Geochemistry

Editor/Author White, William M.
Publication Year: 2013
Publisher: Wiley

Single-User Purchase Price: $160.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $240.00
ISBN: 978-0-47-065667-9
Category: Science - Chemistry
Image Count: 415
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of geochemistry. The book first lays out the geochemical toolbox: the basic principles and techniques of modern geochemistry, beginning with a review of thermodynamics and kinetics as they apply to the Earth and its environs.

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Table of Contents

  • About the companion website
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • 1.1 Geochemistry
  • 1.2 This book
  • 1.3 The philosophy of science
  • 1.4 Elements, atoms, and chemical bonds: some chemical fundamentals
  • 1.5 A brief look at the Earth
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Chapter 2: Energy, entropy and fundamental thermodynamic concepts
  • 2.1 The thermodynamic perspective
  • 2.2 Thermodynamic systems and equilibrium
  • 2.3 Equations of state
  • 2.4 Temperature, absolute zero, and the zeroth law of thermodynamics
  • 2.5 Energy and the first law of thermodynamics
  • 2.6 The second law and entropy
  • 2.7 Enthalpy
  • 2.8 Heat capacity
  • 2.9 The third law and absolute entropy
  • 2.10 Calculating enthalpy and entropy changes
  • 2.11 Free energy
  • 2.12 The maxwell relations
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 3: Solutions and thermodynamics of multicomponent systems
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Phase equilibria
  • 3.3 Solutions
  • 3.4 Chemical potential
  • 3.5 Ideal solutions
  • 3.6 Real solutions
  • 3.7 Electrolyte solutions
  • 3.8 Ideal solutions in crystalline solids and their activities
  • 3.9 Equilibrium constants
  • 3.10 Practical approach to electrolyte equilibrium
  • 3.11 Oxidation and reduction
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 4: Applications of thermodynamics to the Earth
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Activities in non-ideal solid solutions
  • 4.3 Exsolution phenomena
  • 4.4 Thermodynamics and phase diagrams
  • 4.5 Geothermometry and geobarometry
  • 4.6 Thermodynamic models of magmas
  • 4.7 Reprise: thermodynamics of electrolyte solutions
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 5: Kinetics: the pace of things
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Reaction kinetics
  • 5.3 Relationships between kinetics and thermodynamics
  • 5.4 Diffusion
  • 5.5 Surfaces, interfaces, and interface processes
  • 5.6 Kinetics of dissolution and leaching
  • 5.7 Diagenesis
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 6: Aquatic chemistry
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Acid–base reactions
  • 6.3 Complexation
  • 6.4 Dissolution and precipitation reactions
  • 6.5 Clays and their properties
  • 6.6 Mineral surfaces and their interaction with solutions
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 7: Trace elements in igneous processes
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Behavior of the elements
  • 7.3 Distribution of trace elements between coexisting phases
  • 7.4 Factors governing the value of partition coefficients
  • 7.5 Crystal-field effects
  • 7.6 Trace element distribution during partial melting
  • 7.7 Trace element distribution during crystallization
  • 7.8 Summary of trace element variations during melting and crystallization
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 8: Radiogenic isotope geochemistry
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Physics of the nucleus and the structure of nuclei
  • 8.3 Basics of radiogenic isotope geochemistry
  • 8.4 Decay systems and their applications
  • 8.5 Cosmogenic and fossil isotopes
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 9: Stable isotope geochemistry
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Theoretical considerations
  • 9.3 Isotope geothermometry
  • 9.4 Isotopic fractionation in the hydrologic system
  • 9.5 Isotopic fractionation in biological systems
  • 9.6 Paleoclimatology
  • 9.7 Hydrothermal systems and ore deposits
  • 9.8 Stable isotopes in the mantle and magmatic systems
  • 9.9 Isotopes of boron and lithium
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 10: The big picture: cosmochemistry
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 In the beginning … nucleosynthesis
  • 10.3 Meteorites: essential clues to the beginning
  • 10.4 Time and the isotopic composition of the solar system
  • 10.5 Astronomical and theoretical constraints on solar system formation
  • 10.6 Building a habitable solar system
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 11: Geochemistry of the solid earth
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 The Earth's mantle
  • 11.3 Estimating mantle and bulk earth composition
  • 11.4 The Earth's core and its composition
  • 11.5 Mantle geochemical reservoirs
  • 11.6 The crust
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Chapter 12: Organic geochemistry, the carbon cycle, and climate
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 A brief biological background
  • 12.3 Organic compounds and their nomenclature
  • 12.4 The chemistry of life: important biochemical processes
  • 12.5 Organic matter in natural waters and soils
  • 12.6 Chemical properties of organic molecules
  • 12.7 Sedimentary organic matter and coal and oil formation
  • 12.8 Isotope composition of hydrocarbons
  • 12.9 The carbon cycle and climate
  • References and suggestions for further reading
  • Problems
  • Appendix