neural crescent
  • neural crest
  • neural-derived mitotic factors
  • neural ectoderm
  • neural folds
  • neural groove
  • neural plate
  • neural retina
  • neural ridges
  • neural tube
  • neuralizing activity
  • neurenteric canal
  • neurites
  • neuroblasts
  • neurocoel
  • neurocranium
  • neuroectoderm
  • neuroepithelium
  • neurogenesis
  • neurogenin
  • neurohypophysis
  • neuromeres
  • neurons
  • neuropores
  • neurotrophins
  • neurula
  • neurulation
  • neurulation, primary
  • neurulation, secondary
  • NF-kB
  • NGF
  • niche construction
  • Nicolaus Kleinenberg (1842-1897)
  • nidation
  • Nieuwkoop center
  • Nieuwkoop Pieter (1917–1996)
  • NIMZ
  • nitrogenous waste
  • Nkx2-5
  • Nobel Prizes
  • nocodazole
  • nodal gene
  • node
  • nodes
  • noggin
  • non-cell autonomous genes
  • nondisjunction
  • noninvoluting marginal zone (NIMZ) cells
  • nonsister chromatids
  • nonsurgical sperm aspiration
  • norgestrel
  • Northern blot
  • nostrils
  • notochord
  • notochordal canal
  • novelty
  • NSA
  • nucellus
  • nuclear envelope
  • nuclear equivalence
  • nuclear membrane
  • nuclear pores
  • nuclear receptor superfamily
  • nuclear RNA (nRNA)
  • nuclei
  • nucleocytoplasmic ratio (N/P ratio)
  • nucleolar organizer
  • nucleolus
  • nucleoplasm
  • nucleosome
  • nucleosome positioning
  • nucleus
  • nucleus of Pander
  • nucleus pulposus
  • null mutation
  • nurse cells
  • Nüsslein-Volhard Christiane (1941–)
  • nutritional polyphenism
  • nymph
  • O
  • obesigen
  • obstetrician
  • odontoblasts
  • odontogenesis
  • olfactory cells
  • olfactory epithelium
  • olfactory lobes
  • olfactory nerves
  • olfactory pits
  • olfactory placodes
  • oligodendrocytes
  • oligohydramnios
  • oligolecithal
  • omental bursa
  • omphalocele
  • omphalogenesis
  • omphalomesenteric arteries
  • omphalomesenteric duct
  • omphalomesenteric veins
  • oncogene
  • oncosis
  • one gene–one enzyme hypothesis
  • one gene–one polypeptide
  • one gene–one family of proteins
  • ontogenetic hypertrophy
  • ontogenetic inconstancy
  • ontogeny
  • ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
  • Onychophora
  • oocyte
  • oogamy
  • oogenesis
  • oogonia in adult mammalian ovaries
  • oogonium
  • oolema
  • ooplasm
  • ooplast
  • ootid
  • oozooid
  • operculum
  • operon
  • Operon Theory
  • optic bulges (protuberances)
  • optic chiasma
  • optic cups
  • optic lobes
  • optic nerves
  • optic recess
  • optic stalk
  • optic tectum
  • optic vesicles
  • oral-aboral axis
  • oral evagination
  • oral plate
  • oral sucker
  • oral surface
  • Ordovician
  • Organ of Jacobson (Jacobson's organ)
  • organelles
  • organizer
  • organizer graft
  • organogenesis
  • oropharyngeal membrane
  • oropharynx
  • orphan embryos
  • orthologous regulatory genes
  • orthologs
  • orthotopic graft
  • os
  • oskar mRNA
  • ossicles
  • ossification
  • ossification center
  • Osteichthyes
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoclasts
  • osteocytes
  • osteogenesis
  • osteoid matrix
  • osteopetrosis
  • osteoporosis
  • osteoprotegerin
  • ostium
  • ostracoderms
  • otic capsule
  • otic placodes
  • otic vesicles
  • otocyst
  • otolith
  • outgroup
  • ovarian follicle
  • ovaries
  • ovariole
  • ovary
  • oviducts
  • oviparity
  • oviparous
  • ovist
  • ovothiol
  • ovoviviparity
  • ovoviviparous
  • ovulation
  • ovule
  • ovum
  • oxycephaly
  • oxytocin
  • P
  • p53
  • P-cadherin
  • P element
  • P-granules
  • pacemaker
  • pachytene
  • Paedogenesis
  • paedomorphosis
  • pair-rule genes
  • palate
  • palatine shelf
  • Paleocene period
  • paleogenesis
  • paleomorphic
  • Paleozoic Era
  • palmar erythema
  • pampiniform plexus
  • pancreas
  • pancreatic diverticulum
  • Pander Christian (1794–1865)
  • Pangenesis
  • panoistic ovariole
  • Panspermy
  • papilla
  • parabiosis
  • paracrine factors
  • paracrine signaling
  • paradidymis
  • paradigm
  • ParaHox genes
  • paralogous genes
  • paralogous group
  • paralogs
  • paramesonephric ducts
  • paraptosis
  • parasegments
  • parasitism
  • parathyroid glands
  • paraxial mesoderm
  • paraxial protocadherin
  • Paraxis protein
  • parazoa
  • parenchymal cells
  • parietal
  • parietal mesoderm
  • parietal placentation
  • parthenocarpy
  • parthenogenesis
  • parthenogenesis induction
  • parthenomerogony
  • partial birth abortions
  • partial cleavage
  • partial hepatectomy
  • parturition
  • passive immunity
  • Patella
  • patent ductus arteriosus
  • paternal epigenetic effects
  • pathway
  • pattern formation (patterning)
  • pattern of cleavage
  • patterning
  • Pax genes
  • Pax proteins
  • Pax6
  • PDA
  • PDGF
  • pelvic cavity
  • pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • pelvic kidney
  • pelvis
  • penetrance
  • penis
  • perennial
  • perfect flower
  • perianth
  • periblast
  • periblastula
  • pericardial cavity
  • pericarp
  • perichondrium
  • periclinal divisions
  • pericyte
  • periderm
  • periosteal bone
  • periosteal buds
  • periosteum
  • peripheral
  • peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • peripheral zone
  • periplasm
  • peristalsis
  • peristome
  • peritoneal cavity
  • peritoneum
  • perivisceral cavity
  • perivitelline space
  • permissive interaction
  • peroxidase
  • petal
  • Pfeffer Wilhelm Friedrich Philipp (1845–1920)
  • Pflüger Eduard (1829–1910)
  • PGCs
  • pH
  • phallus
  • phanerogam
  • pharyngeal arches
  • pharyngeal bursa
  • pharyngeal pouches
  • pharyngobranchial duct
  • pharyngula stage
  • pharynx
  • phenocopy
  • phenotype
  • phenotypic accommodation
  • phenotypic heterogeneity
  • phenotypic plasticity
  • phenotypic sex
  • phenotypic suppression
  • philtrum
  • phloem
  • phocomelia
  • -phora
  • phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2)
  • phosphoinositol pathway
  • phospholipase C
  • phosvitin
  • photolyase
  • photomorphogenesis
  • photoperiod
  • photoperiodism
  • photoreceptor cells
  • phototropin
  • phototropism
  • phthalates
  • phyletic constraints
  • phyletic transformation
  • phyllotaxy
  • phylogenetic tree
  • phylogeny
  • phylotypic stage
  • phylum
  • physical constraints
  • physiology
  • phytochelatins
  • phytochromes
  • PiED
  • pigment cells
  • pigmentation
  • pigmented retina
  • pineal gland
  • pinnae
  • pioneer nerve fibers
  • pioneer transcription factors
  • pistil
  • pistillate flowers
  • pituitary gland
  • placenta
  • placenta accreta
  • placenta fetalis
  • placenta materna
  • placenta previa
  • placental activities: endocrine secretion
  • placental activities: metabolism
  • placental activities: transfer
  • placental barrier
  • placental cadherin
  • placental circulation
  • placental classification
  • placental membrane
  • placental septa
  • placental stage
  • placentation
  • Placodermi
  • placoderms
  • placodes
  • plagiocephaly
  • planaria
  • planes
  • plant
  • -plasia
  • plasma
  • plasma cell differentiation
  • plasma cells
  • plasma membrane
  • plasmodesmata
  • plasmodium
  • plastochron
  • platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
  • Platyhelminthes
  • pleiotropic
  • pleiotropy
  • plesiomorphic
  • pleural cavities
  • -ploid
  • plumule
  • pluripotent
  • pluripotent epidermal stem cell
  • pluripotent neural stem cell
  • pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell
  • pluteus larva
  • PMZ
  • PNS
  • poikilothermic
  • polar body
  • polar coordinate model
  • polar granule component (Pgc)
  • polar granules
  • polar lobe
  • polar nuclei
  • polar trophoblast
  • polarization
  • pole cells
  • pole plasm
  • poles
  • pollen
  • pollen germination
  • pollen grain
  • pollen tube
  • pollination
  • polocyte
  • poly-
  • polyandry
  • polycarpic plants
  • polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • polycomb proteins
  • polydactyly
  • polyembryony
  • polygamous
  • polygenic
  • polygyny
  • polyhydramnios
  • polyinvagination islands
  • polymastia
  • polymer
  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • polymorphic
  • polymorphism
  • polyphenism
  • polyphyletic group
  • polyploidy
  • polyspermy
  • polytene chromosomes
  • polytrophic ovariole
  • pons
  • pontine
  • pontine flexure
  • position
  • positional gene cloning
  • positional information
  • positional value
  • postanal gut
  • posteriad
  • posterior dominance
  • posterior fornix
  • posterior group Hox genes
  • posterior intestinal portal
  • posterior marginal zone (PMZ)
  • posterior neuropore
  • posterior organizing center
  • posterior prevalence
  • posteriorizing activity
  • postpartum
  • posttranslational regulation
  • postzygotic isolation
  • potassium chloride (KCl)
  • potency
  • prechordal plate
  • precipitation
  • precocenes
  • precocious
  • predator-induced defense
  • predator-induced polyphenism
  • predictive adaptive responses
  • preformationism
  • pregnancy
  • pregnancy reduction
  • preimplantation embryo diagnosis (PiED)
  • premature
  • premature chromosome condensation
  • premaxilla
  • pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA)
  • prenatal
  • prenatal diagnosis
  • preoral gut
  • prepupa
  • presentation
  • presumptive
  • prezygotic isolation
  • primary axis
  • primary embryonic induction
  • primary follicle
  • primary hypoblast
  • primary inducer
  • primary larvae
  • primary mesenchyme cells
  • primary nephric ducts
  • primary neurulation
  • primary oocyte
  • primary ossification centers
  • primary sex determination
  • primary tissues
  • primary transcript
  • primary vesicles
  • primigravida
  • primitive alveoli
  • primitive blood cells
  • primitive groove
  • primitive gut
  • primitive knot
  • primitive node
  • primitive pit
  • primitive ridges
  • primitive streak
  • primitive streak stage
  • primordial follicle
  • primordial germ cells (PGCs)
  • primordium
  • Pringsheim Nathaniel (1823–1894)
  • proacrosin
  • proamnion
  • procambium
  • procaryotes
  • prochordal plate
  • proctodaeum
  • proctodeum
  • proerythroblast
  • progenesis
  • progenitor
  • progenitor cell
  • progeria
  • progesterone
  • programmed cell death
  • progress zone
  • progressive determination
  • prokaryotes
  • prolactin
  • proliferation
  • proliferin (PLF)
  • proliferin-related protein (PRP)
  • promeristem
  • prometaphase
  • promoter
  • pronephric ducts
  • pronephric swellings
  • pronephric tubules
  • pronephros
  • proneural cluster
  • proneural genes
  • pronuclei fusion
  • pronucleoli
  • pronucleus
  • pronymph stage
  • prophase
  • prosencephalon
  • prosocoel
  • prospective fate
  • prospective potency
  • prostaglandins
  • prostate gland
  • protamines
  • proteases
  • protective cloning
  • protein kinase C
  • protein–protein domain
  • proteins
  • proteoglycans
  • proteome
  • proteomics
  • Proterozoic
  • prothallial cell
  • prothallium
  • prothallus
  • prothoracic gland
  • prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH)
  • protoblast
  • protocadherins
  • protocerebrum
  • protochordates
  • protoderm
  • Proto-Hox gene complex
  • protonema
  • proto-oncogene
  • protoplasm
  • protostomes
  • Protostomia
  • Prototheria
  • protozoa
  • proximal
  • pseudocoelom
  • pseudocoelomates
  • pseudogene
  • pseudoglandular period
  • pseudohermaphroditism
  • pseudoplasmodium
  • pseudopregnancy
  • Pteridophyta
  • pterospermous
  • Pterygota
  • puberty
  • pubescence
  • pulmonary circulation
  • pulmonary stenosis
  • pulmonary trunk
  • punctuated equilibrium theory
  • pupa
  • puparium
  • pupation
  • Purkinje Jan Evangelista (1787–1869)
  • Purkinje fibers
  • Purkyne Johannes (1787–1869)
  • pyloric stenosis
  • Q
  • quadruplets
  • quantitative trait
  • quantitative trait loci (QTL)
  • quiescent
  • quiescent cell
  • quiescent center
  • R
  • rachischisis
  • radial cleavage
  • radial patterning
  • radial symmetry
  • Radiata
  • radiation
  • radicle
  • Ramón y Cajal Santiago (1852–1934)
  • Rana
  • random epigenetic drift
  • random segregation of chromosomes
  • Ras
  • Rathke Heinrich (1793–1860)
  • Rathke's pocket
  • Rb
  • reaction-diffusion model
  • reaction norm
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS) theory of aging
  • realisator genes
  • reawakening of the morphogenetic process
  • Recapitulation Theory
  • receptacle
  • receptor
  • receptor gradient
  • receptor proteins
  • receptor tyrosine kinase
  • recessive
  • reciprocal embryonic induction
  • reciprocity of epigenetic and genetic cancer causation
  • recombinant DNA
  • recombination
  • recombination experiment
  • reconstitution
  • rectovaginal fistula
  • recumbent
  • red blood cells
  • reductionism
  • redundancy
  • regeneration
  • regeneration blastema
  • regenerative medicine
  • region-specific selector genes
  • regional specificity
  • regulation
  • regulative development
  • regulatory circuit
  • regulatory evolution
  • regulatory genes
  • Reichert's membrane
  • relational pleiotropy
  • Remak Robert (1815–1865)
  • renal agenesis
  • renal tubules
  • replication
  • reporter gene
  • reporter protein
  • repressor
  • reproduction
  • reproductive cloning
  • reproductive duct
  • Reptilia
  • resact
  • research cloning
  • resegmentation
  • resorbed
  • resorption
  • respecification
  • respiratory distress of the newborn
  • respiratory distress syndrome
  • respiratory system
  • responder
  • restitution nucleus
  • restriction of cell potency
  • rete cord
  • rete ovarii
  • rete testis
  • reticular lamina
  • reticulocyte
  • retina
  • retinoblastoma
  • retinoblastoma protein (Rb)
  • retinoic acid
  • retinoic acid receptors (RARs)
  • retroviral vector
  • retrovirus
  • reverse transcriptase
  • Rh+, Rh−
  • Rh incompatibility
  • rhizoid
  • rhizoidal cell
  • rhizome
  • RhoB protein
  • rhombencephalon
  • rhombocoel
  • rhombomeres
  • ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  • ribosomes
  • ring canals
  • RNA interference (RNAi)
  • RNA interference pathway
  • RNA polymerase
  • RNA processing
  • RNA splicing
  • robustness
  • roof plate
  • Rosetta stone
  • rostrad
  • rostral
  • rotation
  • rotational cleavage
  • Roux Wilhelm (1850–1924)
  • royal jelly
  • RTK (receptor tyrosine kinase) signal transduction pathway
  • RU486 (mifepristone)
  • rubella virus
  • ruffled membranes
  • Runnström John (1888–1971)
  • S
  • S
  • sacculus
  • sacral neural crest
  • sagittal plane
  • salamanders
  • salivary glands
  • sarcoma
  • sarcomeres
  • satellite cells
  • scaphocephaly
  • scarification
  • scatter factor
  • -schisis
  • schizocoely
  • Schwann Matthias (1810–1882)
  • Schwann cells
  • sclera
  • sclerotium
  • sclerotome
  • scoliosis
  • scrotum
  • Scute
  • scutellum
  • seasonal polyphenism
  • sebaceous glands
  • sebum
  • second messengers
  • second polar body
  • secondary axis
  • secondary embryonic induction
  • secondary fields
  • secondary follicle
  • secondary hypoblast
  • secondary larvae
  • secondary mesenchyme cells
  • secondary neurulation
  • secondary sex determination
  • secondary tissues
  • secondary vesicles
  • seed
  • seed coat
  • seed dormancy
  • seed germination
  • Seessel's pocket
  • segment-polarity genes
  • segmental plate
  • segmental zones of mesoderm
  • segmentation
  • segmentation cavity
  • segmentation genes
  • segmentation nucleus
  • segments
  • segregate
  • selective affinity
  • selector gene
  • self-determination
  • self-incompatibility
  • self-pollination
  • semaphorin proteins
  • semelparous
  • semen
  • semicircular canals
  • semiconservative replication
  • semi-dominant mutation
  • seminal plasma
  • seminal receptacles
  • seminal vesicles
  • seminiferous
  • seminiferous tubules
  • seminism
  • semperflorous
  • senescence
  • sense plate
  • sensory cranial nerves
  • sepal
  • septum
  • septum primum
  • septum secundum
  • septum transversum
  • serial homologs
  • serial transplantation
  • serine/threonine kinases
  • sero-amniotic cavity
  • sero-amniotic raphe
  • serosa
  • serotinous
  • Sertoli cells
  • seven cardinal movements of labor
  • sex
  • sex cells
  • sex chromosomes
  • sex cords
  • sex determination
  • sex glands
  • sex hormones
  • sex-linked genes
  • sex-linked inheritance
  • sex-linked mutations
  • sexual dimorphism
  • sexual polyphenism
  • sexual reproduction
  • shell
  • shell membrane
  • shoot
  • short-day plants
  • short-germ development
  • Siamese twins
  • signal transduction
  • signaling center
  • silencers
  • simplex uterus
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • sinus rhomboidalis
  • sinus terminalis
  • sinus venosus
  • siRNAs
  • sister chromatids
  • site-specific mutagenesis
  • situs inversus
  • situs solitus
  • skeletal muscle
  • skeletogenic mesenchyme
  • Skene's glands
  • skin
  • skull
  • slime molds
  • Slit protein
  • slug
  • slug protein
  • Smad signal transduction pathway
  • small-interfering RNA (siRNA)
  • small nuclear RNAs (snRNA)
  • small toolkit
  • smooth chorion
  • smooth muscle
  • soft palate
  • somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)
  • somatic cells
  • somatic mesoderm
  • somatic mutation
  • somatic mutation hypothesis
  • somatoplasm
  • somatopleure
  • somite bulges
  • somites
  • somitic mesoderm
  • somitogenesis
  • somitomeres
  • sonic hedgehog
  • sonogram
  • sorocarp
  • sorophore
  • sorus
  • SOX9 gene
  • Spallanzani Lazaro (1729–1799)
  • speciation
  • specific transcription factors
  • specification
  • specification map
  • Spemann Hans (1869–1941)
  • Spemann organizer (Spemann–Mangold organizer)
  • sperm
  • sperm-activating peptides
  • sperm bank
  • sperm fertility
  • sperm survival
  • sperm transport
  • spermateliosis
  • spermatheca
  • spermatic cord
  • spermatids
  • spermatocytes
  • spermatogenesis
  • spermatogonia
  • spermatophore
  • Spermatophyta
  • spermatophyte
  • spermatozoon
  • spermicide
  • spermiogenesis
  • spermist
  • Sperry Roger W. (1913–1994)
  • spicule
  • Spiegelman, Sol
  • spina bifida
  • spinal canal
  • spinal cord
  • spinal ganglia
  • spinal nerves
  • spindle
  • spindle fibers
  • spinocaudal
  • spinous layer
  • spiracle
  • spiral cleavage
  • splanchnic mesoderm
  • splanchnopleure
  • spliceosome
  • splicing isoforms
  • spontaneous abortion
  • spontaneous generation (abiogenesis)
  • sporangiophore
  • sporangium
  • spore
  • spore germination
  • spore mother cells
  • sporic meiosis
  • sporocarp
  • sporocytes
  • sporophyll
  • sporophyte
  • sporophyte generation
  • Spratt, Nelson T
  • SRY gene
  • stabilizing selection
  • stadia
  • stadium
  • staging of development
  • stalk cells
  • stamen
  • staminate flowers
  • stasis
  • statoblasts
  • STD
  • stem
  • stem cell
  • stem cell factor (SCF)
  • stem cell mediated regeneration
  • stem cell niche
  • stemness
  • stenosis
  • stereoblastula
  • stereotaxis
  • stereotropism
  • sterile
  • Stevens Nettie M. (1861–1912)
  • Steward F. C. (1904–1993)
  • stigma
  • stomach
  • -stomia
  • stomodaeal invagination
  • stomodaeum
  • stomodeum
  • stratification
  • stratum corneum
  • stratum germinativum
  • stratum granulosum
  • stratum lucidum
  • stratum spinosum
  • strengths of adhesion
  • striated
  • strobilus
  • stroma
  • stromal cells
  • structural genes
  • structural genomics
  • strypsin
  • Styela (Cynthia)
  • style
  • stylopod
  • subcaudal pocket
  • subcaudal space
  • subcephalic pocket
  • subcephalic space
  • subgerminal space
  • suction method
  • sulcus limitans
  • superficial cleavage
  • superior vena cava
  • supernumerary breast
  • supernumerary chromosome
  • supernumerary nipples
  • supernumerary sperm
  • superovulate
  • superovulation
  • supine
  • supporting cells
  • suppressor gene
  • surfactant
  • surrogate mother
  • suspensor
  • sutures
  • Swammerdam Jan (1637–1680)
  • sweat glands
  • Sylvian aqueduct
  • symbiont
  • symbiosis
  • symbiotic regulation of development
  • symplastic
  • synapomorphy
  • synapse
  • synapsis
  • synaptonemal complex
  • syncytial
  • syncytial blastoderm
  • syncytial cable
  • syncytial specification
  • syncytiotrophoblast
  • syntrophoblast
  • syncytium
  • syndactyly
  • syndetome
  • syndrome
  • synergids
  • syngamy
  • synteny
  • syphilis
  • systemic circulation
  • systems biology
  • T
  • T-box factors
  • T cells or T lymphocytes
  • tadpole
  • tail bud
  • tail fold
  • tapetum
  • taste cells
  • TATA box
  • Tatum Edward Lawrie (1909–1975)
  • taxon
  • Tbx4
  • Tbx5
  • tectum
  • telencephalon
  • teleosts
  • teloblasts
  • telocoel
  • telolecithal eggs
  • telomerase
  • telomeres
  • telophase
  • teloplasm
  • telson
  • temperature
  • temperature sensitive mutations
  • template
  • tepal
  • teratocarcinoma
  • teratogen
  • teratogenesis
  • teratology
  • teratoma
  • terminal cell
  • terminal gene group
  • terminal sac period
  • tertiary follicle
  • test cells
  • test tube baby
  • testes
  • testicular dysgenesis syndrome
  • testicular feminization
  • testicular lobe
  • testis-determining factor
  • testosterone
  • tetrad
  • tetraploid number
  • tetraploidy
  • tetrapod
  • TGF-α
  • TGF-β
  • TGF-β receptor
  • thalidomide
  • thallophytes
  • thallus
  • theca externa
  • theca folliculi
  • theca granulosa
  • theca interna
  • thecal cells
  • thecodonts
  • Theory of Epigenesis
  • therapeutic cloning
  • therapsids
  • Theria
  • third ventricle
  • Thompson D'Arcy W. (1860–1948)
  • threshold concentration
  • threshold concept
  • threshold effect
  • thrifty phenotype hypothesis
  • thymopharyngeal duct
  • thymus gland
  • thyroglossal duct
  • thyroid gland
  • thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotropin)
  • thyropharyngeal duct
  • thyroxine
  • tight junctions
  • Tinman
  • tip cells
  • tissue engineering
  • tissue organization field (TOC) hypothesis
  • toad
  • Toll
  • tonsils
  • tool kit (of developmental biology)
  • tooth germ
  • tornaria
  • torpedo stage embryo
  • torsion
  • torso
  • torus transversus
  • totipotent
  • toxicogenomics
  • toxoplasmosis
  • trabeculae carneae
  • trace fossils
  • trachea
  • tracheal system
  • tracheophytes
  • trans-acting
  • trans-activating domain
  • transcription
  • transcription factor
  • transcription factor domains
  • transcription initiation complex
  • transcriptional regulation
  • transcriptome
  • transcriptomics
  • transdifferentiation
  • transfection
  • transfer RNA (tRNA)
  • transferrin
  • transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)
  • transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)
  • transgene
  • transgenerational continuity
  • transgenic organism
  • translation
  • translational regulation
  • translocated chemical messengers
  • transmission genetics
  • transplant
  • transplantation
  • transplantation experiment
  • transposable element
  • trans-regulation
  • trans-regulatory factor
  • transverse plane
  • trefoil stage
  • trehalose
  • Trembley Abraham (1710–1784)
  • trichoblasts
  • trichomes
  • tricuspid valve
  • triiodothyronine
  • trimester
  • triplets
  • triploblasts
  • triploid number
  • triploidy
  • trisomy
  • trisomy 21
  • tritocerebrum
  • trizygotic
  • Trochaea Theory
  • trochophore
  • trophectoderm
  • trophoblast
  • trophocytes
  • trophoderm
  • truncoventricular region
  • truncus arteriosus
  • trunk neural crest
  • tubal ligation
  • tubal pregnancy
  • tube cell
  • tubercles
  • tuberculum posterius
  • tubuli recti
  • tubulin
  • tumor angiogenesis factors
  • tumor-suppressor genes
  • tunica
  • tunica albuginea
  • tunicates
  • Turing Alan Mathison (1912–1954)
  • Turing model
  • Turner's syndrome
  • twins
  • tympanic cavities
  • tyrosine kinases
  • U
  • ultimobranchial bodies
  • ultrasonography
  • ultrasound
  • umbilical arteries
  • umbilical cord
  • umbilical duct
  • umbilical hernia
  • umbilical ring
  • umbilical vein
  • umbilicus
  • unicellular
  • unipotent stem cells
  • unity of type
  • unsegmented mesoderm
  • up-mutation
  • upregulation
  • upstream
  • urachus
  • Urbilateria
  • ureotelic organisms
  • ureter
  • ureteric buds
  • urethra
  • urinary bladder
  • urine
  • uriniferous tubules
  • urochordates
  • Urodela
  • urogenital ducts
  • urogenital membrane
  • urogenital ridge
  • urogenital sinus
  • urorectal septum
  • urostyle
  • uteric bud
  • uterine cavity
  • uterine cycle
  • uterine horn
  • uterine tube
  • uterus
  • utriculus
  • uvula
  • V
  • vagal neural crest
  • vagina
  • valproic acid (VA)
  • varicose veins
  • vas deferens
  • vasa efferentia
  • vascular cambium
  • vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
  • vascular spiders
  • vasculogenesis
  • vasectomy
  • vasovasostomy
  • vault
  • vector
  • vegetal determinant
  • vegetal gradient
  • vegetal hemisphere
  • vegetal plate
  • vegetal pole
  • vegetalization
  • vegetalized
  • vegetalizing factors
  • vegetative
  • vegetative propagation
  • veins
  • vellus
  • venae cavae
  • venter
  • ventrad
  • ventral
  • ventral furrow
  • ventral mesocardium
  • ventricles
  • ventricular layer
  • ventricular septal defect
  • Veratrum californicum
  • vernal
  • vernalization
  • vernation
  • vernix caseosa
  • vertebrae
  • vertebral column
  • vertebrate body plan
  • vertebrate characteristics
  • vertebrates
  • vertical division
  • vertical transmission
  • vesicle
  • vestibular glands
  • vestibule
  • vestigial
  • Vg1
  • Vg1 mRNA
  • Vg1 protein
  • viability
  • vis essentialis
  • viscera
  • visceral
  • visceral arches
  • visceral furrows
  • visceral grooves
  • visceral mesoderm
  • viscerocranium
  • vital stains/dyes
  • vitalism
  • vitamin A (retinol)
  • vitamin B12
  • vitellarium
  • vitelline duct
  • vitelline envelope
  • vitelline membrane
  • vitelline vascular plexus
  • vitelline veins
  • vitellogenesis
  • vitellogenin
  • viviparity
  • viviparous
  • viviparous mutants
  • Vogt Walter (1888–1941)
  • Volvox
  • vulva
  • W
  • Waddington Conrad Hal (1905–1975)
  • Warynski Stanislas (1858–1888)
  • Weismann August (1834–1914)
  • Weismann barrier
  • Went Fritz (1903–1990)
  • Wharton's jelly
  • white matter
  • Whitman C. O. (1842–1910)
  • wholist organicism
  • Wieschaus Eric F. (1947–)
  • Wiesel, Torsten (1924–)
  • Wilson Edmund Beecher (1856–1939)
  • Wilson H. V. (1863–1939)
  • Wilson's principles of teratology
  • Winged helix proteins
  • wingless
  • winter bud
  • Wnt
  • Wnt receptors
  • Wnt signal transduction pathway
  • Wolbachia
  • Wolff Friedrich Kaspar (1733–1794)
  • Wolffian ducts
  • womb
  • wound epidermis
  • X
  • X chromosome
  • X chromosome inactivation
  • X-linked genes
  • xenoestrogens
  • xenogamy
  • Xenopus
  • Xist gene
  • Xwnt8
  • xylem
  • Y
  • Y chromosome
  • yellow crescent
  • yolk
  • yolk cell
  • yolk cells
  • yolk duct
  • yolk nuclei
  • yolk nucleus
  • yolk platelet
  • yolk plug
  • yolk plug stage
  • yolk sac
  • yolk stalk
  • yolk syncytial layer (YSL)
  • Z
  • zeugopod
  • zinc finger
  • zinc finger family
  • zinc finger proteins
  • zona-binding proteins
  • zona pellucida
  • zona proteins (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3)
  • zona radiata
  • zona reaction
  • zone of differentiation
  • zone of elongation
  • zone of junction
  • zone of overgrowth
  • zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)
  • zoophilous
  • zootype
  • ZP
  • ZPA
  • zygote
  • zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
  • zygotene
  • zygotic genes
  • zygotic meiosis
  • Color Insert