The Dictionary of Physical Geography

Editors: Thomas, David S. G. and Goudie Andrew
Publication Year: 2016
Publisher: Blackwell Publishers

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-11-878233-0
Category: Geography
Image Count: 136
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This fully-revised comprehensive fourth edition covers the whole field of physical geography including climate and atmosphere, geomorphology, biogeography, hydrology, oceans, Quaternary, environmental change, soils, remote sensing and GIS. This new edition reflects developments in the discipline during the last decade, with the expert advisory group providing an international perspective on the discipline of physical geography.

Share this

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Preface to the Fourth Edition
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Preface to the Third Edition
  • Acknowledgements
  • About the Companion Website
  • Introduction
  • A
  • abiotic
  • ablation
  • abrasion
  • abrupt climate change
  • absolute age
  • abstraction, of water
  • abyss
  • abyssal plain
  • accommodation space
  • accordant junctions, law of
  • accordant summits
  • accretion
  • accumulated temperature
  • accuracy
  • acid deposition
  • acid precipitation
  • acid rain
  • acid rocks
  • acid susceptibility/acid neutralizing capacity
  • acidity profile
  • active layer
  • active margin
  • actualism
  • adaptation
  • adaptive capacity
  • adhesion ripple
  • adhesion warts
  • adiabatic
  • adsorption
  • advection
  • advection fog
  • advective processes
  • aeolation
  • aeolian
  • aeolianite
  • aerial photography
  • aerobic
  • aerobiology
  • aerodynamic ripples
  • aerosol
  • aestivation
  • afforestation
  • affluent
  • aftershocks
  • ageostrophic
  • agglomerate
  • aggradation
  • aggregation ratio
  • agonic line
  • aggressivity
  • agricultural drought
  • agroclimatology
  • agroforestry
  • agrometeorology
  • aiguille
  • air mass
  • air parcel
  • air pollution
  • Airy wave theory
  • aklé
  • alas
  • albedo
  • alcove
  • alcrete
  • alfisol
  • algae
  • algal bloom
  • algal mat
  • algal ridge, algal rim
  • allelopathy
  • Allen's rule
  • aliens
  • Allerød
  • allochthonous
  • allogenic stream
  • allogenic succession
  • allometric growth
  • allopatric
  • allophane
  • alluvial channel
  • alluvial fans
  • alluvial fill
  • alluvial terrace
  • alluvium
  • alp
  • alpha diversity
  • alpine
  • alpine orogeny
  • altiplanation
  • altithermal
  • altocumulus
  • altostratus
  • alveolar
  • ambient
  • amensalism
  • amino acid racemization
  • amphidromic point
  • AMS radiocarbon dating
  • anabatic flows
  • anabranching
  • anaclinal
  • anaerobic
  • ana-front
  • analemna
  • analogue approach
  • anamolistic cycle
  • anaseism
  • anastomosing river
  • andosols
  • andromy
  • anemograph
  • anemometer
  • angiosperms
  • angle of dilation (θ)
  • angle of initial yield (ϕi)
  • angle of internal shearing resistance (φ)
  • angle of plane sliding friction (φus)
  • angle of repose
  • angle of residual shear (ϕr)
  • angular momentum
  • angular unconformity
  • annual series
  • annular drainage
  • Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)
  • Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC)
  • Antarctic cold reversal (ACR)
  • Antarctic Ice Sheet – east and west
  • antecedent drainage
  • antecedent moisture
  • antecedent precipitation index
  • anteconsequent stream
  • Anthropocene
  • anthropochore
  • anthropogeomorphology
  • anthrosols
  • antibiosis
  • anticentre
  • anticline
  • anticyclone
  • antidune
  • antiforms
  • antipleion
  • antipodal bulge
  • antipodes
  • antitrades
  • antitriptic wind
  • aphanitic
  • aphelion
  • aphotic zone
  • aphytic zone
  • apogee
  • aposematic coloration
  • applied geomorphology
  • applied meteorology
  • aquaculture
  • aquiclude
  • aquifer
  • aquifuge
  • aquatic macrophyte
  • aquitard
  • arboreal
  • arches, natural
  • archipelago
  • arctic
  • arctic–alpine flora
  • arctic haze
  • arctic smoke
  • areic
  • arena
  • arenaceous
  • areography
  • arête
  • argillaceous
  • aridisols
  • arkose
  • armoured mud balls
  • armouring
  • arroyo
  • artesian
  • artificial recharge
  • aspect
  • association, plant
  • asthenosphere
  • astrobleme
  • asymmetric valley
  • asymmetrical fold
  • Atlantic coastlines
  • Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO)
  • atmometer
  • atmosphere
  • atmospheric composition
  • atmospheric energetics
  • atmospheric instability
  • atmospheric layers
  • atmospheric waves
  • Elastic waves
  • Gravity (–inertia) waves
  • Cyclone waves
  • Rossby waves
  • atoll
  • Atterberg limits
  • aufeis
  • auge
  • aulacogens
  • aureole, metamorphic
  • aurora borealis
  • autecology
  • autochthonous
  • autocorrelation
  • autogenic stream
  • autogenic succession
  • autotrophic
  • autovariation
  • avalanche
  • avalanche tarns
  • aven
  • avulsion
  • azimuth
  • azoic
  • azotobacter
  • B
  • backing wind
  • backshore
  • backswamp
  • backwall
  • backwash
  • backwearing
  • badlands
  • bajada
  • ball lightning
  • bank erosion
  • bank storage
  • bankfull discharge
  • banner cloud
  • bar, nearshore
  • barchan
  • barchanoid ridge
  • baroclinicity
  • barometer
  • barranca
  • barrier island
  • barrier reef
  • barrier spit
  • basal ice
  • basal sapping
  • basal sliding
  • basalt
  • base exchange
  • base flow
  • base level
  • base saturation
  • basement complex
  • basic rocks
  • basin-and-range
  • batholith
  • bathymetry
  • bauxite
  • beach
  • beach nourishment
  • beach ridge
  • beach rock
  • beaded drainage
  • bearing capacity
  • Beaufort scale
  • bed roughness
  • bedding plane
  • bedform reconstitution
  • bedforms
  • bedload, bedload equation
  • bedload pit trap
  • bedload tracers
  • bedrock
  • Beer's law
  • benchmark
  • Benioff zone
  • benthic
  • berg wind
  • Bergeron–Findeisen mechanism
  • berghlaup
  • Bergmann's rule
  • bergschrund
  • berm
  • Bernoulli's theorem and effect
  • biennial oscillation
  • bifurcation ratio
  • bioaccumulation
  • biochar
  • biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
  • biocides
  • bioclastic
  • bioclimatology
  • biodegradation
  • biodiversity
  • bioerosion
  • biofilm/extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs)
  • biofuel
  • biogeochemical cycles
  • biogeocoenosis
  • biogeography
  • biogeomorphology
  • bioherm
  • biokarst
  • bioleaching
  • biological control
  • biological crust
  • biological magnification
  • biological productivity
  • bioluminescence
  • biomantle
  • biomass
  • biome
  • biometeorology
  • biosphere
  • biostabilization
  • biostasy
  • biota
  • biotope
  • bioturbation
  • black box
  • blanket bog
  • blind valley
  • blizzard
  • block faulting
  • block fields, block streams
  • blocking
  • blow-hole
  • blowouts
  • bluehole
  • Blytt–Sernander model
  • bog
  • bog bursts
  • bogaz
  • Bølling
  • bolson
  • bombardment
  • Bond cycles
  • bora
  • bore
  • boreal climate
  • boreal forest
  • boreal (period)
  • bornhardt
  • boss
  • botryoidal
  • bottom-sets
  • Bouguer anomaly
  • boulder clay
  • boulder train
  • boulder-controlled slopes
  • boundary conditions
  • boundary layer
  • bounding surface
  • bourne
  • Bowen ratio
  • Bowen's reaction series
  • brackish
  • braided river
  • brash
  • Braun-Blanquet scale
  • breccia
  • brodel
  • brousse tigrée
  • Brune curve
  • Brunhes–Matuyama
  • brunizem
  • Bruun rule
  • buffer
  • buffer strip
  • buffering capacity
  • bulk density
  • bush encroachment
  • bushveld
  • butte
  • Buys Ballot's law
  • bypass flow
  • C
  • caatinga
  • caballing
  • caesium-137 (137Cs) analysis
  • Cainozoic
  • calcicole
  • calcifuge
  • calcite compensation depth
  • calcite saturation index
  • calcrete
  • caldera
  • calms
  • calving
  • cambering
  • canopy
  • capacity/non-capacity load
  • capillary forces
  • cap-rock
  • capture (or river capture)
  • carapace
  • carbon cycle
  • carbon dating
  • carbon sequestration
  • carbonate budget, of coral reefs
  • carbonate compensation depth
  • carbonation
  • carnivore
  • carrying capacity
  • carse
  • cascading systems
  • case hardening
  • cataclasis
  • cataclinal
  • catastrophe/catastrophism
  • catchment
  • catchment control
  • catena
  • cation exchange
  • cation-exchange capacity
  • cation-ratio dating
  • causality
  • causse
  • cave
  • cavern
  • cavitation
  • celerity
  • cell circulation, beaches
  • cellular automata
  • Cenozoic
  • cerrado
  • channel capacity
  • channel classification
  • channel resistance
  • channel storage
  • channelization (or river channelization)
  • chapada
  • chaparral
  • char
  • charcoal
  • chattermarks
  • cheiorographic coast
  • chelation
  • cheluviation
  • chemosphere
  • chenier
  • chernozem
  • chert
  • Chézy equation
  • chine
  • chinook
  • chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
  • chott
  • chronosequence
  • chute
  • circadian rhythm
  • circulation index
  • cirque (also corrie, cwm)
  • cirrocumulus
  • cirrostratus
  • cirrus
  • cladistics (or phylogenetic systematics)
  • clast
  • clastic
  • clay
  • clay dune
  • clay–humus complex
  • clay pellet
  • claypan
  • clay-with-flints
  • clear-water erosion
  • cleavage
  • CLIMAP
  • climate
  • climate change
  • climate modelling
  • climate modification
  • climate sensitivity parameter
  • climatic classification
  • climatic geomorphology
  • climatic hinge
  • climatic optimum
  • climato-genetic geomorphology
  • climatology
  • climax vegetation
  • climbing dune
  • climogram
  • cline
  • clinometer
  • clinosequence
  • clint
  • clisere
  • clitter
  • cloud computing
  • cloud dynamics
  • cloud forest
  • cloud microphysics
  • cloud seeding
  • cloud streets
  • clouds
  • cluse
  • cluster bedform
  • CMIP
  • coastal dunes
  • coccoliths
  • cockpit karst
  • coefficient of permeability
  • coefficient of variation (CV)
  • coevolution
  • cohesion
  • col
  • cold front
  • cold pole
  • Coleoptera
  • colloid
  • colluvium
  • colmation
  • colonization
  • combe, coombe
  • comfort zone
  • commensalism
  • comminution
  • community
  • compaction
  • compensation flows
  • competence
  • competition
  • complex response
  • compressing flow
  • compressional
  • computational fluid dynamics
  • conchoidal fracture
  • concordant
  • concordant coast
  • concretion
  • condensation
  • conductance, specific
  • cone of depression
  • confined groundwater
  • conglomerate
  • connate water
  • connectivity
  • consequent stream
  • conservation
  • consociation
  • consolidation
  • constant slope
  • continental climate
  • continental drift
  • continental freeboard
  • continental islands
  • continental shelf
  • continental slope
  • continuity equation
  • contour
  • contrails
  • contributing area
  • convection
  • convective precipitation
  • convergence (see also divergence)
  • coordination number
  • coprolite
  • coquina
  • coral–algal reef
  • coral bleaching
  • coral disease
  • coral reefs and coral–algal reefs
  • core
  • corallith
  • corestone
  • Coriolis force
  • Coriolis parameter
  • cornice
  • corniche
  • corrasion
  • corrie
  • corrosion
  • cosmogenic isotope
  • coulée
  • couloir
  • Coulomb equation
  • coupled GCMs
  • cover, plant
  • coversand
  • crab-holes
  • crag and tail
  • crater
  • craton
  • creationism
  • creep
  • crevasse
  • critical load
  • critical velocity (or critical erosion velocity)
  • critical zone
  • cross-bedding
  • cross-lamination
  • cross-profile, valley/river channel
  • crumb structure
  • crust
  • cryergic
  • cryosphere
  • cryoplanation
  • cryostatic pressures
  • cryoturbation
  • cryovegetation
  • cryptovolcano
  • cuesta
  • cuirass
  • cultural geomorphology
  • cumec
  • cumulative soil profiles
  • cumulonimbus
  • cumulus
  • cupola
  • current bedding
  • current meter
  • current ripples
  • cusp, beach
  • cutan
  • cut-off
  • cutter
  • cyanobacteria
  • cycle, biochemical
  • cycle, climatic
  • cycle of erosion
  • cyclone (or depression)
  • cyclostrophic
  • cymatogeny
  • D
  • dalmatian coast
  • Daly level
  • dambo
  • dams
  • Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) events
  • Darcy's law
  • Darwinism
  • data logger
  • daya
  • dead ice topography
  • débâcle
  • debris flows
  • deciduous forest
  • decomposer
  • deductive (science)
  • deep weathering
  • deflation
  • deforestation
  • deformable beds
  • deformation
  • De Geer moraine
  • deglaciation
  • degradation
  • degree day
  • delayed flow
  • delta
  • demoiselle
  • denitrification
  • density current
  • density dependence
  • denudation
  • denudation chronology
  • denudation rates
  • deoxygenation
  • depletion curve (or recession curve or base-flow recession curve)
  • depression
  • depression storage
  • depth–duration curve
  • desalinization (or desalination)
  • desert
  • desert pavement
  • desert varnish
  • desertification (also desertization)
  • desiccation
  • design discharge
  • desquamation
  • desulphurization
  • Devensian
  • dew, dewpoint
  • diabatic
  • diachronous
  • diaclinal
  • diagenesis
  • diamictite, diamicton
  • diapir
  • diastrophism
  • diatoms
  • diatreme
  • die-back
  • diffluence
  • diffusion equation
  • diffusive processes
  • digital elevation model (DEM)
  • digital image processing
  • digital terrain model (DTM)
  • dikaka
  • dilation (or dilatation)
  • dilution effect
  • dilution gauging
  • diluvialism
  • dimensionless number
  • dimethylsulphide (DMS)
  • dip
  • dipslope
  • dipwell
  • dirt cone
  • discharge
  • disclimax
  • disconformity
  • discordance
  • disjunct distribution
  • dispersal
  • dissection
  • dissipative beach
  • dissolved load
  • dissolved oxygen
  • dissolved solids
  • distributary
  • diurnal tides
  • divergence
  • doab
  • doldrums
  • doline
  • dolocrete
  • dome dune
  • domin scale
  • dominant discharge
  • dominant organism
  • dominant wind
  • donga
  • dormant volcano
  • double mass analysis
  • downbursts
  • downscaling
  • downwelling
  • draa
  • drainage
  • drainage density
  • drainage network
  • draw down
  • dreikanter
  • drift potential
  • dripstone
  • drop size (and the distribution of drop sizes)
  • drought
  • drought index
  • drumlin
  • dry deposition
  • dry valley
  • dry weather flow
  • drylands
  • du Boys equation
  • dune
  • dune memory
  • dune network
  • durability
  • duricrust
  • duripan
  • dust
  • dust devil
  • dust storm
  • dust veil index
  • dyke
  • dynamic equilibrium
  • dynamic source area
  • dynamical meteorology
  • dzud
  • E
  • Earth system science (ESS)
  • Earth observation
  • earth pillar
  • earthflow
  • earthquake
  • easterly wave
  • eccentricity
  • echo dune
  • ecological energetics
  • ecological footprint
  • ecology
  • ecosystem
  • ecosystem goods and services
  • ecotone
  • ecotope
  • ecotoxicology
  • ecotype
  • ecozone
  • edaphic
  • eddies
  • eddy diffusivity (eddy viscosity)
  • edge waves
  • EDM
  • effective precipitation
  • effective stress
  • effluent
  • effluent stream
  • egre
  • Eh
  • Ekman layer
  • Ekman spiral
  • elastic rebound theory
  • electromagnetic distance measurement
  • electromagnetic radiation
  • electron spin resonance (ESR)
  • ellipsoid
  • El Niño
  • eluviation
  • eluvium
  • Emerson test
  • emissions scenario
  • endangered species
  • endemism
  • endogenetic
  • endoreic
  • energy flow
  • energy grade line
  • engineering geomorphology
  • englacial
  • enhanced thematic mapper
  • ensemble climate modelling
  • ENSO
  • entrainment
  • entrenched meander
  • entropy
  • envelope curve
  • environmental assessment
  • environmental economics
  • environmental impact
  • environmental impact statement
  • environmental issue
  • environmental lapse rate
  • environmental magnetism
  • environmental management
  • epeiric sea
  • epeirogeny
  • ephemeral plant
  • ephemeral stream
  • epicentre
  • epiclimate (or nanoclimate)
  • epilimnion
  • epipedon
  • epiphyte
  • epoch
  • equation of state
  • equations of motion
  • equatorial rain forest
  • equatorial trough
  • equifinality
  • equilibrium
  • equilibrium line
  • equilibrium line of glaciers
  • equilibrium shoreline
  • equipotentials
  • era
  • erg
  • ergodic hypothesis
  • erodibility
  • erosion
  • erosion pin
  • erosion surface
  • erosivity
  • erratic (glacial)
  • eruption
  • escarpment
  • esker
  • ESP
  • ESR
  • estuary
  • eulittoral zone
  • euphotic zone
  • eustasy
  • eutrophic
  • eutrophication
  • evaporation
  • evaporite
  • evapotranspiration
  • evolution
  • evorsion
  • exaration
  • exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP)
  • exfoliation
  • exhaustion effects
  • exhumation
  • exogenetic
  • exotic
  • expanding Earth
  • expansive soils
  • experimental catchment
  • experimental design
  • extending flow
  • external forcing
  • extinction
  • extratropical cyclone
  • extreme value theory
  • extrusion flow of glaciers
  • extrusion, volcanic
  • exudation basin
  • eye
  • eyot
  • F
  • fabric
  • facet
  • facies
  • factor of safety
  • fairy circles
  • falling dune
  • fallout
  • false-bedding
  • fan delta
  • fanglomerate
  • fans
  • fatigue failure
  • fault
  • faunal realms
  • feather edge
  • feedback
  • feedback loops or homeostasis
  • feldspars
  • felsenmeer
  • fen
  • ferrallitization
  • Ferrel cell
  • Ferrel's law
  • ferricrete
  • fetch or fetch length
  • fiard
  • field capacity
  • field drainage
  • Finger Lakes
  • fiord (fjord)
  • fire
  • firn
  • firn line
  • fission track dating
  • fissure eruption
  • flash flood
  • flashiness
  • flatiron
  • float recorder
  • floating bogs
  • flocculation
  • flood
  • flood frequency
  • floodout
  • floodplain
  • flood routing
  • floristic realms
  • flow duration curve (FDC)
  • flow equations
  • flow regimes
  • flow resources
  • flow till
  • flow visualization
  • fluid mechanics
  • flume
  • flute
  • fluting
  • fluvial
  • fluvioglacial
  • fluviokarst
  • flux
  • flyggberg
  • flysch
  • fog
  • föhn (sometimes foehn; chinook in North America)
  • fold
  • foliation
  • food chain, food web
  • foraminifera
  • force
  • forebulge
  • foredune
  • foreset beds
  • forest
  • forest hydrology
  • form line
  • form ratio
  • Fourier analysis
  • fracking
  • fractal
  • fractal dimension (or fractal)
  • fracture
  • fractus
  • fragipan
  • frazil ice
  • free face
  • freeze–thaw cycle
  • freezing front
  • freezing index
  • friction
  • fringing reef
  • front
  • frontogenesis
  • frost action
  • frost creep
  • frost heave
  • frost smoke (also arctic smoke)
  • frost weathering
  • frost wedge
  • Froude number
  • fulgurite
  • fulje
  • fumarole
  • fungi
  • funnelling ratio
  • fynbos
  • G
  • gabbro
  • Gaia hypothesis
  • gallery forest
  • garrigue
  • gauging stations
  • GCM
  • geest
  • gelifluction
  • genecology
  • general atmospheric circulation
  • general circulation modelling
  • general system theory
  • genetic drift
  • geo
  • geochronology
  • geoconservation
  • geocryology
  • geode
  • geodesy
  • geodiversity
  • geoengineering
  • geographical information science
  • geographic information system
  • geohazard
  • geoheritage
  • geoid
  • geological timescale
  • geomorphology
  • geoparks
  • geophyte
  • geoproxy
  • geostatistics
  • geostrophic wind
  • geosyncline
  • geothermal energy
  • Gerlach trough
  • geyser
  • Ghyben–Herzberg principle
  • gibber
  • Gibbsian distribution
  • gilgai
  • gipfelflur
  • glacial
  • glaciation
  • glaciation level (also called glacial limit)
  • glacier
  • glacier mass balance (GMB)
  • glacier milk
  • glacier table
  • glacieret
  • glacierization
  • glacioeustasy
  • glaciofluvial
  • glacioisostasy
  • glaciotectonism
  • glacis
  • glei, gley
  • Glen's law
  • glint line
  • global dimming
  • global environmental change
  • Global Positioning System (GPS)
  • global warming
  • GLOSS (Global Sea-Level Observing System)
  • gnammas
  • gneiss
  • goletz terrace (also known as cryoplanation terrace or altiplanation terrace)
  • Gondwanaland
  • gorge
  • gouffres
  • graben
  • grade, concept of
  • graded bedding
  • graded slopes
  • graded time
  • gradient wind
  • gradually varied flow
  • granite
  • granulometry
  • grasslands
  • gravel
  • gravimetric method
  • gravity
  • gravity faulting
  • gravity wave
  • great escarpment
  • great interglacial
  • greenhouse effect
  • Greenland Ice Sheet
  • grey wether
  • greywacke
  • grike (gryke)
  • GRIP
  • ground frost
  • ground ice
  • ground moraine
  • ground-penetrating radar (GPR)
  • grounding line (grounding zone)
  • groundwater
  • growan
  • groyne
  • grumusol
  • grus
  • guano
  • gull
  • gully
  • gully erosion
  • Gumbel extreme value theory
  • gumbo
  • gustiness factor
  • guyot
  • gypcrete
  • gypsum
  • gyre
  • gyttja
  • H
  • habitat
  • haboob
  • hadal zone
  • Hadley cell
  • haff
  • hagg
  • hail
  • haldenhang
  • half-life
  • halocarbons
  • haloclasty
  • halons
  • haloturbation
  • hamada, hammada
  • hamra
  • hanging valley
  • hardness
  • hardpan
  • harmattan
  • harmonic analysis
  • Hawaiian eruption
  • hazard
  • haze
  • head
  • headcut
  • headwall
  • headward erosion
  • headwater
  • heat budget
  • heat island
  • heathlands
  • Heinrich events
  • helical flow
  • helictite
  • hemera
  • herbivore
  • herbivore use intensity (HUI)
  • heterosphere
  • heterotrophs
  • hiatus
  • hierarchical rhythmic topography
  • high-energy window
  • hillslope flow processes
  • hindcasting
  • Hjulström curve
  • hoar frost
  • hodograph
  • hogsback
  • Holocene
  • holokarst
  • homoclines
  • hoodoo
  • horizon, soil
  • horn, glacial
  • horse latitudes
  • horst
  • Horton overland flow
  • Horton's laws
  • hot spot
  • hot spring
  • hum
  • human impact
  • humate
  • humic acid
  • humidity
  • humus
  • hurricane
  • hydration
  • hydraulic conductivity
  • hydraulic diffusivity (D)
  • hydraulic force
  • hydraulic geometry
  • hydraulic gradient
  • hydraulic head (h)
  • hydraulic jump
  • hydraulic potential (or fluid potential)
  • hydraulic radius
  • hydraulics
  • hydrodynamic levelling
  • hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • hydrofracturing
  • hydrogeological map
  • hydrographs (see unit hydrograph)
  • hydroisostasy
  • hydrolaccolith
  • hydrological cycle
  • hydrology
  • hydrolysis
  • hydrometeorology
  • hydrometry
  • hydromorphy
  • hydrophobic soils
  • hydrophyte
  • hydrosphere
  • hydrostatic equation
  • hydrostatic pressure
  • hydrothermal alteration
  • hyetograph
  • hygric weathering
  • hygrograph
  • hygrometer
  • hypabyssal rock
  • hyper-arid
  • hyperconcentrated flow
  • hyperspectral imagery
  • hypogene
  • hypolimnion
  • hypothesis
  • hypsithermal
  • hypsographic curve
  • hypsometric curve
  • hypsometry
  • hysteresis
  • I
  • ice
  • ice age
  • ice blink
  • ice cap
  • ice contact slope
  • ice core
  • ice cored moraine
  • ice dam
  • ice dome
  • ice fall
  • ice field
  • ice floe
  • ice flow
  • ice fog
  • ice front
  • ice jam
  • ice rind
  • ice segregation
  • ice sheet
  • ice shelf
  • ice stream
  • ice wedge
  • iceberg
  • icehouse
  • icing
  • igneous rock
  • illuviation
  • imbrication
  • impermeable
  • impervious
  • in and out channel
  • Indian Ocean zonal mode (Indian Ocean dipole)
  • incised meander
  • inconsequent stream
  • inductive
  • induration
  • infiltration
  • inflorescence
  • influent
  • infrared imagery
  • infrared thermometer/thermometry
  • infragravity wave
  • ingrown meander
  • inheritance
  • inlier
  • inselberg (German for island hill)
  • insequent stream
  • insolation
  • insolation weathering
  • instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH)
  • intact strength
  • integrity of rivers
  • intensity of rainfall
  • interannual variability
  • interbasin transfers
  • interception
  • interception capacity
  • interflow
  • interfluve
  • interglacial
  • intermittent spring
  • intermittent stream
  • interpluvial
  • interrill flow
  • interrill processes
  • interstadial
  • interstices
  • intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ)
  • intrazonal soil
  • intrenched meander
  • intrinsic permeability (or specific permeability)
  • introductions, ecological
  • intrusion
  • invasive species
  • inversion of temperature
  • inverted relief
  • involution
  • ion concentrations
  • ionic wave technique
  • ionosphere
  • IPCC
  • iridium layer
  • irrigation
  • island arc
  • island biogeography
  • islands
  • isochrones
  • isocline
  • isolation, ecological
  • isopleths
  • isostasy
  • isotope
  • J
  • jet stream
  • joint probability estimates
  • jökulhlaup
  • juvenile water
  • K
  • K- and r-selection
  • K-cycle
  • kame
  • kame terrace
  • kamenitza
  • kaolin
  • karren (singular karre)
  • karst
  • katabatic flows
  • kata-front
  • kavir
  • kegelkarst
  • Kelvin wave
  • kettle, kettle hole
  • keystone species
  • khamsin
  • kinematic wave
  • kinematics
  • kinetic energy
  • kingdoms of animals and plants
  • klippe
  • knickpoint
  • knock-and-lochan topography
  • kolk
  • koniology (coniology)
  • kopje
  • Köppen climatic classification
  • krotovina
  • krummholz
  • kumatology
  • kunkar
  • kurtosis
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • L
  • laccolith
  • lacustral
  • lacustrine
  • lag gravel
  • lag time
  • lagoon
  • lahar
  • lake
  • lake breeze
  • laminar flow
  • La Niña
  • land breeze
  • land capability
  • land systems
  • land-bridge
  • Landsat
  • landscape ecology
  • landslide
  • lapié
  • lapse rate
  • Late Glacial
  • latent heat
  • lateral accretion
  • lateral flow
  • lateral migration
  • lateral moraine
  • laterite
  • latosol
  • Laurasia
  • Laurentide Ice Sheet
  • lava
  • law of the wall
  • leachate
  • leaching
  • leaching requirement
  • leaf area index (LAI)
  • Le Chatelier principle
  • lee depression
  • lee dune
  • lee eddy
  • lee waves
  • lessivage
  • levée
  • lichenometry
  • lidar (the acronym for light detection and ranging)
  • life form
  • lightning
  • limiting angles (of slopes)
  • limiting factors
  • limnology
  • limon
  • line squall
  • lineament
  • linear dune
  • liquid limit
  • lithification
  • lithology
  • lithosol
  • lithosphere
  • litter
  • litter dam
  • Little Climatic Optimum
  • Little Ice Age (LIA)
  • littoral, littoral zone
  • load, stream
  • load structures
  • local climate
  • local winds
  • lodgement till
  • loess
  • logan stone
  • long profile, river
  • longitudinal dune
  • longshore drift
  • lopolith
  • löss
  • louderback
  • low flow analysis
  • luminescence dating
  • lunette dune
  • lynchet
  • lysimeter
  • M
  • maar
  • macroecology
  • macrofossils
  • macrometeorology
  • macrophyte
  • macropore
  • Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO)
  • maelstrom
  • magma
  • magnetic anomaly
  • magnetic declination
  • magnetic storm
  • magnetic susceptibility
  • makatea
  • mallee
  • mammilated surface
  • mangrove, mangrove forest
  • manned Earth resources satellites
  • Manning equation
  • mantle
  • mantle plume
  • maquis
  • margalitic
  • marginal channel
  • marine isotope stage (MIS)
  • marine pollution
  • marker horizon
  • Markov process
  • marl
  • mass balance
  • mass movement types
  • mass strength (of rock)
  • matorral
  • matrix flow
  • maturity
  • Maunder minimum
  • mean sea level
  • meandering
  • Medieval Warm Period
  • Mediterranean climate
  • mega dune (or draa)
  • megafan
  • megashear
  • megathermal climate
  • mekgacha
  • meltout till
  • meltwater
  • memory capacity (landform)
  • Mercalli scale
  • mere
  • meridional circulation
  • meridional overturning circulation (MOC)
  • mesa
  • mesoclimate
  • mesometeorology
  • mesophyte
  • mesoscale cellular convection
  • mesosphere
  • mesothermal climate
  • mesotrophic
  • Messinian salinity crisis
  • meta-analysis
  • metamorphism
  • metasomatism
  • meteoric water/groundwater
  • meteorological satellite
  • mesoscale
  • mesoscale convective systems
  • meteorology
  • microclimate
  • microcracks
  • micro-erosion meter
  • microfossils
  • micrometeorology
  • microphytes
  • microtopography
  • microwave remote sensing
  • midden
  • mid-ocean ridge
  • migration
  • Milankovitch hypothesis
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA)
  • mima mounds
  • minimum acceptable flow
  • mirage
  • mire
  • miombo woodland
  • misfit
  • mist
  • mistral
  • mixing corrosion
  • mixing models
  • mobile belt
  • moder
  • mogote (haystack hill)
  • Mohorovičić discontinuity
  • Mohr–Coulomb equation
  • molard
  • molasse
  • moment magnitude scale
  • momentum budget
  • monadnock
  • monoclimax
  • monocline
  • monsoon
  • monsoon forest
  • monumented sections
  • mor
  • moraine
  • morphogenetic regions
  • morphological mapping
  • morphodynamics
  • morphometry
  • morphotectonics (or tectonic geomorphology)
  • mosaic vegetation
  • mottled zone
  • moulin
  • mountain meteorology
  • mountain/valley wind
  • mountains
  • mudflats (or mud flats; also known as tidal flats)
  • mud lumps
  • mud volcano
  • mull
  • multiple working hypotheses
  • multispectral scanner
  • muskeg
  • Muskingum method
  • mutation
  • mutualism
  • mycorrhizal fungi
  • N
  • nanism (or microsomia)
  • nappe
  • natural disaster
  • natural hazard
  • natural resources
  • natural selection
  • natural vegetation
  • neap tide
  • nebkha (also nabkha)
  • neck
  • neck cut-off
  • needle ice
  • negative feedback
  • nehrung
  • neocatastrophism
  • neo-Darwinism
  • neoglacial
  • neotectonics
  • nephanalysis
  • nephoscope
  • neptunism
  • neritic
  • ness
  • net primary productivity (NPP)
  • net radiation
  • network
  • neutron probe
  • nevé
  • niche
  • nick point
  • nimbostratus
  • nimbus
  • nitrate
  • nitrification and denitrification
  • nitrogen cycle
  • nivation
  • nivometric coefficient
  • noctilucent clouds
  • nonconformity
  • nonlinear system
  • nonrenewable resource
  • normal cycle
  • normal fault
  • normal stress
  • normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)
  • North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)
  • North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)
  • notch
  • nubbins
  • nuclear waste (radwaste)
  • nudation
  • nuée ardente (glowing cloud)
  • numerical modelling
  • nunatak
  • nutrient
  • nutrient status
  • O
  • oasis
  • obliquity
  • obsequent stream
  • obsidian hydration dating (OHD)
  • obstacle dune
  • occlusion
  • occult deposition
  • ocean
  • ocean acidification
  • Ocean Drilling Programme (or Program – ODP)
  • ocean sediments
  • oceanic crust
  • oceanography
  • ogives (also known as Forbes bands)
  • oil-shale
  • okta
  • oligotrophic
  • ombrotrophic
  • onion-weathering
  • ontogeny (ontogenesis)
  • ooids
  • oolite
  • ooze
  • open channel flow
  • open system
  • Operational Land Imager
  • opisometer
  • optical remote sensing
  • order, stream
  • organic weathering
  • orocline
  • orogens
  • orogeny
  • orographic precipitation
  • osmosis
  • ostracods
  • outlet glacier
  • outlier
  • outwash
  • outwash terrace
  • overbank deposit
  • overbank flow
  • overdeepening, glacial
  • overflow channel
  • overland flow
  • overthrust
  • overtopping
  • overwashing
  • oxbow
  • oxidation
  • oxygen isotope
  • ozone
  • ozone hole
  • P
  • Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)
  • pacific-type coast
  • pack ice
  • padang
  • palaeobotany
  • palaeochannel
  • palaeoclimatology
  • palaeoecology
  • palaeoenvironment
  • palaeoenvironmental indicators
  • Palaeogene
  • palaeogeography
  • palaeohydrology
  • palaeomagnetism
  • palaeosol
  • palaeovelocity
  • pali ridge
  • Palmer drought severity index (PDSI)
  • palsa
  • paludal sediments
  • paludification
  • palynology
  • pan
  • panarchy
  • panbiogeography
  • panfan
  • Pangaea
  • panplain
  • pantanal
  • parabolic dunes
  • paraglacial
  • parallel retreat
  • parameterization
  • páramo
  • parasite
  • parna
  • partial area model
  • partial duration series
  • particle form
  • particle size
  • passive margin
  • pastoralism
  • paternoster lake
  • patterned ground
  • pavement
  • peak discharge
  • peat
  • pedalfer
  • pediment
  • pedocal
  • pedogenesis
  • pedology
  • pedon
  • pedosphere
  • peds
  • pelagic
  • Penck and Brückner model
  • peneplain
  • penetrometer
  • peninsula
  • Penman formula
  • perched block
  • perched groundwater
  • percolation
  • percolation gauge
  • percoline
  • perennial stream
  • pericline
  • perigee
  • periglacial
  • perihelion
  • permafrost
  • permeability
  • permeameter
  • persistence
  • perturbation
  • perviousness
  • pesticides
  • pF
  • p-form
  • pH
  • phacolith
  • phenology
  • phoresy
  • phosphate rock
  • photic zone
  • photochemical smog
  • photogrammetry
  • photosynthesis
  • photosynthetic pathway
  • phreatic
  • phreatic divide
  • phreatophytes
  • phylogenesis
  • physical geography
  • physical meteorology
  • physiography
  • phytogeography
  • phytogeomorphology
  • phytokarst
  • phytosociology
  • piedmont
  • piedmont glacier
  • piezometer
  • piezometric surface
  • pingo
  • piosphere (or piosphere effect)
  • pipes
  • pipkrakes
  • pisoliths
  • pitometer (or Pitot tube)
  • pixel
  • planation surface
  • plane bed
  • planimeter
  • plankton
  • plastic limit
  • plasticity
  • plate tectonics
  • plateau
  • plateau basalt
  • playa
  • Playfair's law
  • Pleistocene
  • Plinian eruption
  • plots, erosion/run-off
  • plucking
  • plume
  • pluton
  • plutonic
  • plutonism
  • pluvial
  • pluviometric coefficient
  • pneumatolysis
  • podzol
  • point bar deposits
  • polar front
  • polar wander
  • polder
  • polje
  • pollen analysis
  • pollution
  • polyclimax
  • polygonal karst
  • polynya
  • polypedon
  • polytopy
  • pool and riffle
  • population dynamics
  • pore ice
  • pore water pressure
  • porosity
  • positive feedback
  • postglacial
  • potamology
  • potassium argon (K/Ar) dating
  • potential energy
  • potential evaporation
  • potential evapotranspiration
  • potential sand transport
  • potential temperature (θ)
  • pothole
  • prairie
  • Pre-Boreal
  • precession of the equinoxes
  • precipitation
  • predation
  • predator–prey relationships
  • pressure, air
  • pressure melting point
  • pressure release
  • prevailing wind
  • primarrumpf
  • probable maximum precipitation
  • process–response system
  • productivity
  • profile
  • proglacial
  • proglacial lake
  • progradation
  • protalus rampart
  • proximal trough
  • proxy
  • pseudokarst
  • pumice
  • puna
  • punctuated aggradational cycles
  • push moraine
  • pyroclastic
  • Q
  • quartz
  • quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO)
  • quasi-equilibrium
  • Quaternary
  • quick clay
  • quickflow
  • quicksand
  • R
  • r- and K-selection
  • radar
  • radiation
  • radiative forcing
  • radiocarbon dating
  • radiocarbon years
  • radioisotope
  • radiolaria
  • radiosonde
  • radon gas
  • rain
  • rain day
  • rain factor
  • rain gauge
  • rain shadow
  • rain splash
  • rainbeat crust
  • rainbow
  • raindrop impact erosion
  • rainfall
  • rainfall intensity
  • rainfall run-off
  • rainfall simulator
  • raised beach
  • raised channel
  • raised mire
  • Ramsar Convention
  • randkluft
  • random-walk networks
  • ranker
  • rapids
  • raster
  • rated section
  • rating curve
  • rational formula
  • Raunkiaer's life forms
  • reach
  • reaction time
  • recession limb of hydrograph, recession curve
  • recharge
  • recovery time
  • recumbent fold
  • recurrence interval
  • red beds
  • redox cycle
  • redox potential
  • reduced complexity models
  • reef
  • reflective beach
  • refraction, wave
  • refugia
  • reg
  • regelation
  • regeneration complex
  • regime
  • regime theory
  • regional climate model (RCM – or a limited area model)
  • regolith
  • regosol
  • regur
  • rejuvenation
  • relative age
  • relative dating
  • relative humidity
  • relaxation time
  • relic/relict
  • remanié
  • remote sensing
  • rendzina
  • renewable resources
  • representative and experimental basins
  • reptation
  • resequent stream
  • reservoir rocks
  • reservoir, storage effects of
  • residence time
  • residual strength (or residual shear strength)
  • resilience
  • resistance
  • respiration
  • resultant wind
  • resurgence
  • retention curve
  • retention forces
  • retrogradation
  • return period
  • reversed fault
  • reversed polarity
  • reversing dune
  • Reynolds number (Re)
  • rheidity
  • rheology
  • rheotrophic
  • rhexistasy
  • rhizome
  • rhizosphere
  • rhodoliths
  • rhourd
  • ria
  • ribbed moraine
  • Richardson number
  • Richter denudation slope
  • Richter scale
  • ridge and runnel topography
  • riedel shears
  • riegel
  • riffle
  • rift valley
  • rifting
  • rill
  • rime ice
  • ring complex
  • ring-dyke
  • rip current
  • riparian
  • ripple
  • rising limb
  • river basin planning (integrated basin planning)
  • river classification
  • river discharge
  • river metamorphosis
  • river regime
  • river restoration
  • river terrace
  • roche moutonnée
  • rock coatings
  • rock drumlin
  • rock flour
  • rock glacier
  • rock mass strength
  • rock quality indices
  • rock step
  • rock varnish
  • roddon
  • rogen moraine
  • rollability
  • Rossby waves
  • rotational failure
  • rotor streaming
  • roughness
  • roughness length
  • roundness
  • routing, flood
  • r-selection
  • ruderal vegetation
  • run-off
  • run-off plot
  • ruware
  • S
  • sabkha (also sabkhah)
  • Sahel
  • salars
  • salcrete
  • salinization
  • salt marsh
  • salt tectonics
  • salt weathering
  • saltation
  • salt-dome
  • salt-flat
  • saltwater intrusion
  • sand
  • sand banks
  • sand lens
  • sand ramp
  • sand ridge
  • sand rivers
  • sand rose
  • sand sea
  • sand sheet
  • sand trap
  • sand volcano
  • sand wedge
  • sandbed channels
  • sandstone
  • sandstorm
  • sandur (pl. sandar; Icelandic)
  • sapping
  • saprolite
  • sapropel
  • sarsen
  • sastrugi
  • satellite meteorology
  • saturated wedge and zone
  • saturation coefficient (or degree of saturation S)
  • saturation deficit
  • saturation overland flow
  • savanna (savannah)
  • scabland
  • scald
  • scar
  • Schmidt hammer
  • sciophyte
  • sclerophyllous
  • scoria
  • scour and fill
  • scree
  • S-curve
  • sea cliffs
  • sea ice
  • sea/land breeze
  • sea level
  • sea mount
  • sea surface temperature (SST)
  • secondary depression
  • secondary flows
  • sediment, fluvial
  • sediment budget
  • sediment delivery ratio (SDR)
  • sediment fabric
  • sediment routing
  • sediment yield
  • sedimentary rock
  • seeding of clouds
  • segregated ice
  • seiche
  • seif
  • seismicity
  • self-mulching
  • self-organized criticality (SOC)
  • semi-arid
  • semi-desert
  • sensible heat
  • sensible temperature
  • sensitivity
  • serac
  • seral community
  • serclimax
  • sere
  • serir
  • seston
  • shakehole
  • shale
  • shape
  • shear box
  • shear strength
  • shear stresses
  • sheet erosion
  • sheet flow
  • sheeting
  • shelf
  • shell middens
  • shell pavements
  • shield
  • shield volcano
  • Shields parameter
  • shoal
  • shore
  • shore platforms
  • shrink–swell soils
  • sial
  • sichelwannen
  • sideways-looking airborne radar (SLAR)
  • sieve analysis
  • sieve deposits
  • silcrete
  • sill
  • silt
  • siltation
  • sima
  • simulation
  • singing sands
  • sinkhole
  • sinter
  • sinuosity
  • siphon
  • skerry
  • skewness
  • slab failure
  • slack
  • slackwater deposit
  • slaking
  • slickenside
  • slide
  • slip face
  • slip-off slope
  • slope
  • slope replacement
  • slope wind
  • smog
  • snout, glacial
  • snow
  • snow line
  • snowball Earth
  • snowblitz theory
  • snowmelt
  • soil
  • soil classification
  • soil crust
  • soil erosion
  • soil moisture deficit
  • soil profile
  • soil structure
  • soil texture
  • solar constant
  • solfatara
  • solifluction
  • solonchak
  • solonetz
  • solstice
  • solum
  • solutes
  • solution, limestone
  • sorptivity S
  • sorting
  • source area
  • source bordering dune
  • Southern Oscillation
  • speciation
  • species–area curve
  • specific conductance
  • specific retention
  • specific yield
  • spectral analysis
  • speleology
  • speleothem
  • sphagnum
  • sphenochasm and sphenopiezm
  • sphericity
  • spheroidal weathering
  • spits
  • spring line
  • spring mounds
  • springs
  • squall line
  • stability
  • stability analysis
  • stable equilibrium
  • stable isotope geochemistry
  • stack
  • stadial
  • staff gauge
  • stage
  • stagnant ice topography
  • stalagmite, stalactite
  • star dune
  • steady flow
  • steady state
  • steam fog
  • stem flow
  • step-pool systems
  • steppes
  • stick slip
  • stilling well
  • stillstand
  • stochastic models
  • stochastic process
  • stock
  • stock resources
  • Stokes' surface
  • stone line
  • stone pavement
  • storage
  • storm beach
  • storm run-off
  • storm surges
  • stoss
  • strain
  • strain rate
  • strandflat
  • strandline
  • stratigraphy
  • stratocumulus
  • stratosphere
  • stratovolcano
  • stream capture
  • stream ordering
  • stream power
  • streamline
  • strength
  • strength equilibrium slopes
  • stress
  • striated soil
  • striation
  • Strickler equation
  • strike
  • string bog
  • stromatolite (stromatolith)
  • Strouhal number
  • sturzstrom
  • subaerial
  • suballuvial bench
  • Sub-Atlantic
  • Sub-Boreal
  • subclimax
  • subduction zones
  • subglacial
  • subglacial bedforms
  • subhumid
  • sublimation
  • sublittoral
  • submarine canyon
  • subsequent stream
  • subsere
  • subsidence
  • succession
  • suction
  • Suess effect
  • suffosion
  • sulphation
  • summit plane
  • sunspots
  • supercontinent
  • supercooling
  • superimposed drainage
  • superimposed ice
  • superposition, law of
  • supersaturation
  • supervised classification
  • supraglacial
  • surf
  • surface detention
  • surface run-off
  • surface storage
  • surface tension
  • surge
  • surging glacier
  • susceptible drylands
  • suspended load
  • sustainability
  • sustained yield
  • Sverdrup
  • swale
  • swallet
  • swallow hole (or swallet)
  • swamp
  • sympatry
  • syncline
  • synforms
  • synoptic climatology
  • synoptic meteorology
  • systems
  • syzygy
  • T
  • tafoni
  • taiga
  • takyr
  • talik
  • talsand (‘valley sand’)
  • talus
  • tank
  • tarn
  • taxonomy
  • tear fault
  • tectonics
  • tektites
  • teleconnections
  • temperate ice
  • temperature
  • temperature–humidity index
  • temperature inversion
  • tensiometer
  • tepee
  • tephigram
  • tephra
  • tephrochronology
  • terlough
  • terminal grades
  • terminal moraine
  • terminal velocity
  • terminations
  • termites
  • terra rossa
  • terracette
  • terrane
  • terrestrial magnetism
  • Tertiary
  • Tethys Sea
  • thalassostatic
  • thalweg
  • thaw lake
  • thematic map
  • Thematic Mapper (TM)
  • thermal depression
  • thermal efficiency
  • thermal equator
  • thermal infrared linescanner
  • Thermal Infrared Sensor
  • thermal pollution
  • thermal wind vt
  • thermistor
  • thermoclasty
  • thermocline
  • thermocouple
  • thermodynamic diagram
  • thermodynamic equation
  • thermograph
  • thermohaline circulation (THC)
  • thermokarst
  • thermoluminescence
  • thermopile
  • thickness
  • Thiessen polygon
  • tholoid
  • threshold, geomorphological
  • threshold slopes
  • throughfall
  • throughflow (or subsurface flow)
  • throw of a fault
  • thrust
  • thufur
  • thunderstorm
  • tidal currents
  • tidal prism
  • tidal range
  • tides
  • till
  • till fabric analysis
  • tillite
  • time-transgressive
  • timebound
  • tolerance
  • tombolo
  • topographic dune
  • toposequence
  • toppling failure
  • topset beds
  • tor
  • toreva blocks
  • tornado
  • torrent
  • tower karst
  • tracers
  • tractive force
  • trade winds
  • transfer function
  • transgression
  • translational slide
  • transmission loss
  • transpiration
  • transport limited
  • transverse dune
  • transverse rib
  • treeline
  • triaxial apparatus
  • Trombe's curves
  • trophic levels
  • tropical cyclones
  • tropical forest
  • tropical rain forest
  • tropopause
  • troposphere
  • trottoir
  • trough
  • truncated spur
  • tsunami
  • tufa
  • tuff
  • tundra
  • tunnel valleys
  • tunnelling, tunnel gully erosion
  • turbidite
  • turbidity current
  • turbulence
  • turbulent flow
  • typhoon
  • U
  • ubac
  • unconformity
  • underfit stream
  • underplating
  • uniclinal
  • uniclinal shifting
  • uniform steady flow
  • Uniformitarianism
  • unit hydrograph
  • unit response graph
  • unloading
  • unstable channels
  • unstable equilibrium
  • unsteady flow
  • upper level westerlies
  • upwelling
  • uranium series dating
  • urban ecology
  • urban hydrology
  • urban meteorology
  • urstromtäler
  • uvala
  • V
  • vadose
  • valley bulges (valley-bottom bulges)
  • valley meanders
  • valley wind
  • valloni
  • Van't Hoff's rule
  • vapour pressure
  • varves
  • vasques
  • vauclusian spring
  • vector
  • veering
  • velocity–area method
  • velocity profile and measurement
  • ventifact
  • vertical motion (in the atmosphere)
  • vertical stability/instability
  • vertisol
  • vesicular
  • vicariance biogeography
  • vigil network
  • virgation
  • viscosity
  • vlei
  • void ratio
  • volcano
  • Von Karman constant
  • vorticity
  • vugh
  • vulcanism
  • W
  • wadi
  • Walker circulation
  • Wallace's line
  • Wallace's realms
  • Walther's law
  • waning slopes
  • warm front
  • warm ice
  • warm occlusion
  • warm sector
  • warping
  • washboard moraine
  • water balance
  • water mass
  • water table
  • water transfer
  • waterfall
  • watershed
  • waterspout
  • wave-cut platform
  • wavelet transform
  • waves
  • waxing slopes
  • weather
  • weather forecasting
  • weather modification
  • weather type
  • weathering
  • weathering front
  • weathering index
  • weathering potential index
  • weathering profile
  • weathering rinds
  • weathering-limited slopes
  • wedge failure
  • weir
  • wells
  • westerlies
  • wet-bulb temperature
  • wetland
  • wetted perimeter
  • wetting front
  • whirlwind
  • width/depth ratio
  • wilderness
  • Wilson cycle
  • wind
  • wind chill
  • wind rose
  • wind shadow
  • wind shear
  • World Heritage Site
  • X
  • X-ray diffraction
  • xerophyte
  • Y
  • yardangs
  • yazoo
  • Younger Dryas
  • Z
  • zeuge
  • zibar
  • zonal circulation
  • zonal soil
  • zonality
  • zonation
  • zoogeography
  • zoogeomorphology