Measurement of Joint Motion: A Guide to Goniometry

Editor/Author Norkin, Cynthia C. and White, D. Joyce
Publication Year: 2017
Publisher: F.A.Davis Company

ISBN: 978-0-8036-4566-0
Category: Health & Medicine - Rehabilitation & Therapy
Image Count: 494
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: June 2017
Table of Contents

For each measurable joint in the body, this resource provides consistent, easy-to-follow content that depict range of motion and alignment, making it easy for you to visualize the examination and technique for each joint motion and muscle length test.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Contributing Authors
  • Reviewers
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Authors
  • PART I INTRODUCTION TO GONIOMETRY AND MUSCLE LENGTH TESTING
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Basic Concepts - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc; Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Goniometry
  • Kinematics
  • Arthrokinematics
  • Osteokinematics
  • Planes and Axes
  • Range of Motion
  • Active Range of Motion
  • Passive Range of Motion
  • Hypomobility
  • Hypermobility
  • Factors Affecting Range of Motion
  • Muscle Length Testing
  • Chapter 2 Procedures - Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD; D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Positioning
  • Stabilization
  • EXERCISE 1: Determining the End of the Range of Motion and End-Feel
  • Measurement Instruments
  • Universal Goniometer
  • EXERCISE 2: The Universal Goniometer
  • EXERCISE 3: Goniometer Alignment for Elbow Flexion
  • Gravity-Dependent Goniometers (Inclinometers)
  • EXERCISE 4: Inclinometers
  • EXERCISE 5: Inclinometer Alignment for Cervical Rotation
  • Electrogoniometers
  • Radiography
  • Photography
  • Smartphones
  • Visual Estimation
  • Recording
  • Numerical Tables
  • Pictorial Charts
  • Sagittal-Frontal-Transverse-Rotation (SFTR) Method of Recording
  • American Medical Association Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment Method
  • Procedures
  • Precautions to Range of Motion and Muscle Length
  • Preparation for Testing
  • Explanation of Procedure
  • Testing Procedure
  • EXERCISE 6: Explanation of Goniometric Testing Procedure
  • EXERCISE 7: Testing Procedure for Goniometric Measurement of Elbow Flexion ROM
  • Chapter 3 Validity and Reliability of Goniometric Measurement - David A. Scalzitti, PT, PhD; D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Validity
  • Face Validity
  • Content Validity
  • Criterion-Related Validity
  • Construct Validity
  • Reliability
  • Summary of Goniometric Reliability Studies
  • Statistical Methods of Evaluating Measurement Reliability
  • Exercises to Evaluate Reliability
  • EXERCISE 8: Intratester Reliability
  • EXERCISE 9: Intertester Reliability
  • EXERCISE 10: Calculation of the Standard Error of Measurement and Minimal Detectable Change
  • EXERCISE 11: Calculation of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement, and Minimal Detectable Change
  • PART II UPPER-EXTREMITY TESTING
  • Preface
  • Chapter 4 The Shoulder - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Structure and Function
  • Shoulder Complex
  • Glenohumeral Joint
  • Sternoclavicular Joint
  • Acromioclavicular Joint
  • Scapulothoracic Joint
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedure
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Medial (Internal) Rotation
  • Lateral (External) Rotation
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Chapter 5 The Elbow and Forearm - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc; Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Structure and Function
  • Humeroulnar and Humeroradial Joints
  • Superior and Inferior Radioulnar Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Elbow Flexion
  • Elbow Extension
  • Forearm Pronation
  • Forearm Supination
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Elbow Flexors
  • Biceps Brachii Muscle Length Test
  • Elbow Extensors
  • Long Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle Length Test
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Chapter 6 The Wrist - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Structure and Function
  • Radiocarpal and Midcarpal Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Wrist Flexion
  • Wrist Extension
  • Wrist Radial Deviation
  • Wrist Ulnar Deviation
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Wrist Flexors
  • The Flexor Digitorum Profundus and Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscle Length Test
  • Wrist Extensors
  • The Extensor Digitorum, Extensor Indicis, and Extensor Digiti Minimi Muscle Length Test
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Chapter 7 The Hand - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Structure and Function
  • Fingers: Metacarpophalangeal Joints
  • Fingers: Proximal Interphalangeal and Distal Interphalangeal Joints
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Joint
  • Thumb: Metacarpophalangeal Joint
  • Thumb: Interphalangeal Joint
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures: Fingers
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Fingers: Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) Flexion
  • Fingers: Metacarpophalangeal Extension
  • Fingers: Metacarpophalangeal Abduction
  • Fingers: Metacarpophalangeal Adduction
  • Fingers: Proximal Interphalangeal Flexion
  • Fingers: Proximal Interphalangeal Extension
  • Fingers: Distal Interphalangeal Flexion
  • Fingers: Distal Interphalangeal Extension
  • Fingers: Composite Flexion of the MCP, PIP, and DIP Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures: Thumb
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Flexion
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Extension
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Abduction
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Adduction
  • Thumb: Carpometacarpal Opposition
  • Thumb: Metacarpophalangeal Flexion
  • Thumb: Metacarpophalangeal Extension
  • Thumb: Interphalangeal Flexion
  • Thumb: Interphalangeal Extension
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures: Fingers
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Metacarpophalangeal Flexors
  • Lumbricals, Palmar Interossei, and Dorsal Interossei Muscle Length Test
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • PART III LOWER-EXTREMITY TESTING
  • Preface
  • Chapter 8 The Hip - Erin Hartigan, PT, DPT, PhD, OCS, ATC; D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Structure and Function
  • Iliofemoral Joint
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Hip Flexion
  • Hip Extension
  • Hip Abduction
  • Hip Adduction
  • Hip Medial (Internal) Rotation
  • Hip Lateral (External) Rotation
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Hip Flexors
  • Thomas Test
  • Hip Extensors
  • Straight Leg Raising (SLR) Test
  • Hip Abductors
  • Ober Test
  • Modified Ober Test
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity of Hip Range of Motion Measurements
  • Reliability and Validity of Muscle Length Testing
  • Chapter 9 The Knee - Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Structure and Function
  • Tibiofemoral and Patellofemoral Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Knee Flexion
  • Knee Extension
  • Knee Rotation
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Knee Extensors
  • Ely Test
  • Knee Flexors
  • Distal Hamstring Length Test
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity of Range of Motion Measurement
  • Reliability and Validity of Muscle Length Testing
  • Chapter 10 The Ankle and Foot - D. Joyce White, PT, DSc
  • Structure and Function
  • Proximal and Distal Tibiofibular Joints
  • Talocrural Joint
  • Subtalar Joint
  • Transverse Tarsal (Midtarsal) Joint
  • Tarsometatarsal Joints
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joints
  • Interphalangeal Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures: Talocrural Joint
  • Talocrural Joint: Dorsiflexion
  • Talocrural Joint: Plantarflexion
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures: Tarsal Joints
  • Tarsal Joints: Inversion
  • Tarsal Joints: Eversion
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures: Subtalar Joint (Rearfoot)
  • Subtalar Joint (Rearfoot): Inversion
  • Subtalar Joint (Rearfoot): Eversion
  • Transverse Tarsal (Midtarsal) Joint: Inversion
  • Transverse Tarsal (Midtarsal) Joint: Eversion
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures: Metatarsophalangeal and Interphalangeal Joints
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Flexion
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Extension
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Abduction
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint: Adduction
  • Interphalangeal Joint of the First Toe and Proximal Interphalangeal Joints of the Four Lesser Toes: Flexion
  • Interphalangeal Joint of the First Toe and Proximal Interphalangeal Joints of the Four Lesser Toes: Extension
  • Distal Interphalangeal Joints of the Four Lesser Toes: Flexion
  • Distal Interphalangeal Joints of the Four Lesser Toes: Extension
  • Muscle Length Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Ankle Plantarflexors
  • Gastrocnemius Muscle Length Test: Supine Non-Weight-Bearing
  • Gastrocnemius Muscle Length Test: Standing Weight-Bearing
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • PART IV TESTING OF THE SPINE AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
  • Preface
  • Chapter 11 The Cervical Spine - Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Structure and Function
  • Atlanto-Occipital and Atlantoaxial Joints
  • Intervertebral and Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joints
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Cervical Flexion: Universal Goniometer
  • Cervical Flexion: Tape Measure
  • Cervical Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Cervical Flexion: Single Inclinometer
  • Cervical Flexion: Cervical Range of Motion Device
  • Cervical Extension: Universal Goniometer
  • Cervical Extension: Tape Measure
  • Cervical Extension: Double Inclinometers
  • Cervical Extension: Single Inclinometer
  • Cervical Extension: CROM Device
  • Cervical Lateral Flexion: Universal Goniometer
  • Cervical Lateral Flexion: Tape Measure
  • Cervical Lateral Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Cervical Lateral Flexion: Single Inclinometer
  • Cervical Lateral Flexion: CROM Device
  • Cervical Rotation: Universal Goniometer
  • Cervical Rotation: Tape Measure
  • Cervical Rotation: Single Inclinometer
  • Cervical Rotation: CROM Device
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Chapter 12 The Thoracic and Lumbar Spine - Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Structure and Function
  • Thoracic Spine
  • Lumbar Spine
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Thoracolumbar Flexion
  • Thoracolumbar Flexion: Tape Measure
  • Thoracolumbar Flexion: Fingertip-to-Floor
  • Thoracolumbar Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Thoracolumbar Extension
  • Thoracolumbar Extension: Tape Measure
  • Thoracolumbar Extension: Prone Push-Up
  • Thoracolumbar Extension: Double Inclinometers
  • Thoracolumbar Lateral Flexion
  • Thoracolumbar Lateral Flexion: Universal Goniometer
  • Thoracolumbar Lateral Flexion: Fingertip-to-Floor
  • Thoracolumbar Lateral Flexion: Fingertip-to-Thigh
  • Thoracolumbar Lateral Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Thoracolumbar Rotation
  • Thoracolumbar Rotation: Universal Goniometer
  • Thoracolumbar Rotation: Double Inclinometers
  • Lumbar Flexion
  • Lumbar Flexion: Modified-Modified Schober Test (MMST) or Simplified Skin Distraction Test
  • Lumbar Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Lumbar Flexion: Single Inclinometer
  • Lumbar Extension
  • Lumbar Extension: Modified-Modified Schober Test or Simplified Skin Attraction Test
  • Lumbar Extension: Double Inclinometers
  • Lumbar Extension: Single Inclinometer
  • Lumbar Lateral Flexion
  • Lumbar Lateral Flexion: Double Inclinometers
  • Lumbar Lateral Flexion: Single Inclinometer
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Functional Range of Motion
  • Reliability and Validity
  • Chapter 13 The Temporomandibular Joint - Cynthia C. Norkin, PT, EdD
  • Structure and Function
  • Temporomandibular Joint
  • Range of Motion Testing Procedures
  • Landmarks for Testing Procedures
  • Depression of the Mandible (Mouth Opening)
  • Overbite
  • Protrusion of the Mandible
  • Lateral Excursion of the Mandible
  • Research Findings
  • Effects of Age, Gender, and Other Factors
  • Reliability and Validity
  • APPENDIXES
  • A: Normative Range of Motion Values
  • B: Summary Guides for Measuring Range of Motion
  • C: Joint Measurements by Body Position
  • D: Numerical Recording Forms