Encyclopedia of Volcanoes

Editors: Sigurdsson, Haraldur, Houghton, Bruce and McNutt, Steve, et.al.
Publication Year: 2015
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-0-12-643140-7
Category: Science - Geology
Image Count: 828
Video Count: 13
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This 2nd fully revised and updated edition provides a comprehensive source of information on the multidisciplinary influences of volcanic eruptions--both destructive and beneficial.

Share this

This book is found in the following Credo Collections:

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • The History of Volcanology
  • Part I Origin and Transport of Magma
  • Introduction
  • Melting the Earth's Upper Mantle
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Structure and Physical Properties of the Earth's Mantle
  • 3 Mantle Melting Processes
  • 4 Mantle Melt Compositions
  • Further Reading
  • Migration of Melt
  • 1 Porous Flow Model of Melt Migration
  • 2 Melt Viscosity
  • 3 Permeability
  • 4 Mechanical Properties of the Matrix
  • 5 Melt Localization and Flow Focusing
  • 6 Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Plate Tectonics and Volcanism
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Plate Boundaries and Magmatism
  • 3 Magma–Tectonic Interactions
  • 4 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • The Composition and Origin of Magmas
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Rock Names and Compositions
  • 3 Basaltic Magmas
  • 4 Silicic Magmas: Granites and Rhyolites
  • 5 Trace Elements
  • 6 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Silicate Melts and Magma
  • Acknowledgments
  • Nomenclature
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Magmatic Systems: Time and Length Scales
  • 3 Magma Thermodynamic Properties
  • 4 Magma Transport Properties
  • 5 Conclusions
  • Supplementary Material for Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Silicate Melts and Magma
  • Further Reading
  • Chemical Thermodynamics and the Study of Magmas
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Thermodynamic Potentials and Modeling the Equilibrium State
  • 3 The Minimization of a Thermodynamic Potential
  • 4 Computational Thermodynamics Tools Available to the Volcanologist/Igneous Petrologist
  • 5 Future Directions of Chemical Thermodynamic Applications in Magmatic Systems
  • Further Reading
  • Volatiles in Magmas
  • 1 Definition and Significance of Magmatic Volatiles
  • 2 Solubility of Volatiles in Silicate Melts
  • 3 Approaches for Assessing Magmatic Volatile Contents
  • 4 Analytical Techniques for Measuring Volatile Abundances in Silicate Glasses
  • 5 Volatile Concentrations in Basaltic Magmas
  • 6 Volatile Abundances in Silicic Magmas
  • 7 Origin of Volatiles, Earth Degassing, and Volatile Recycling by Subduction
  • 8 Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Magma Chambers
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Magma Bodies: Types and Sizes
  • 3 Magma Crystallization and SFs
  • 4 Phenocrysts and SFs
  • 5 Differentiation Processes in Chambers
  • 6 Chamber Processes Revealed in the Pluton Rock Record
  • 7 Chamber Evolution and Pluton Formation
  • 8 Magmatic Systems as Mush Columns
  • Further Reading
  • Rates of Magma Ascent and Storage
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Magma Storage Regions
  • 3 Magma Extrusion Rates
  • 4 Bubble Formation and Evolution during Magma Ascent
  • 5 Groundmass Crystallization during Magma Ascent
  • 6 Phenocryst–Melt Reactions during Magma Ascent
  • 7 Summary
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Magma Transport in Dikes
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Overview
  • 3 Deformational Behavior of Materials
  • 4 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
  • 5 Magma Flow in Dikes
  • 6 Dike Formation and Propagation
  • 7 The Fate of Dikes
  • Further Reading
  • Magma Ascent and Degassing at Shallow Levels
  • 1 General Principles
  • 2 Small-Scale Processes
  • 3 Large-Scale Processes
  • 4 Process Interactions
  • Further Reading
  • Part II Eruptions
  • Introduction
  • Earth's Volcanoes and Their Eruptions: An Overview
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanoes—Types, Distribution, Number, and Setting
  • 3 Eruptions
  • 4 Volcanoes and Humans
  • Further Reading
  • Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Scales and Sizes of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 3 Typical Eruptions and Recurrence Rates
  • 4 Mass and Volume of Volcanic Deposits
  • 5 Magnitudes of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 6 Intensities of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 7 Very Large Eruptions
  • 8 The Relationship between the Intensity and Magnitude of a Volcanic Eruption
  • 9 Energy of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 10 Other Measures of Eruption Size
  • Further Reading
  • Global Rates of Volcanism and Volcanic Episodes
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Ocean Ridges (Divergent Plate Volcanism)
  • 3 Volcanic Arcs (Subduction Zone Volcanism)
  • 4 Large Igneous Provinces
  • 5 Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Primary Volcanic Landforms
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Polygenetic Volcanoes
  • 3 Caldera Volcanoes (Including Supervolcanoes)
  • 4 Monogenetic Volcanoes
  • 5 Volcanic Clusters, Fields, or Provinces
  • 6 Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Calderas
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Anatomy of a Caldera Volcano
  • 3 Activity at Caldera Volcanoes
  • 4 Discussion
  • Further Reading
  • Part III Effusive Volcanism
  • Introduction
  • Lava Flows and Rheology
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Types of Lava
  • 3 Distribution Systems
  • 4 Flow Dynamics, Cooling and Rheology
  • 5 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Lava Dome Eruptions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Definition
  • 3 Types of Lava Domes
  • 4 Lava Dome Structures and Textures
  • 5 Classic Lava Dome Eruptions
  • 6 Dynamics and Mechanics of Lava Dome Extrusion
  • 7 Hazards Associated with Lava Domes
  • 8 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Submarine Lavas and Hyaloclastite
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Mafic Lavas
  • 3 Felsic Lavas and Associated Rocks
  • Further Reading
  • Glaciovolcanism
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Basaltic Tuya Paradigm
  • 3 Intermediate to Felsic Glaciovolcanism
  • 4 Glaciovolcanism as a Paleoclimate Proxy
  • 5 Physical Constraints on Glaciovolcanic Processes
  • 6 Observations on Modern Eruptions
  • 7 Future Research
  • Further Reading
  • Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Mid-ocean Ridges and Magma Generation
  • 3 Segmentation
  • 4 Magma Storage
  • 5 Mid-ocean Ridge Eruptions
  • 6 Volcanic Deposition
  • 7 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Seamounts and Island Building
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Definition of the Term Seamount
  • 3 Types of Seamounts
  • 4 Abundance of Seamounts
  • 5 Geochemistry
  • 6 Geochronology
  • 7 Structural Rock Types at Seamounts
  • 8 Hydrothermal Processes
  • 9 Growth and Collapse of Seamounts
  • 10 Importance of Seamounts
  • Further Reading
  • Basaltic Volcanic Fields
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 General Characteristics of Basaltic Volcanic Fields
  • 3 Eruptive Processes and Products
  • 4 Spatial Distribution of Volcanoes
  • 5 Temporal Recurrence Rate of Activity within Basaltic Fields
  • 6 Magma Sources and Ascent
  • 7 Hazard Analysis
  • 8 Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Large Igneous Provinces and Flood Basalt Volcanism
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Compositional Range and Diversity of Provinces, Global Distribution, and Tectonic Settings
  • 3 Physical Parameters: Size, Age, Periodicity/Timing
  • 4 Source of Magmas and Mantle Dynamics
  • 5 Petrological and Geochemical Character of Basaltic LIP Magmas
  • 6 Oceanic Plateaus
  • 7 Volcanic Divergent Margins
  • 8 Continental Flood Basalts
  • 9 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Part IV Explosive Volcanism
  • Introduction
  • Magmatic Fragmentation
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 From Source to Surface
  • 3 Fragmentation Process
  • 4 Products of Fragmentation
  • 5 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Magma–Water Interaction and Phreatomagmatic Fragmentation
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 History of Observations and Research
  • 3 Processes and Physical Models
  • 4 Phreatomagmatic Deposits and Diagnostic Tools
  • Further Reading
  • Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptions
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Overview
  • 2 Terminology
  • 3 Hawaiian and Strombolian Eruptive Styles
  • 4 Deposit Geometry
  • 5 Pyroclast Textures
  • 6 Style Transitions
  • 7 The Role of Volatiles
  • 8 Insights from Infrasonic Measurements
  • 9 Conduit Fluid Dynamics
  • 10 New Directions and Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Vulcanian Eruptions
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Hazards
  • 3 Field Example: Karymsky Volcano
  • 4 General Phenomenological Features of Vulcanian Eruptions
  • 5 Eruption Mechanism
  • 6 Eruption Initiation
  • 7 Decompression and Fragmentation
  • 8 Vent Conditions
  • 9 Atmospheric Dynamics: Shock Waves
  • 10 Underexpanded Jet Stage
  • 11 Plume Stage
  • 12 Cyclic Activity, Transitions in Eruption Style
  • 13 Summary and Future Perspectives
  • Further Reading
  • Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Classification Issues and General Characteristics
  • 3 The Plumbing System of Plinian and Subplinian Eruptions
  • 4 Magma Ascent and Fragmentation
  • 5 Atmospheric Dynamics
  • 6 Products—Density and Componentry
  • 7 Deposits
  • 8 Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Phreatomagmatic and Related Eruption Styles
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Transient Explosions
  • 3 Sustained Eruptions
  • 4 Discussion
  • Further Reading
  • Submarine Explosive Eruptions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Explosive Basaltic Eruptions
  • 3 Explosive Silicic Eruptions
  • 4 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Plumes
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Generation of Volcanic Plumes
  • 3 Structure and Behavior of Volcanic Plumes
  • 4 Atmospheric Dispersal of Plumes
  • 5 Future Research
  • Further Reading
  • Tephra Dispersal and Sedimentation
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Tephra Sedimentation from Volcanic Plumes and Clouds
  • 3 Modeling Tephra Dispersal and Sedimentation
  • 4 Discussion and Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Pyroclastic Fall Deposits
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Large-Scale Features
  • 3 Intermediate Scale Features
  • 4 Small-Scale Features
  • 5 Attempts to Classify Fall Deposits
  • Further Reading
  • Appendix: Techniques for Characterization of Fall Deposits
  • Pyroclastic Density Currents: Processes and Models
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 PDCs: Encompassing a Range of Particle Concentration
  • 3 Morphology and Internal Dynamics
  • 4 Bed-Load, Erosion, and Deposition
  • 5 Models of PDCs
  • Further Reading
  • Deposits of Pyroclastic Density Currents
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 PDC Deposits from Large Volume Explosive Eruptions
  • 3 Deposits from Small Volume PDCs
  • 4 Relationship to Topography
  • 5 Co-PDC Ashfall Deposits
  • 6 Emplacement Temperatures of PDC Deposits
  • 7 Welding and Rheomorphism in Ignimbrites
  • 8 Transport and Depositional Processes Inferred from PDC Deposits
  • 9 Deposits from PDCs that Entered the Sea
  • 10 Postdepositional Changes to PDC Deposits
  • Further Reading
  • Lahars and Their Deposits
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Genesis of Lahars
  • 3 Lahar Behavior: A Mechanical Perspective
  • 4 Lahar Behavior: A Geological Perspective
  • 5 Lahar Deposits
  • Further Reading
  • Landslides, Debris Avalanches, and Volcanic Gravitational Deformation
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcano Spreading and Sagging
  • 3 Volcanic Landslides
  • 4 Volcanic Debris Avalanches
  • 5 Volcanic Instability Priming and Triggers
  • 6 General Structure of Landslides
  • 7 General Structure of Deposits
  • 8 Debris Avalanche Facies
  • 9 Different Types of Avalanche Deposit
  • 10 Secondary Effects of Volcanic Landslides
  • 11 Transport Mechanisms
  • 12 Hazards from Volcanic Debris Avalanches
  • 13 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Annexe 1—Extended Bibliography: Volcano gravitational deformation and volcano-tectonics
  • Part V Extraterrestrial Volcanism
  • Introduction
  • Volcanism on the Moon
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Mare Volcanism on the Moon
  • 3 Styles of Volcanism and Associated Landforms
  • 4 Nonmare Volcanism
  • 5 The Beginning and End of Mare Volcanism
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanism on Mercury
  • 1 Introduction: Background and the Questions
  • 2 Mariner 10 Visits Mercury and the Postmission Debate
  • 3 The MESSENGER Mission: The Flybys and the Orbital Phase
  • 4 The Array of Volcanic Features on Mercury: What We See and What We Do Not
  • 5 Magma Generation, Ascent, and Eruption
  • 6 Outstanding Problems and Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanism on Mars
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Background
  • 3 Large Central Volcanoes
  • 4 Paterae and Tholi
  • 5 Hellas Highland Volcanoes
  • 6 Small Constructs
  • 7 Volcanic Plains
  • 8 Medusae Fossae Formation
  • 9 Compositional Constraints
  • 10 Volcanic History of Mars
  • 11 Future Studies
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanism on Venus
  • 1 Definition and Significance of Venus Volcanism
  • 2 Volcanic Landforms
  • 3 Factors Influencing Volcanic Eruptions and Volcanic Landforms on Venus
  • 4 Global Stratigraphy of Volcanic Landforms on Venus
  • 5 Evidence for Active Volcanism on Venus and Future Exploration
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanism on Io
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Interior and Heat Flow
  • 3 Surface Expressions of Volcanism
  • 4 Surface Changes, Color, and Composition
  • 5 Hot Spot Temperatures and Composition of Magma
  • 6 Styles of Volcanic Activity
  • 7 Global Geology and Distribution of Volcanism
  • 8 Atmosphere and Torus
  • 9 Future Studies
  • Further Reading
  • Cryovolcanism in the Outer Solar System
  • 1 Introduction and Scope
  • 2 Materials and Mechanisms
  • 3 Triton
  • 4 Moons of Uranus
  • 5 Saturnian Satellites
  • 6 The Jupiter System
  • 7 Future Exploration
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Part VI Volcanic Interactions
  • Introduction
  • Volcanic, Magmatic and Hydrothermal Gases
  • Acknowledgment
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Sampling and Measuring of Volcanic Gases
  • 3 Chemical Composition of Volcanic Gases
  • 4 Degassing Processes
  • 5 Thermodynamics of Volcanic and Hydrothermal Gases
  • 6 Concluding Remarks
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Intrusion-Related Geothermal Systems
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Intrusion-Related Geothermal Resources
  • 3 Heat Flow in the Earth
  • 4 Conceptual Models
  • 5 Hydrothermal Alteration
  • 6 Phase Distribution
  • 7 Geothermal Fluid Characteristics
  • 8 Geophysics, Structure, and Rock Properties
  • 9 Exploration and Appraisal of High-Temperature Systems
  • 10 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Seafloor Hydrothermal Venting at Volcanic Arcs and Backarcs
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 MOR Hydrothermal Venting
  • 3 Styles of Arc and Backarc Hydrothermal Activity
  • 4 Arc Hydrothermal Fluids
  • 5 Backarc Hydrothermal Fluids
  • 6 Comparison with MOR Venting
  • 7 Discussion
  • 8 Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Volcano-Related Lakes
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Characteristics of Volcano-Related Lakes
  • 3 Ancient Volcano-Related Lakes as Ore-forming Environments
  • 4 Hazards Posed by Volcano-Related Lakes
  • 5 Monitoring of Volcano-Related Lakes
  • 6 Mitigation of Volcano-Related Lake Hazards
  • 7 Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Successions Associated with Ore Deposits: Facies Characteristics and Ore–Host Relationships
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulfide Ore Deposits
  • 3 Komatiites and Their Magmatic Nickel Sulfide Deposits
  • 4 Epithermal Gold–Silver Ore Deposits
  • 5 Kimberlites, Lamproites, and Diamonds
  • 6 Conclusions
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Influences on the Carbon, Sulfur, and Halogen Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanic Activity and Influence on the Carbon Cycle
  • 3 Volcanic Activity and Influence on the Sulfur Cycle
  • 4 Volcanic Activity and Influence on the Halogen Cycles
  • 5 Closing Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Part VII Volcanic Hazards
  • Introduction
  • Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Recurrence Rates
  • 3 Steady-state Models
  • 4 Statistical Models
  • 5 Location of Eruptive Vents
  • 6 Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Curves and Maps
  • 7 The Event Tree Scheme for Long-term Hazard Assessment
  • 8 Future Developments
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Ash Hazards to Aviation
  • 1 Hazards
  • 2 Impacts
  • 3 Quantification
  • 4 Aviation Regulatory Environment
  • List of Acronyms
  • Further Reading
  • Climatic Impacts of Volcanic Eruptions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanic Emissions
  • 3 Radiative Interactions and Climate Forcing
  • 4 Climatic Impact of Volcanic Aerosols
  • 5 Ozone Impacts
  • 6 Discussion
  • Further Reading
  • Hazards from Pyroclastic Density Currents
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Definitions
  • 3 PDC Generation Mechanisms
  • 4 Velocities of PDCs
  • 5 Dynamic Pressures and Building Damage
  • 6 Detachment/Decoupling of PDCs
  • 7 Temperatures of PDCs
  • 8 PDC Hazard Modeling and Mapping
  • 9 Vesuvius Hazard Mapping Case Study
  • 10 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Lava Flow Hazards and Modeling
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 What Are Lava Flows?
  • 3 Evolutionary Sequences Among Lava Flows
  • 4 Field Classification of Lava Flows
  • 5 The Lava Spectrum
  • 6 Lava Dynamics and Internal Solidification
  • 7 Forecasting the Behavior of Aa Flows
  • 8 Forecasting the Behavior of Pahoehoe and Blocky Flows
  • 9 The Control of Lava Flows
  • 10 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Hazards from Lahars and Jökulhlaups
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Lahar and Jökulhlaup Characteristics
  • 3 Lahar and Jökulhlaup Hazards
  • 4 Hazard Mitigation
  • Further Reading
  • Hazards of Volcanic Gases
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Toxicity of Volcanic Gas Species
  • 3 Hazards to Population and the Environment: Case Studies
  • 4 Gas Hazard Mitigation
  • 5 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Tsunamis
  • 1 Introduction: Causes and Consequences of Volcanic Tsunamis
  • 2 Examples of Different Volcanic Processes Which Can Produce Tsunamis
  • 3 Monitoring of Tsunamigenic Volcanoes and the Mitigation of Hazards from Volcanic Tsunamis
  • 4 Current and Future Research Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Seismicity
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Types of Volcanic Earthquakes and Terminology
  • 3 General Features of Earthquakes at Volcanoes
  • 4 Case Histories
  • 5 Conclusions
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Impacts of Eruptions on Human Health
  • 1 Early Studies of the Human Impacts of Eruptions
  • 2 Injury Agents
  • 3 Deaths in Volcanic Eruptions
  • 4 Causes of Death and Injury
  • 5 Conclusion
  • Further Reading
  • Large Igneous Provinces and Biotic Extinctions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Record of LIP Events, Extinctions and OAEs
  • 3 The Nature of LIPs
  • 4 How Might LIP Volcanism Affect the Atmosphere and Environment?
  • 5 Release of Greenhouse Gases
  • 6 Ocean Acidification
  • 7 Possible Effects of Sulfur Gas Release
  • 8 Acid Rain
  • 9 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Lightning
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Instruments and Observations
  • 3 Types of Lightning
  • 4 Electrification Processes
  • Further Reading
  • Part VIII Eruption Response and Mitigation
  • Introcuction
  • Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring
  • 1 Introduction—History and Organization
  • 2 Seismic Instruments and Networks
  • 3 Terminology and Types of Volcanic Earthquakes
  • 4 Forecasting Eruptions
  • 5 Characterizing Eruptions in Progress
  • 6 Case Histories
  • 7 Conclusions
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Ground Deformation, Gravity, and Magnetics
  • 1 Principles of Ground Deformation Monitoring
  • 2 Techniques Used in the Field
  • 3 Modeling Deformation
  • 4 Case Histories of Deformation
  • 5 Principles of Gravity Monitoring
  • 6 Techniques Used in the Field
  • 7 Case Histories of Gravity Changes
  • 8 Principles of Magnetic Monitoring
  • 9 Techniques Used in the Field
  • 10 Case Histories of Magnetic Observations
  • 11 Concluding Remarks
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Gas, Plume, and Thermal Monitoring
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Gas Measurements and Monitoring
  • 3 Thermal Measurements and Monitoring
  • 4 Website Dissemination and Alert Systems
  • 5 Future Directions
  • Further Reading
  • Synthesis of Volcano Monitoring
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Instruments and Networks
  • 3 Monitoring Before Eruptions
  • 4 Monitoring During Eruptions
  • 5 Monitoring After Eruptions
  • 6 Case History: Merapi 2010
  • 7 Discussion
  • 8 Volcano Monitoring in the Future
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Volcano Warning Systems
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcano Warning Systems
  • 3 Spatial and Temporal Classification of Notifications
  • 4 An Effective Warning System
  • 5 The Form of Warnings
  • 6 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Crisis Management
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Pre-event Preparedness
  • 3 Crisis Response
  • 4 Recovery
  • 5 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Social Processes and Volcanic Risk Reduction
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Part I—Volcanic Activity: Social Outcomes, Individual Behavior, and Communication Processes
  • 3 Part II – Social Factors that Modulate Volcanic Risk
  • 4 Part III—Case Studies
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Risk Assessment
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanic Risk: Landmark Eruptions
  • 3 Volcanic Risk: Assets and Vulnerabilities
  • 4 Risk Metrics, Criteria, and Tolerability
  • 5 Characterizing Volcanic Risk
  • 6 Cost–Benefit Analysis in VRM
  • 7 Relative Risks and Risk Management for Nonlethal Hazards
  • 8 Expert Elicitation for Risk Assessment
  • 9 Future Developments
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Part IX Economic Benefits and Cultural Aspects of Volcanism
  • Introduction
  • Utilization of Geothermal Resources
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Use of Hydrothermal Fluids
  • 3 Hydrothermal Systems and their Roots
  • 4 Renewability of Geothermal Systems
  • 5 Drilling for Hydrothermal Fluids
  • 6 Strategy in Geothermal Development and Use
  • 7 Monitoring Studies
  • 8 Environmental Aspects
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Soils
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Formation and Evolution
  • 3 Distribution
  • 4 Properties
  • 5 Utilization and Environmental Implications
  • 6 Concluding Remarks
  • Further Reading
  • Volcano Ecology: Disturbance Characteristics and Assembly of Biological Communities
  • Acknowledgments
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Conceptual Models of Succession: Biotic Assembly and Ecosystem Change Over Time
  • 3 Volcanic Processes and Initial Implications for Soil and Ecosystem Development
  • 4 Geography of Volcanism: Implications for Volcano Ecology
  • 5 Distribution of Volcano Ecology Studies across Biomes of the World
  • 6 Plant Successional Processes Following Volcanism
  • 7 Animal Responses to Initial Eruption and Subsequent Assembly Processes
  • 8 Ecosystem Processes and Biological Interactions
  • 9 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanic Materials in Commerce and Industry
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Types of Materials
  • 3 Prehistoric Uses
  • 4 Modern Uses
  • 5 Additives
  • 6 Aggregates
  • 7 Construction
  • 8 Decorative Uses
  • 9 Conclusions
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanoes and Tourism
  • 1 What is Volcano Tourism?
  • 2 Volcanoes in History, Culture, and Religion
  • 3 Volcanic National Parks, Geoparks, and World Heritage Sites
  • 4 Volcanic Eruptions—Unique Tourist Experiences
  • 5 Activities in Volcanic Environments
  • 6 Summary
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanoes, Ancient People, and Their Societies
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Volcanic Activity and Ancient Human Ancestors
  • 3 Volcanic Eruptions and Complex Societies
  • 4 Recent Large-Scale Volcanic Impacts
  • 5 Volcanoes and People in the Future
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanoes in Art
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Beginnings of Landscape Painting
  • 3 Vesuvius 1631 Eruption
  • 4 Empedocles Leaps into Etna
  • 5 The Neapolitan School
  • 5 Neoclassicism
  • 7 Turner's Fire
  • 8 Hokusai and the Spell of Fuji
  • 9 American Exploration of Unknown Volcanoes
  • 10 Hawaiian Eruptions
  • 11 Dr Atl—Volcanologist and Artist
  • 12 The Modern Volcano Landscape
  • 13 Artistic Illustration
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Volcanoes in Literature and Film
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Pretwentieth-Century Novels
  • 3 Twentieth-Century Novels
  • 4 Juvenile Fiction and Comics
  • 5 Volcano Films
  • See also the Following Articles
  • Further Reading
  • Common Units and Conversion Factors
  • Catalog of Earth's Documented Holocene Eruptions
  • IBC