Environmental Horticulture: Science and Management of Green Landscapes

Editor/Author Cameron, R.
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 978-1-78-064138-6
Category: Science - Botany
Image Count: 120
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: June 2017
Table of Contents

This book reflects contemporary thinking and is supported by scientific evidence to show the role, value and application of horticulture in the landscape. The discipline of environmental horticulture, its importance and impact on the wider environment is explored in the first part, whilst the second part covers practical horticultural management of different categories of environmental horticulture.

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Table of Contents

  • Acknowledgements
  • 1 Introduction to Environmental Horticulture: Issues and Future
  • 1.1 Defining Environmental Horticulture
  • 1.2 Horticulture Involves Human Agency
  • Environmental horticulture and relationships with pure (purist) ecology
  • What genotypes should be planted?
  • 1.3 Future Directions
  • Horticulture's role in improving the functionality of vegetation
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 2 Environmental Horticulture: Benefits and Impacts
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Microclimate Modification
  • Urban heat islands
  • Cooling buildings and energy efficiency
  • Building insulation in winter
  • Wind amelioration
  • 2.3 Noise Amelioration
  • 2.4 Carbon Sequestration and Release
  • 2.5 Water Management
  • Water management and sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS)
  • Trees and rainfall capture
  • Turf and surface runoff
  • Green roofs/walls and impact on runoff
  • Urban water use
  • Grey water
  • 2.6 Air Pollution
  • 2.7 Pesticides and other Interactions with Chemicals
  • 2.8 Non-Native ‘Alien’ Species
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 3 Green Space and Well-Being
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The Evidence for Green Space Affecting Health and Well-Being
  • Physiological health and physical fitness
  • Psychological health benefits
  • Health benefits and underlying mechanisms
  • Health benefits – not proven?
  • Health risks
  • 3.3 Green Space and the Work Environment
  • 3.4 Proximity, Scale and Type of Green Space
  • 3.5 Horticulture as Therapy
  • 3.6 Social Horticulture
  • Green space and child development
  • Green space – role in reducing crime and antisocial behaviour
  • Green space and traffic calming
  • 3.7 Environmental Horticulture and Healthy Diet
  • 3.8 What Sort of Green Landscapes Should be Promoted?
  • 3.9 Social Attitudes to Green Space and Values
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 4 Environmental Horticulture and Conservation of Biodiversity
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 A Definition for Biodiversity
  • 4.3 Urban Ecology and Habitats
  • Mosaics, networks and patches
  • Promoting urban biodiversity
  • 4.4 What Sort of Species Inhabit Urban Areas?
  • Plants
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Invertebrates
  • 4.5 Management for Biodiversity
  • Invasiveness
  • Trend for planting more natives
  • 4.6 Environmental Horticulture in Key Urban Wildlife Habitats
  • Urban trees and woodland
  • Parks and gardens
  • Community gardens and allotments
  • Wetlands and ponds
  • Roads, railways and verges
  • Brownfield sites, vacant plots and wastelands
  • Conventional walls and roofs
  • Green roofs and walls
  • 4.7 Urban Biodiversity and Humans
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 5 Landscape Trees, Shrubs and Woody Climbing Plants
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Woody Plant Production
  • Sexual propagation
  • Vegetative propagation
  • Growing-on
  • 5.3 Retail and Markets
  • Sustainable production
  • 5.4 Establishment
  • Size/age of transplant
  • Soil conditions
  • Urban soils
  • Mycorrhizae
  • Planting depth and protection
  • 5.5 Maintenance
  • Weed control
  • Mulches
  • Pruning
  • 5.6 Right Plant, Right Place
  • Wind tolerance
  • Wet soils and flooding tolerance
  • Drought tolerance and xeriscaping
  • 5.7 Pests and Pathogens
  • 5.8 Urban Forests
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 Herbaceous Plants and Geophytes
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Distinguishing between Herbaceous Plants and Geophytes
  • 6.3 Patterns of Growth in Herbaceous Plants and Geophytes
  • Herbaceous plants
  • Geophytes
  • 6.4 The Role of Herbaceous Plants and Geophytes in Designed Landscapes
  • 6.5 Contemporary Options for Herbaceous and Geophyte Planting in Public Landscapes
  • 6.6 Spatial Arrangements for Herbaceous Planting
  • Block-based planting
  • Repeating plantings of small blocks or individuals
  • The number of plants forming each block
  • The number of layer structures to be built in
  • Incorporating geophytes into herbaceous and other plantings
  • 6.7 Plant Selection
  • Robustness in herbaceous plants and geophytes
  • Structural form in herbaceous/ geophyte plant selection
  • 6.8 Phenology
  • 6.9 Attractiveness to Invertebrates
  • 6.10 Palatability to Molluscs
  • 6.11 Plant Establishment
  • Specification, plant procurement, production systems
  • Selecting the nursery product
  • Timing of planting
  • Planting protocols
  • Mulching
  • 6.12 Longer-Term Maintenance
  • Weed control
  • Controlling long-term community development
  • 6.13 Manipulating Attractiveness
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 7 Semi-Natural Grasslands and Meadows
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 The Role of Grass-Based Plant Communities in Urban Spaces
  • 7.3 Changing the Mowing Regime to Create a Spring Meadow
  • 7.4 Changing the Mowing Regime to Occasional Flail Cutting
  • Characteristics of occasional flail-cut grass
  • Diversifying flail-cut grass
  • 7.5 Changing from Gang Mowing to a Meadow Regime
  • 7.6 Creating ‘Meadow’ Communities from Scratch
  • 7.7 Choice of Plant Community
  • Meadows
  • Steppe
  • Prairie
  • 7.8 Designing a Seed Mix
  • 7.9 Seed Management and Establishment
  • Site preparation for sowing
  • Sowing practice
  • Post-sowing maintenance
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 8 Bedding and Annual Flowering Plants
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Commercial Production of Bedding Plants
  • 8.3 Propagation and Production Factors
  • Seed
  • Germination
  • Media
  • Nutrition
  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Irrigation
  • Growth regulation – chemical and management tools
  • 8.4 Sustainable Production
  • 8.5 Transport and Retail Stages
  • 8.6 Establishment in the Landscape
  • Irrigation
  • Nutrition
  • 8.7 Annual Flower Beds from ‘Direct Sowing’
  • 8.8 Cornfield Annuals and Annual ‘Meadows’
  • 8.9 Pests and Pathogens
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 9 Lawn and Sports Turf
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Role of Turf in the Landscape
  • 9.3 Grass Genotypes – Physiology and Traits
  • 9.4 Grass Genotypes for More Sustainable Management Practices
  • 9.5 Cultural Procedures
  • Grass sward from seed
  • Seed bed preparation
  • Seeding and base fertilizer application
  • Establishing a sward with turf
  • 9.6 Lawn Maintenance Practices
  • Mowing
  • Mowing of less-intensively used swards
  • Grass mowing machinery
  • Alternative and low energy mowers and other turf machinery
  • Grass clippings
  • Thatch and mat
  • Aeration and drainage
  • Turf reinforcement
  • 9.7 Shade
  • 9.8 Nutrient Management
  • Nitrogen, phosphate and potassium
  • Leaching and runoff
  • 9.9 Irrigation
  • Irrigation control and scheduling
  • Water quality and salinity stress
  • Lawns and sustainable water use
  • Attitudes to turf and water conservation
  • 9.10 Pesticide Use and Integrated Pest Management
  • 9.11 Less Intensive Management
  • Genotype selection for ‘low input’ systems
  • Growth regulation of the sward
  • Artificial turf
  • Areas where less intensive management is warranted
  • Future directions
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 10 New Green Space Interventions – Green Walls, Green Roofs and Rain Gardens
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Green Walls
  • Green façades
  • Living walls
  • Bio-walls
  • 10.3 Green Roofs
  • Green roof typology
  • Weights and load bearings
  • Substrate technology
  • Irrigation
  • How ‘green’ are green roofs?
  • 10.4 Rain Gardens
  • Water capture and infiltration
  • Planting
  • Pollutant control
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 11 Interior Landscapes
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Purpose and Function
  • Health and well-being aspects of interior plant displays
  • Modifying the interior aerial environment
  • 11.3 Interior Plant Requirements
  • Temperature
  • Irradiance
  • Air quality
  • Growing media
  • Irrigation
  • 11.4 Acclimatization to Interior Environments
  • 11.5 Pests and Pathogens
  • 11.6 Managing the Interior Landscape
  • 11.7 Environmental Sustainability
  • Conclusions
  • References