Drugs in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law

Editors: Marion, Nancy E. and Oliver, Willard M.
Publication Year: 2014
Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Single-User Purchase Price: $294.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $441.00
ISBN: 978-1-61-069595-4
Category: Social Sciences - Contemporary Issues & Controversies
Image Count: 93
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

Covering illegal drugs ranging from marijuana and LSD to cocaine and crystal meth, this authoritative reference work examines patterns of drug use in American history, as well as drug control and interdiction efforts from the nineteenth century to the present.This encyclopedia provides a multidisciplinary perspective on the various aspects of the American drug problem, including the drugs themselves, the actions taken in attempts to curb or stop the drug trade, the efforts at intervention and treatment of those individuals affected by drug use, and the cultural and economic effects of drug use in the United States.

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Table of Contents

  • Guide to Related Topics
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Chronology: Significant Events in Drug and Alcohol Use through History
  • VOLUME 1
  • A
  • Addiction
  • Addiction Liability
  • Addiction Medications
  • Addictive Personality
  • Adolescent Tobacco Use
  • Advisory Commission on Narcotic and Drug Abuse
  • African Americans and Drug Use
  • Al-Anon
  • Alateen
  • Alcohol Bootlegging and Smuggling
  • Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Reorganization Act (ADAMHA) (1992)
  • Alcohol Mutual Aid Societies
  • Alcohol to Subdue Victims
  • Alcohol Use
  • Alcohol-Facilitated Sexual Assault
  • Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
  • Alcoholism
  • Alpert, Richard
  • Alternative Addiction Treatment
  • American Association for the Study and Cure of Inebriety (AASCI)
  • American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
  • American Temperance Society (ATS)
  • Amphetamines
  • Analgesics
  • Andean Trade Preference Act (1991)
  • Anslinger, Harry J.
  • Antidepressants
  • Anti–Drug Abuse Acts
  • Anti-Saloon League (ASL)
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Armstrong, Lance
  • Asset Forfeiture
  • Association Against the Prohibition Amendment (AAPA)
  • Authors and Drug Use
  • Aviation Drug-Trafficking Control Act (1984)
  • B
  • Bad Boys
  • Barbiturates
  • Barnes, Nicky
  • Barry, Marion S.
  • Bath Salts and Synthetic Cannabis (“K2” or “Spice”)
  • Beatniks
  • Behavioral Addictions
  • Belushi, John
  • Bennett, William
  • Betty Ford Center
  • Bias, Len
  • Binge Drinking
  • Biological and Psychological Reasons for Substance Abuse
  • Black Tar Heroin
  • Blanco, Griselda
  • Blood-Alcohol Content (BAC)
  • Blow
  • Boggs Act (1951)
  • Boylan Act (1914)
  • Brown, Bobby
  • Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF)
  • Bureau of Drug Abuse Control
  • Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
  • Bush, George H. W.
  • Bush, George W.
  • C
  • Cabinet Committee on International Narcotics Control
  • Caffeine
  • Cali Drug Cartel
  • Califano, Joseph, Jr.
  • Camarena Salazar, Enrique
  • Campaign against Marijuana Planting (CAMP)
  • Cannabis
  • Carter, Jimmy
  • Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)
  • Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), United States
  • Child Sexual Abuse and Substance Abuse
  • Children of Alcoholics
  • China and the Chinese and Drugs
  • Cigarettes
  • Cigars
  • Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. et al.
  • Clinton, Bill
  • Cobain, Kurt
  • Coca
  • Coca-Cola
  • Cocaine and Crack
  • Cocaine Anonymous (CA)
  • Cocaine Cowboys
  • Codeine
  • Codependency
  • Colombian Cartels
  • Combat Methamphetamine Act (2005)
  • Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse
  • Committee on Drug Addiction (1928–1938)
  • Committee on Drug Addictions (1921–1928)
  • Common Sense for Drug Policy
  • Compassionate Use Act (1996)
  • Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act (1970)
  • Comprehensive Methamphetamine Control Act (1996)
  • Compulsions and Impulses
  • Conant v. Walters
  • Controlled Substances Act (CSA) (1970)
  • Council for Tobacco Research
  • The Counterculture and Drugs
  • Crack Epidemic
  • Crime Control Act (1990)
  • Crime Victims and Drugs
  • Crop Eradication
  • Cross-Addiction and Cross-Tolerance
  • D
  • Dadeland Massacre (Miami, Florida) (1979)
  • Dai, Bingham
  • Date Rape Drugs
  • Decriminalization
  • Demand Reduction
  • Dependence
  • Depressants
  • Designer Drugs
  • Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
  • Disease Model of Addiction
  • Dole, Vincent
  • Domestic Abuse and Alcohol
  • Domestic Abuse and Drugs
  • Drug Abuse
  • Drug Abuse and Treatment Act (1972)
  • Drug Abuse Control Amendments (1965)
  • Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE)
  • Drug Abuse Warning Network
  • Drug Addiction and Public Policy
  • Drug Cartels
  • Drug Classes
  • Drug Courts
  • Drug Czar
  • Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
  • Drug Interdiction and International Cooperation Act (1986)
  • Drug Intervention Programs
  • Drug Kingpin Death Penalty Act (1988, 1994)
  • Drug Nomenclature
  • Drug Paraphernalia
  • Drug Policy Alliance Network
  • Drug Possession
  • Drug Purity
  • Drug Reform Act (1986)
  • Drug Screening and Testing
  • Drug Sentencing
  • Drug Smuggling
  • Drug Tolerance
  • Drug Trade
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime
  • Drug Trafficking Networks
  • Drug Typologies
  • Drug Use Forecasting
  • Drug Watch International
  • Drug-Facilitated Rape
  • Drug-Free America Act (1986)
  • Drug-Free America Foundation
  • Drug-Free Federal Workplace
  • Drug-Free School Zones
  • Drug-Free Schools and Community Act (1988–1989)
  • Drugged Driving
  • Drug-Related Asset Seizures
  • VOLUME 2
  • E
  • E-Cigarettes
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)
  • Eighteenth Amendment
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D.
  • Elders, Joycelyn
  • Electronic Dance Music (EDM/House Music)
  • Employment Division, Department of Human Resources of Oregon v. Smith
  • Energy Drinks
  • Engle v. R.J. Reynolds
  • Entertainers and Drug Use
  • Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine
  • Escobar, Pablo
  • European Committee to Combat Drugs
  • Extradition
  • F
  • Fair Sentencing Act (2010)
  • Families Against Mandatory Minimums (FAMM)
  • Farley, Chris
  • Fast and Furious
  • Federal Alcohol Administration Act (1935)
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
  • Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN)
  • Female Alcohol Use
  • Female Tobacco Use
  • Ferguson v. City of Charleston
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
  • Fisher, Guy
  • Flashbacks
  • Florida v. Jardines
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938)
  • Ford, Betty
  • Ford, Gerald R.
  • Four Loko
  • French Connection
  • Freud, Sigmund
  • G
  • Gateway Drugs
  • Gateway Hypothesis
  • Ginsberg, Allen
  • Global Commission on Drug Policy (2011)
  • Golden Crescent
  • Golden Triangle
  • Grateful Dead
  • Green Rush
  • Guadalajara Cartel
  • Guillot-Lara, Jaime
  • Gulf Cartel
  • Gutka
  • H
  • Hague Convention
  • Haight-Ashbury
  • Hallucinogens
  • Hangovers
  • Hard Drugs vs. Soft Drugs
  • Harm Reduction Programs
  • Harrison, Francis
  • Harrison Narcotics Act (1914)
  • Hashish (Hash)
  • Hazelden Foundation
  • Hemp
  • Hendrix, Jimi
  • Heroin
  • High-Intensity Drug-Trafficking Areas (HIDTAs)
  • Hip-Hop and Drugs
  • Hippies
  • HIV/AIDS and Drug Use
  • Hoffman, Philip Seymour
  • Hofmann, Albert
  • Hookah
  • Hoover, J. Edgar
  • I
  • Ibogaine
  • Inhalants
  • International Narcotics Control Act (1989)
  • International Narcotics Research Conference (INRC)
  • Intervention
  • Intoxication
  • Investigational New Drug Program
  • J
  • Jackson, Michael
  • Jazz Culture
  • Jellinek, E. Morton
  • Johnson, Lyndon Baines
  • Jones, Marion
  • Joplin, Janis
  • Juárez Cartel
  • Jung, George
  • K
  • Kennedy, John F.
  • Ketamine
  • Khat
  • Koop, C. Everett
  • L
  • The La Guardia Report
  • Labeling and the Criminalization Process
  • Latinos and Drug Use
  • Leary, Timothy
  • Legalization
  • Legalized Marijuana
  • Leonhart, Michele M.
  • LifeRing
  • Lincoln, Abraham
  • Linder v. United States
  • Lindesmith, Alfred R.
  • Long-Term Potentiation
  • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide)
  • Lucas, Frank
  • M
  • Mandatory Treatment
  • Marihuana Tax Act (1937)
  • Marijuana
  • Marijuana Businesses
  • Master Settlement Agreement (MSA)
  • McCaffrey, Barry R.
  • McCoy, Bill
  • Medellín Cartel
  • Medical Marijuana
  • Meese, Edwin
  • Mescaline
  • Meth Labs
  • Methadone
  • Methadone Treatment Programs
  • Methamphetamine
  • Mexican Drug Trade
  • Military and Drug Use
  • Minnesota Model
  • Minorities and Drug Use
  • Moncrieffe v. Holder
  • Monitoring the Future Survey
  • Monroe, Marilyn
  • Morality Policy
  • Morphine
  • Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD)
  • Mullen, Francis
  • N
  • Nadelmann, Ethan
  • Naltrexone
  • Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (1966)
  • Narcotic Clinics
  • Narcotic Control Act (1956)
  • Narcotic Drugs Import and Export Act (1922)
  • Narcotics
  • Narcotics Anonymous (NA)
  • Nation, Carrie
  • National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors
  • National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (U.S.)
  • National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD)
  • National Drug Control Strategy
  • National Drug Policy Board
  • National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
  • National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
  • National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
  • National Minimum Drinking Age Act (1984)
  • National Narcotics Border Interdiction System (NNBIS)
  • National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML)
  • National Research Council Report on Drug Enforcement Activities
  • National Treasury Employees Union v. Von Raab
  • National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign
  • Native Americans and Substance Abuse
  • Needle Exchange Programs
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Nicotine
  • Nixon, Richard M.
  • Noriega, Manuel Antonio
  • Nutt, Levi G.
  • Nyswander, Marie
  • O
  • Oakland Cannabis Buyers’ Cooperative
  • Obama, Barack
  • Office for Drug Abuse Law Enforcement
  • Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)
  • Opiates
  • Opium
  • Opium Control Act (1942)
  • Opium Dens
  • Opium Trade
  • Opium Wars
  • Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Task Force Program
  • Over-the-Counter Drugs
  • Oxycodone/OxyContin
  • P
  • Parents Resource Institute for Drug Education (PRIDE) Surveys
  • Partnership for the Drug-Free America
  • Patent Medicines
  • Peyote
  • Pharmacology
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)
  • Phoenix House
  • Pizza Connection
  • Popular Culture
  • Porter, Stephen G.
  • Porter Narcotic Farm Act (1929)
  • Predatory Drugs
  • Prescription Drugs
  • President's Advisory Commission on Narcotic and Drug Abuse (1963)
  • President's Drug Advisory Council (George H. W. Bush)
  • Presley, Elvis
  • Prevention
  • Prison Inmates and Drug Use
  • Prohibition
  • Prohibition Party
  • Prohibition Unit
  • Prometa
  • Psilocybin and Psilocin (Mushrooms)
  • Psychedelic Drugs
  • Psychotherapeutic Drugs
  • Public Health Service Narcotic Hospitals
  • Public Opinion and Drug Use
  • Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • VOLUME 3
  • Q
  • Quaalude
  • R
  • Raich v. Ashcroft
  • Randall, Robert
  • Raytheon v. Hernandez
  • Reagan, Ronald, and Nancy Reagan
  • Recovery
  • Recovery Circles
  • Recreational Use of Drugs
  • Reefer Madness
  • Ribbon Reform Clubs
  • Risk Factors for Drug Use
  • Robinson v. California
  • Rockefeller Drug Laws
  • Rodriguez, Alex
  • Ruffin, David
  • Rural Drug Use
  • Rush, Benjamin
  • S
  • Scarface
  • Schedule of Controlled Substances (I–V)
  • Secondhand Smoke
  • Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics
  • Seniors and Drug Use
  • Sentencing Disparities
  • Sertürner, Friedrich
  • Shisha
  • Shulgin, Alexander “Sasha,”
  • Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives’ Association
  • Smith, Robert Holbrook (“Dr. Bob”)
  • Smokers’ Rights
  • Smoking Opium Exclusion Act (1909)
  • Sonora Cartel
  • Soros, George
  • Special Action Office of Drug Abuse Prevention
  • Special Narcotic Committee
  • State Drug and Alcohol Control Laws
  • STDs and Drug Use
  • Steroids, Anabolic
  • Steroids and Sports
  • Steroids in Baseball
  • Stimulants
  • Students Against Destructive Decisions (SADD)
  • Studio 54
  • Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
  • Substance Abuse Services Amendments of 1986
  • Substance Addiction
  • Supply-Side Strategy
  • Surgeon General's Reports on Tobacco
  • Synanon
  • Synthetic Drugs
  • Syrup
  • T
  • Television and Drugs
  • Temperance Movement
  • Terrorism and Illicit Drugs
  • Terry, Luther
  • “Texas Heroin Massacre” and Drug Use in the 1990s
  • THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)
  • Theories of Drug Addiction
  • Tijuana Cartel
  • Tobacco
  • Tobacco Institute
  • Tranquilizers
  • Treatment
  • Truman, Harry S.
  • Twelve-Step Programs
  • U
  • Undocumented Immigrants and Drug Use
  • United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs
  • United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988)
  • United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971)
  • United Nations International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking (1987)
  • United Nations International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking
  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
  • United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961)
  • United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UN-CTS)
  • United States Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD)
  • United States Coast Guard
  • United States Customs and Border Protection
  • United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
  • United States International Drug Control Efforts
  • United States National Narcotics Control Act (1956)
  • United States v. Doremus and Webb et al. v. United States
  • United States v. Flores-Montano (2004)
  • United States v. Jin Fuey Moy (1916)
  • Urinalysis
  • V
  • Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994)
  • Vollmer, August
  • Volstead, Andrew
  • Volstead Act (Eighteenth Amendment)
  • W
  • War on Drugs
  • Webb et al. v. United States
  • Webb-Kenyon Act (1913)
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • White, Walter
  • White House Conference for a Drug-Free America
  • White House Conference on Narcotics and Drug Abuse
  • Wilson, William G. (“Bill W.”)
  • Withdrawal from Drug Use
  • Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
  • Women, Pregnancy, and Drugs
  • Women, Victimization, and Substance Abuse
  • Women's Organization for National Prohibition Reform (WONPR)
  • World Federation Against Drugs
  • World Narcotics Conference
  • Wright, Hamilton
  • Y
  • Youths and Illicit Drug Use in the United States
  • Z
  • Zero Tolerance Policy Program (U.S.)
  • Appendix: Documents Related to Drug Use in America
  • 1. The First Drug Law in America, 1875
  • 2. Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
  • 3. Harrison Narcotics Act (1915)
  • 4. Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920–1933)
  • 5. Porter Narcotic Farm Act (1929)
  • 6. Marihuana Tax Act (1937)
  • 7. Richard Nixon's Special Message to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control (1971)
  • 8. “Just Say No” Speech by Ronald and Nancy Reagan (1986)
  • 9. Executive Order 12564: Drug-Free Federal Workplace (1986) (Ronald Reagan)
  • 10. Anti–Drug Abuse Act (1986)
  • 11. Anti–Drug Abuse Act (1988)
  • 12. George Bush: Address to Nation on the National Drug Control Strategy (1989)
  • 13. Executive Order 12880: National Drug Control Program (1993) (Bill Clinton)
  • 14. Memorandum for Selected United States Attorneys (Medical Marijuana) (2009)
  • 15. Cole Memorandum (Marijuana Dispensary Raids) (2011)
  • Recommended Resources
  • About the Editors and Contributors