Encyclopedia of Human Rights in the United States

Editor/Author Conde, H. Victor
Publication Year: 2011
Publisher: Grey House Publishing

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-59237-290-4
Category: Social Sciences
Image Count: 23
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This title offers easy to grasp explanations of the basic concepts and laws in the field, with emphasis on human rights in the historical, political, and legal experience of the United States. This indispensable resource surveys the legal protection of human dignity in the United States, examines the sources of human rights norms, cites key legal cases, explains the role of international governmental and non-governmental organizations, and charts global, regional, and UN human rights measures.

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Table of Contents

  • Foreword
  • Introduction and User's Guide
  • Introductory Essay
  • Abbreviations
  • Terms
  • 1. Accessibility (Principle) (See Legality)
  • 2. Accession (To Treaty) (See Ratification)
  • 3. Accountability/Accountable
  • 4. Activist (See Human Rights Defender)
  • 5. Admissibility (of complaints, petitions, communications)
  • 6. Advice and Consent of the U.S. Senate
  • 7. Affirmative Action
  • 8. Aggression (see Crimes Against Peace)
  • 9. Aid Conditionality
  • 10. Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA)
  • 11. American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
  • 12. American Declaration on the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)
  • 13. Amnesty
  • 14. Anti-Semitism
  • 15. Apartheid
  • 16. Arbitrary Arrest/Detention
  • 17. Arrest
  • 18. Asylum
  • 19. Atrocity
  • 20. Basic Human Rights
  • 21. Bearer
  • 22. Bigot(ed)/Bigotry
  • 23. Bilateral Immunity Agreement (See International Criminal Court)
  • 24. Bill of Rights
  • 25. Binding
  • 26. Breach
  • 27. Bricker Amendment
  • 28. Broad-mindedness
  • 29. Bureau of Human Rights, Democracy and Labor
  • 30. Capital Punishment
  • 31. Charter
  • 32. Children's Rights
  • 33. Civil Human Rights
  • 34. Civil Liberties
  • 35. Civil Rights
  • 36. Civil Society
  • 37. Civil War
  • 38. Collateral Damage
  • 39. Collective Human Rights
  • 40. Collective Punishment
  • 41. Combatant
  • 42. Command Responsibility
  • 43. Commission on Human Rights
  • 44. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe
  • 45. Common Article 3 (Geneva Conventions) (See Geneva Conventions of 1949)
  • 46. Communication/Complaint Procedures
  • 47. Complementarity of Judicial Systems.
  • 48. Compliance with Human Rights Norms.
  • 49. Conditions of Detention (See Detention)
  • 50. Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE)
  • 51. Conscientious Objection
  • 52. Convention
  • 53. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • 54. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
  • 55. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD)
  • 56. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention)
  • 57. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
  • 58. Corporal Punishment
  • 59. Counterterrorism Measures
  • 60. Country Reports
  • 61. Country-Specific Legislation
  • 62. Covenant
  • 63. Crimes against Humanity
  • 64. Crimes against Peace
  • 65. Cruel and Unusual Punishment (see Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment)
  • 66. Cruel or Unusual Treatment or Punishment
  • 67. Cultural Genocide (See Genocide/Genocide Convention)
  • 68. Cultural Human Rights
  • 69. Cultural Relativism
  • 70. Culture of Human Rights
  • 71. Culture of Impunity
  • 72. Culture of Peace
  • 73. Customary International Law
  • 74. Declaration/Declarations
  • 75. Declaration of Independence
  • 76. Defamation of Religion (See Freedom of Expression)
  • 77. Defender (See Human Rights Defender)
  • 78. Degrading Treatment or Punishment
  • 79. Deportation
  • 80. Derogation/Derogable Human Rights
  • 81. Detainee/Detention Facilities (See Detention)
  • 82. Detention
  • 83. Development (Economic/Sustainable)
  • 84. Disability
  • 85. Disappearance
  • 86. Discrimination
  • 87. Diversity
  • 88. Domestic Remedy
  • 89. Double Standard/Dual Standard
  • 90. Due Process of Law
  • 91. Duty
  • 92. Economic Human Rights
  • 93. Effective Domestic Remedy
  • 94. Effectiveness (Principle of)
  • 95. Enemy Combatant (See Combatant)
  • 96. Enhanced/Robust Interrogation Techniques
  • 97. Entry into Force (EIF)
  • 98. Environmental Racism
  • 99. Equality/Equality before the Law
  • 100. Equality of Arms (See Due Process of Law and Procedural Rights)
  • 101. Ethnic Cleansing
  • 102. Ethnic Minority
  • 103. Exceptionalism
  • 104. Excessive Force
  • 105. Executive Agreements (EA)
  • 106. Executive Orders
  • 107. Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies
  • 108. Expropriation
  • 109. Extradition
  • 110. Extrajudicial Killing
  • 111. Extraordinary Rendition (See Rendition)
  • 112. Fact-finding
  • 113. Fair Trial
  • 114. Federal Clause
  • 115. Female Genital Mutilation (See Gender-Based Violence)
  • 116. First Generation Human Rights
  • 117. Forced Disappearance (See Disappearance)
  • 118. Foreign Sovereignty Immunity Act (FSIA)
  • 119. Forum of Shame
  • 120. “Four Freedoms”
  • 121. Free and Fair Elections
  • 122. Freedom
  • 123. Freedom of Expression
  • 124. Fundamental Rights/Freedoms
  • 125. Gender-Based Violence
  • 126. Gender Discrimination
  • 127. General Comments (U.N. HR Committee)
  • 128. General Human Rights Legislation
  • 129. Geneva Conventions of 1949 (GC)
  • 130. Genocide/Genocide Convention
  • 131. Good Governance
  • 132. Grave Breaches
  • 133. Gross Human Rights Violation
  • 134. Habeas Corpus Proceedings
  • 135. Hague Regulations (See Law of Armed Conflict)
  • 136. Hard Core Human Rights
  • 137. Hard Power (See Soft Power)
  • 138. Harkin Amendment
  • 139. Hate Crime
  • 140. Hate Speech
  • 141. Helsinki Final Act of 1975/Helsinki Accords
  • 142. High Commissioner for Human Rights
  • 143. Holocaust
  • 144. Human Dignity
  • 145. Human Right(s)
  • 146. Human Rights Committee (U.N.)
  • 147. Human Rights Council (U.N.)
  • 148. Human Rights Defenders
  • 149. Human Rights Education
  • 150. Human Rights Reports
  • 151. Human Rights Violation
  • 152. Human Security
  • 153. Humanitarian Intervention
  • 154. Humanitarian Law
  • 155. Illegal Alien
  • 156. Immigration
  • 157. Immunity
  • 158. Implementing Legislation
  • 159. Impunity
  • 160. Inalienable Rights
  • 161. Incommunicado Detention
  • 162. Independent and Impartial Judiciary
  • 163. Indigenous Peoples or Populations
  • 164. Indiscriminate Attack/Force
  • 165. Individual Complaint
  • 166. Individual Criminal Responsibility
  • 167. Individual Rights
  • 168. Indivisibility (Principle of)
  • 169. Inherent Human Rights
  • 170. Inhuman Treatment or Punishment
  • 171. Inhumane Treatment
  • 172. Inter-Dependence (Principle of)
  • 173. Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO)
  • 174. Inter-Relatedness (Principle of)
  • 175. Interference
  • 176. Internally Displaced Person (IDP).
  • 177. International Bill of Rights
  • 178. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
  • 179. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
  • 180. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
  • 181. International Criminal Court (ICC)
  • 182. International Criminal Law
  • 183. International Financial Institution (IFI)
  • 184. International Human Rights Law
  • 185. International Law/Law of Nations (See Public International Law)
  • 186. Interpretation
  • 187. Interstate Complaint
  • 188. Intolerance
  • 189. Involuntary Servitude
  • 190. Jackson-Vanik Amendment
  • 191. Land Mines (see Indiscriminate Attack/Force)
  • 192. Law of Armed Conflict
  • 193. Legality (Principle of)
  • 194. Legislation (See Implementing Legislation and General Human Rights Legislation)
  • 195. Liberty
  • 196. Liberty and Security of Person
  • 197. Lieber Code
  • 198. Limitation
  • 199. Link/Linkage
  • 200. Massacre
  • 201. Methods or Means of Combat
  • 202. Military Commission/Tribunal
  • 203. Military/Belligerent Occupation (Law)
  • 204. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
  • 205. Minority/Minority Rights
  • 206. Monitor
  • 207. Most Favored Nation (MFN) Trading Status
  • 208. Multilateral Forum
  • 209. National Consensus
  • 210. National Security
  • 211. National Self-Interest
  • 212. Nationalism
  • 213. Natural Law
  • 214. Non-Binding Resolution
  • 215. Non-Compliance
  • 216. Non-Discrimination
  • 217. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO)
  • 218. Non-Interference with Internal Affairs
  • 219. Non-Refoulement
  • 220. Non-Self-Executing Treaty
  • 221. Non-State Actor
  • 222. Norm/Normative
  • 223. Nuremberg Charter and Rules
  • 224. Nuremberg Principles
  • 225. Object and Purpose of Treaty
  • 226. Obligations (International Legal)
  • 227. On-Site Investigation/Fact Finding
  • 228. Oppression
  • 229. Optional Protocol (See Protocol)
  • 230. Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)
  • 231. Organization of American States (OAS)
  • 232. Patriot Act
  • 233. Periodic State Report (See Report/ Reporting)
  • 234. Perpetrator
  • 235. Persecution
  • 236. Personal Status Laws
  • 237. Pluralism
  • 238. Police Brutality
  • 239. Police State
  • 240. Political Asylum
  • 241. Political Correctness/Politically Correct
  • 242. Political Human Rights
  • 243. Political Will
  • 244. Positive Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal))
  • 245. Preamble
  • 246. Precautionary/Interim Measures (See Communication/Complaint Procedures)
  • 247. Preparatory Works/Travaux Préparatoires
  • 248. Pretrial Detention
  • 249. Prisoner of Conscience (POC)
  • 250. Prisoner of War (POW)
  • 251. Privacy (right to)
  • 252. Procedural Due Process (See Procedural Rights and Due Process of Law)
  • 253. Procedural Obligations (See Obligations (International Legal))
  • 254. Procedural Rights
  • 255. Profiling
  • 256. Prolonged Arbitrary Detention
  • 257. Proportionality
  • 258. Protocol
  • 259. Public International Law
  • 260. Racial Discrimination
  • 261. Racism/Racist
  • 262. Ratification
  • 263. Refugee
  • 264. Regional Human Rights System or Regime
  • 265. Religious Discrimination
  • 266. Rendition
  • 267. Reparations
  • 268. Reports/Reporting
  • 269. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings (RDUs/RUDs)
  • 270. Responsibility to Protect (R2P)
  • 271. Reverse Discrimination
  • 272. Rule-of-Law
  • 273. Sanctions
  • 274. Second Generation Human Rights
  • 275. Secret Detention (See Detention and Arbitrary Arrest/Detention)
  • 276. Security Council (U.N.)
  • 277. Segregation
  • 278. Self-Determination
  • 279. Self-Executing Treaty
  • 280. Sign/Signatory
  • 281. Slavery
  • 282. Social Human Rights
  • 283. Social Justice
  • 284. Socialism
  • 285. Soft Law
  • 286. Soft Power
  • 287. Sovereignty
  • 288. Sovereignty Proviso
  • 289. Special Mechanisms/Procedures (U.N.)
  • 290. Special Rapporteur
  • 291. Standard Setting
  • 292. State
  • 293. State Party
  • 294. State Responsibility for Injury to Aliens
  • 295. State Terrorism/State-Sponsored Terrorism (See Terrorism/Terrorist)
  • 296. Subsidiarity (Principle of)
  • 297. Substantive Rights
  • 298. Summary Execution
  • 299. Surveillance
  • 300. Terrorism/Terrorist
  • 301. Third Generation Human Rights
  • 302. Torture
  • 303. Torture Victim Protection Act of 1992 (TVPA)
  • 304. Trafficking (Human)
  • 305. Transparence
  • 306. Treaty (International Instrument)
  • 307. Treaty Monitoring/Supervising Body
  • 308. United Nations (U.N.) Charter
  • 309. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
  • 310. Universal Jurisdiction
  • 311. Universal Periodic Review
  • 312. Universality
  • 313. Unlawful Combatant (See Combatant)
  • 314. Unnecessary Suffering
  • 315. Unpriviledged Combatant (See Combatant)
  • 316. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
  • 317. War Crimes
  • 318. War Crimes Act of 1996
  • 319. War Criminal (See War Crimes)
  • 320. Waterboarding
  • 321. Weapons of Mass Destruction (See Indiscriminate Attack/Force)
  • 322. Women's Human Rights
  • 323. Worldview
  • 324. Xenophobia
  • Primary Documents
  • Introduction to Primary Documents
  • U.S. Founding & Historical Documents
  • 1. Declaration of Independence
  • 2. U.S. Constitution (Including the Bill of Rights)
  • 3. The Emancipation Proclamation
  • 4. The Four Freedoms Speech
  • Founding & Historical International Documents
  • 5. Charter of the United Nations
  • 6. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
  • 7. The Struggle for Human Rights
  • U.N. Related Documents
  • 8. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
  • 9. U.S. Ratification of the ICCPR, with Reservations, Declarations and Understandings (RDUs)
  • 10. First Optional Protocol to the ICCPR
  • 11. Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR
  • 12. General Comment 22(18) of the U.N. Human Rights Committee on Freedom of Thought, Conscience, and Religion
  • 13. U.N. Human Rights Reporting Guidelines
  • 14. U.S. Core Report for All U.N. Periodic Human Rights Reports
  • 15A. Second and Third Report of the U.S. to the U.N. Human Rights Committee
  • 15B. List of Issues To Be Taken Up in Connection With the Consideration of the Second and Third Periodic Reports of the United States of America
  • 15C. Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee on the U.S. Second and Third Reports
  • 15D. U.S. follow up Comments to the Human Rights Committee on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports
  • 16. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)
  • 17. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
  • 18. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Genocide Convention
  • 19. Convention against Torture, Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)
  • 20. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings to the Convention Against Torture (CAT)
  • 21A. U.S. Second Report to the U.N. Committee Against Torture
  • 21B. CAT Concluding Observations and Recommendation on U.S. Report
  • 21C. U.S. follow up Comments to CAT on its Concluding Observations, Second and Third Reports
  • 22. List of Issues Prior to the Submission of the Fifth Periodic Report of the United States of America
  • 23. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
  • 24. U.S. Reservations, Declarations, and Understandings, to the Racial Discrimination Convention
  • 25. U.S. Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Periodic Reports to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
  • 26. CERD Concluding Observations on the U.S. Report on ICERD
  • 27. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
  • 28. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)
  • 29. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict
  • 30. U.S. Ratification of CRC OP on Children in Armed Conflict with RUDs
  • 31. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography
  • 32. U.S. Ratification, Reservations to the Second Optional Protocol to the CRC
  • 33. Convention on the Political Rights of Women
  • 34. The Slavery Convention
  • 35. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery
  • 36. Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
  • 37. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees
  • 38. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief
  • 39. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
  • 40. General Assembly Resolution Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
  • 41. Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious or Linguistic Minorities
  • 42. Declaration on the Human Rights of Individuals Who are not Nationals of the Country in which They Live
  • 43. Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
  • 44. International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
  • 45. International Convention for the Protection of all Persons from Enforced Disappearance
  • 46. International Convention for the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families
  • 47. Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment
  • 48. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners
  • 49. Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty; Death Penalty, Administration of Justice
  • 50. United Nations Millennium Declaration
  • 51. Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
  • 52. World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance
  • 53. Civil and Political Rights, Including: Freedom of Expression
  • 54. The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy
  • 55. Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism
  • 56. United Nations Security Council President's Statement
  • 57. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly 60/251. Human Rights Council
  • 58. Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms While Countering Terrorism
  • International Labour Organization Documents
  • 59. The (ILO) Forced Labor Convention
  • 60. Convention Concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour
  • Organization of American States Documents
  • 61. Charter of the Organization of American States
  • 62. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (ADHR)
  • 63. American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)
  • 64. First Protocol to the ACHR
  • 65. Second Protocol to the ACHR
  • 66. The Convention on the Nationality of Married Women
  • Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe Document
  • 67. Final Act of Helsinki 1975
  • Humanitarian Law & International Criminal Law Document
  • 68. Draft Code of Offences Against the Peace and Security of Mankind
  • 69. [Hague] Convention (IV) respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and its Annex: Regulations concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land
  • 70. Principles of International Law Recognized in the Charter of the Nüremberg Tribunal and in the Judgment of the Tribunal, 1950
  • 71. International Committee of the Red Cross—Basic Rules of the Geneva Conventions and Their Additional Protocols
  • 72. [Geneva] Convention (IV) Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949 (The “Civilians’ Convention”)
  • 73. 1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions
  • 74. 1977 Protocol II to the Geneva Conventions
  • 75. Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons (with Land Mine Protocol)
  • 76. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.
  • 77. ICC Resolution RC/Res.4, June 2010—the Crime of Aggression
  • U.S. Generated Documents
  • 78. Transcript of President Bush's address
  • 79. President Barack Obama Cairo Speech
  • 80. Secretary of State Hilary Clinton, Georgetown University Speech on the Human Rights Agenda of the Obama Administration
  • 81. USA Human Rights Pledge
  • 82. 2009 Country Reports Overview and Introduction
  • 83. 2009 Human Rights Report: Preface
  • 84. State Department UPR Website
  • 85. Universal Periodic Review (UPR) Frequently Asked Questions
  • 86. Report of the United States of America to High Commissioner for Human Rights on the Universal Periodic Review Process
  • 87. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review, United States of America
  • 88. Uniting And Strengthening America By Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept And Obstruct Terrorism (USA Patriot Act) Act Of 2001
  • 89. International Religious Freedom Act of 1998
  • 90. President Obama Executive Order 13492 on Review and Disposition of Individuals Detained at the Guantànamo Bay Naval Base and Closure of Detention Facilities
  • 91. Memorandum for John Rizzo, acting General Counsel for the Central Intelligence Agency-Interrogation of Al Qaeda Operative (Torture Memo)
  • 92. President Obama Executive Order 13491 on Ensuring Lawful Interrogations
  • 93. Department of State: U.N. Statement on “Human Rights, Sexual Orientation, And Gender Identity”
  • 94. Defense of Marriage Act
  • 95. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act
  • 96. Military Commission Act of 2006
  • 97. The War Crimes Act of 1996
  • 98. Detainee Treatment Act of 2005
  • 99. Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act
  • 100. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, JR. Hate Crimes Prevention Act
  • 101. Global Anti-Semitism Act of 2004
  • 102. Trafficking Victim's Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005
  • 103. The Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789 (ACTA)
  • 104. Torture Victim Protection Act of 1991
  • 105. Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976
  • 106. U.S. Army Field Manual
  • Appendices
  • A. Chronology of Human Rights in Relation to the United States.
  • B. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Alternative Forms.
  • C. Charts of the U.N. System for the Promotion and Observance of Human Rights.
  • A: U.N. System Organogram
  • B: Human Rights Treaty System Chart
  • C: Human Rights Treaty Bodies List
  • D: List of Other U.N. Bodies Dealing with Human Rights
  • E: Human Rights Council Special Procedures
  • F: Human Rights Council Special Procedures - Chart of Special Rapporteurs.
  • G: Human Rights Council Special Procedures - Chart of Country Specific Mandates
  • H: Human Rights Committee - Procedural Chart for Complaints.
  • I: Human Rights Committee- Model Complaint Form
  • D. Charts of the International Protection of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law.
  • E. Treaty Analysis-Interpretation Helps.
  • F. How An International Human Rights Norm Becomes U.S. Law.
  • G. Spectrum of Law Applicable in the United States.
  • H. Status of Treaties Applicable to the U.S.
  • I. Selected U.S. Legislation, Resolutions, and the Restatement of Law.
  • J. U.S. Case Law and Non U.S. Cases Involving the United States and International Human Rights Law.
  • K. Universal Periodic Review.
  • L. Selected Human Rights Report Related Documents.
  • M. Human Rights and Security/The War on Terrorism.
  • N. Immigration and Aliens.
  • O. Law Enforcement, Arrest, Detention and Death Penalty.
  • P. Opinion Pieces and News on Human Rights in the United States and the International Community.
  • Q. Human Rights Education.
  • R. A List of Your Human Rights under the International Bill of Human Rights
  • Bibliography
  • About the Author