Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany

Editor/Author Clarke, Robert and Merlin, Mark
Publication Year: 2013
Publisher: University of California Press

Single-User Purchase Price: $95.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $142.50
ISBN: 978-0-52-027048-0
Category: Science - Botany
Image Count: 165
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Cannabis: Evolution and Ethnobotany is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary exploration of the natural origins and early evolution of this famous plant, highlighting its historic role in the development of human societies.

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Table of Contents

  • PREFACE
  • ACKOWLEDGMENTS
  • NOTES TO READERS
  • TABLE 1: ACRONYMS USED IN THE BOOK
  • MAP 1: PPRESENT-DAY RANGES OF CANNABIS
  • 1 Introduction to the Multipurpose Plant Cannabis
  • In the Beginning: Circumstances of Early Human Contact with Cannabis
  • A Brief Summary of the Long and Diverse History of Relationships between Cannabis and Humans
  • What Shall We Call These Plants?
  • Should We Praise or Condemn This Multipurpose Plant?
  • What We Discuss in This Book
  • 2 Natural Origins and Early Evolution of Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • Basic Life Cycle of Cannabis
  • Ecological Requirements of Cannabis: Sunlight, Temperature, Water, and Soil
  • Cannabis Origin and Evolution Studies
  • Model for the Early Evolution of Cannabis
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 3 Ethnobotanical Origins, Early Cultivation, and Evolution through Human Selection
  • Introduction
  • First Contacts: Origins of “Human-Cannabis” Relationships
  • Transitions to Cultivation and Civilization
  • Earliest Uses of Cannabis: Useful Traits for Ancient People
  • Evolution of Cannabis through Human Selection
  • Disruptive Selection
  • Origin from Weedy Populations
  • Natural Hybridization: Introgression versus Isolation
  • Artificial Hybridization
  • Atavism
  • Isolation of Populations
  • Population Size and Changes in Variability
  • Evolutionary Effects of Dioecy
  • Effects of Human Selection on Sexual Expression for Different Products
  • Sexual Dimorphism and Selection
  • Phenotypic Changes during Domestication
  • Directional Evolutionary Changes
  • 4 The Cultural Diffusion of Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • Methodology: The Multidisciplinary Approach
  • Types of Archaeobotanical Evidence for Cannabis
  • Written Records of Cannabis's Presence and Use
  • Nonhuman Agencies Affecting the Geographical Range of Cannabis
  • Human Impact on the Dispersal and Expanding Geographical Range of Cannabis
  • Early Relationships among Humans and Cannabis in Central Asia
  • Archeological and Historical Evidence for the Spread of Cannabis
  • Diffusion throughout East Asia
  • Diffusion from Northeastern China into Korea and Japan
  • Diffusion into South Asia
  • Archaeobotanical Evidence from South Asia
  • Diffusion into Southwest Asia and Egypt
  • Diffusion into Europe and the Mediterranean
  • Summary of Dispersal Phases within and Beyond Eurasia
  • Summary and Conclusions: Cannabis's Dispersal from an Evolutionary Point of View
  • 5 History of Cannabis Use for Fiber
  • Introduction
  • Textile Basics
  • Historical and Archeological Evidence for Cannabis Fiber Use in China
  • Hemp Fiber Use in Clothing, Lacquerware, Weapons, and Ships in Ancient China
  • Traditional Korea
  • Contemporary South Korea and North Korea
  • Ancient Japan and Hemp
  • Ancient Evidence from South Asia, Southwest Asia, and Egypt
  • Ancient Mediterranean Region
  • Ancient Europe North of the Mediterranean
  • Spread of Hemp Fiber Use to the New World
  • Some Aspects of the Modern History of Hemp
  • Cannabis and Paper
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 6 Food, Feed, and Oil Uses of Hemp
  • Introduction
  • Human Food and Animal Feed Uses of Hemp Seeds
  • Early Hemp Seed Use in China: Neolithic Period through the Han Dynasty
  • Hemp Seed Oil in Ancient China
  • Ancient Evidence for Traditional Production and Use beyond China
  • Present-Day Hemp Seed Production and Use
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 7 Historical Aspects of Psychoactive Cannabis Use for Ritual and Recreation
  • Introduction
  • Discovery of the Euphoriant Properties of Cannabis in Eurasia
  • South Asian Psychoactive Cannabis Products
  • Hindu Acceptance of Ritual Bhang Use
  • Shiva Worship and Cannabis
  • Other Occasions on which Bhang Was Used
  • Worship of the Bhang Plant
  • Mongols and Cannabis
  • The Advent of Cannabis Smoking: Tobacco Meets Hashish
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 8 Ethnobotanical History and Contemporary Context of Medicinal Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • Early East Asian Medicinal Cannabis Use
  • South and Southeast Asian Medical Traditions
  • Egyptian Medicinal Cannabis Use
  • Cannabis in Early Middle Eastern and Later Islamic Medicine
  • African and South American Medicinal Cannabis Use
  • European Medicinal Cannabis Use
  • Present-Day Western Medicinal Applications of Cannabis
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 9 Nonpsychoactive Ritual Uses of Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • Hempen Rituals of Major Religions: Shamanic Influences Survive Repression
  • Archeological Remains from Ritual Contexts: Central Asia, China, and Europe
  • The Hmong: Spirit Travel in Healing, Life Cycle, and Funerary Rituals
  • China: Shamanism, Taoism, and Confucianism
  • Korea: Shamanic Funerary Rites, Confucian Mourning, and Ancestor Worship
  • Japan: Shamanist, Shintō, and Buddhist Hemp Traditions
  • Europe and the Middle East: Judeo-Christian Hemp Rituals
  • Hangings: Hemp Cordage and Hempen Executions
  • Conclusions
  • 10 Recent History of Cannabis Breeding
  • Introduction
  • European Hemp Breeding
  • North American Hemp Breeding
  • Introduction of NLD Cannabis to North America
  • Breeding History of NLD varieties
  • Introduction of BLD Cannabis
  • Recent Trends in Cannabis Breeding
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 11 Classical and Molecular Taxonomy of Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • One, Two, or Three Species?
  • History of Cannabis Taxonomy
  • Recent Advances in Cannabis Taxonomy
  • Genetic and Historical Model for the Evolution of Cannabis Biotypes
  • Recent Geographical Distributions of Cannabis Biotypes
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 12 Hypotheses Concerning the Early Evolution of Cannabis
  • Introduction
  • Prehistoric Climate Change and Plant Distribution
  • Early Human Dispersals
  • Plant Speciation and Colonization
  • Early Evolution of Cannabaceae: The Hemp and Hop Family
  • Breeding Systems and Reproductive Strategies as Clues to Geographical Origin
  • Reconstruction of a Cannabaceae Ancestor
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 13 Cannabis and Homo sapiens
  • Introduction
  • The Long-Term Relationship
  • Summary of Cannabis's Evolution
  • Cannabis's Influence on the Evolution of Human Culture
  • A Case for the Social Benefits of Cannabis's Psychoactivity
  • Human Influence on Cannabis's Evolution
  • Environmental Impact of the Human-Cannabis Relationship
  • Coevolution of Cannabis and Humans: Fresh Concepts
  • Present Position of the Human-Cannabis Relationship
  • Remaining Questions and Future Directions
  • TIMELINE
  • REFERENCES