Encyclopedia of American Recessions and Depressions

Editor: Leab, Daniel J.
Publication Year: 2014
Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Single-User Purchase Price: $189.00
Unlimited-User Purchase Price: $283.50
ISBN: 978-1-59-884945-5
Category: Business, Finance & Economics - Economics
Image Count: 106
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

This thought-provoking encyclopedia presents an overview of notable economic events, their causes and cures, and their social and political impact on the nation."Encyclopedia of American Recessions and Depressions" offers a comprehensive survey on the topic from the years 1783 to 1789 under the Articles of Confederation through the panics of the 19th century and the Great Depression of the 1930s to the Great Recession of 2008.

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Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • • Volume 1 •
  • 1 The Critical Period, 1783–1789 —Sean P. Harvey
  • The Critical Period, 1783–1789: Short Entries —Katherine Fleming
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Bank of North America
  • Beard, Charles (1874–1948)
  • China Trade
  • Fitch, John (1743–1798)
  • Flatboats
  • Morris, Robert (1734–1806)
  • Northwest Ordinance (1787)
  • Shays’ Rebellion (1786–1787)
  • Tobacco Industry
  • 2 The Embargo Era, 1807–1809 —James R. Sofka
  • The Embargo Era, 1807–1809: Short Entries —Katherine Fleming
  • American Fur Company and the Fur Trade
  • Burr Conspiracy Cases of 1807
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Affair (1807)
  • Embargo Act (1807)
  • First Bank of the United States
  • Fulton, Robert (1765–1815)
  • Gallatin, Albert (1761–1849)
  • Girard, Stephen (1750–1831)
  • Non-Intercourse Act (1809)
  • Orders in Council/Napoleonic Decrees
  • Whitney, Eli (1765–1825)
  • 3 Panic of 1819 —Brian Bixby
  • Panic of 1819: Short Entries —Brian Bixby
  • American System
  • Astor, John Jacob (1763–1848)
  • Boston Manufacturing Company
  • Carey, Mathew (1760–1839)
  • Erie Canal
  • Internal Improvements
  • Jones, William (1760–1831)
  • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • National Road
  • Second Bank of the United States
  • 4 Panic of 1837 —Brian Bixby
  • Panic of 1837: Short Entries —Brian Bixby
  • Brook Farm
  • Caroline Affair (1837)
  • Deere, John (1804–1886)
  • Gag Rule
  • Independent Treasury
  • Loco-focos
  • Lovejoy, Elijah Parish (1802–1837)
  • Lowell Mills
  • Specie Circular (1836)
  • Texas
  • 5 Panic of 1857 —Michael Shapiro
  • Panic of 1857: Short Entries
  • Clipper Ships —Andrew T. Presti
  • De Bow's Review —Andrew T. Presti
  • Dred Scott Decision (Dred Scott v. Sandford) (1857) —Andrew T. Presti
  • “Free Soil” —A. E. L. Martin
  • Helper, Hinton Rowan (1829–1909) —Andrew T. Presti
  • Kelly, William (1811–1888) —Andrew T. Presti
  • Lynn Shoe Workers Strike (1860) —Andrew T. Presti
  • Oil Creek, Pennsylvania —Andrew T. Presti
  • Walker, William (1824–1860) —Andrew T. Presti
  • 6 Panic of 1873 —Alan Lucibello
  • Panic of 1873: Short Entries —Brian Bixby
  • Centennial Exposition (1876)
  • Colfax, Schuyler (1823–1885)
  • Compromise of 1877
  • Cooke, Jay (1821–1905)
  • “Crime of ’73”
  • Great Strike of 1877
  • Molly Maguires
  • Rockefeller, John D. (1839–1937)
  • Slaughterhouse Cases (1873)
  • Whiskey Ring
  • 7 Depression of the 1890s —Gerald W. McFarland
  • Depression of the 1890s: Short Entries —Brian Bixby
  • Coxey's Army (1894)
  • “Cross of Gold” Speech (1896)
  • Frick, Henry Clay (1849–1919)
  • Homestead Strike (1892)
  • In Re Debs (1895)
  • Lloyd, Henry Demarest (1847–1903)
  • Olney, Richard (1835–1917)
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Populism
  • Social Darwinism
  • 8 Panic of 1907 —Brigitte Koenig
  • Panic of 1907: Short Entries —Jason Resnikoff
  • Aldrich-Vreeland Act (1908)
  • Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907)
  • Danbury Hatters Case (1908)
  • “Gentlemen's Agreement” (1907–1908)
  • Great White Fleet (1907–1909)
  • Haywood, William Dudley “Big Bill” (1869–1928)
  • Morgan, J. P. (1837–1913)
  • Muller v. Oregon (1908)
  • Roosevelt, Theodore (1858–1919)
  • Standard Oil Company
  • 9 Economic Downturn of 1913–1914 —Jason Roberts
  • Economic Downturn of 1913–1914: Short Entries
  • Bull Moose (Progressive) Party —Eric Gade
  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) —Eric Gade
  • Federal Reserve Act (Glass-Owen Act) (1913) —Eric Gade
  • Ford, Henry (1863–1947) —Eric Gade
  • Glass, Carter (1858–1946) —Eric Gade
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) —Jason Resnikoff
  • Pujo Committee (1912–1913) —Eric Gade
  • 16th Amendment (1913) —Eric Gade
  • Taft, William Howard (1857–1930) —Eric Gade
  • Woolworth, Frank W. (1852–1919) —Eric Gade
  • 10 Recession of 1920–1921 —Robert H. Ferrell
  • Recession of 1920–1921: Short Entries
  • The Dearborn Independent —Jason Resnikoff
  • Garvey, Marcus (1887–1940) —Jason Resnikoff
  • Ledoux, Urbain (1874–1941) —Daniel Leab
  • McNary, Charles L. (1874–1944) —Jason Resnikoff
  • Palmer, A. Mitchell (1872–1936) —Jason Resnikoff
  • President's Unemployment Conference (1921) —A. E. L. Martin
  • Red Scare (1919–1920) —Andrew T. Presti
  • Sacco, Nicola (1891–1927) and Vanzetti, Bartolomeo (1888–1927) —A. E. L. Martin
  • • Volume 2 •
  • 11 Great Depression, 1929–1933 —Denise Lynn
  • Great Depression, 1929–1933: Short Entries —Jason Roberts
  • Bank Holiday
  • Bonus Army (1932)
  • Cox, James Renshaw (1886–1951)
  • Mellon, Andrew William (1855–1937)
  • Meyer, Eugene Isaac (1875–1959)
  • President's Organization for Unemployment Relief (POUR)
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
  • Reno, Milo (1866–1936)
  • Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930)
  • Unemployed Councils
  • 12 Great Depression, 1933–1939 —Vanessa May
  • Great Depression, 1933–1939: Short Entries
  • Alphabet Agencies —Jason Roberts
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) —Jason Roberts
  • Eccles, Marriner Stoddard (1890–1977) —Jason Roberts
  • Hopkins, Harry Lloyd (1890–1946) —Jason Roberts
  • Ickes, Harold Le Claire (1874–1952) —Jason Roberts
  • Johnson, Hugh S. (1882–1942) —Jason Roberts
  • Kennedy, Joseph Patrick (1888–1969) —A. E. L. Martin
  • Lewis, John L. (1880–1969) —Jason Roberts
  • Olson, Floyd (1891–1936) —Jason Roberts
  • World Economic Conference (1933) —Jason Roberts
  • 13 Economic Downturns, 1974–1984 —Jason Roberts
  • Economic Downturns, 1974–1984: Short Entries —Jason Roberts
  • Apple Computers
  • Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA)
  • Franklin National Bank
  • Laffer, Arthur B. (1940–)
  • Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO)
  • Proposition 13 (People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation, California) (1978)
  • Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978)
  • Shultz, George P. (1920–)
  • Three Mile Island (1979)
  • Volcker, Paul (1927–)
  • 14 Great Recession of 2008–2009 —Victoria Phillips
  • Great Recession of 2008–2009: Short Entries —Kate Doyle Griffiths-Dingani
  • Auto Industry Bailout (2008–2009)
  • Geithner, Timothy F. (1961–)
  • Goldman Sachs
  • Hedge Funds
  • Lehman Brothers, Collapse of (2008)
  • Madoff, Bernard L. (1938–)
  • Occupy Wall Street (OWS)
  • Pelosi, Nancy (1940–)
  • Rubin, Robert (1938–)
  • Tea Party
  • Primary Documents
  • 1 The Critical Period, 1783–1789
  • A. Shays’ Rebellion: A Schedule of Grievances (August 22–25, 1786)
  • B. George Washington and Thomas Jefferson React to Shays’ Rebellion (1786, 1787)
  • C. The Land Ordinance of 1785 (May 20, 1785) and the Northwest Ordinance (July 13, 1787)
  • D. Objections to the Federal Constitution: Letters from the Federal Farmer to the Republican (October 8, 1787)
  • E. The Federalist No. 15: Alexander Hamilton's Objections to the Articles of Confederation (December 1, 1787)
  • F. Alexander Hamilton's First Report on the Public Credit (January 14, 1790)
  • G. Alexander Hamilton's Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States (1791)
  • H. Thomas Jefferson's Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States (1791)
  • 2 The Embargo Era, 1807–1809
  • A. James Stephen's Pamphlet Arguing for Restriction of Neutral Rights (1805)
  • B. Napoleon's Berlin and Milan Decrees (November 21, 1806; December 17, 1807)
  • C. British Order in Council (January 7, 1807)
  • D. Act to Prohibit the Importation of Slaves (March 2, 1807)
  • E. Report of the Chesapeake's Encounter with the Leopard (June 23, 1807)
  • F. Embargo Act (December 22, 1807)
  • G. Secretary Madison's List of Restrictions on Foreign Trade (December 21, 1808)
  • H. The Non-Intercourse Act (March 1, 1809)
  • I. Joseph Story's Recollections of His Opposition to the Embargo (1809)
  • 3 Panic of 1819
  • A. Craig et al. v. Missouri (March 12, 1830)
  • 4 Panic of 1837
  • A. President Jackson's Bank Veto (July 10, 1832)
  • B. President Jackson's Message to the Cabinet Regarding Removal of Public Deposits from the Bank of the United States (September 18, 1833)
  • C. The Specie Circular (July 11, 1836)
  • D. Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge (February 14, 1837)
  • E. President Van Buren's Message to Congress Opposing Federal Action during Hard Economic Times (September 4, 1837)
  • F. William Harper's “Memoir on Slavery” (1837)
  • G. Theodore Weld's American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses (1839)
  • 5 Panic of 1857
  • A. Independent Treasury Act (August 6, 1846)
  • B. Joseph Glover Baldwin's Flush Times (1853)
  • C. Dred Scott v. Sandford (March 6, 1857)
  • D. George Fitzhugh's Cannibals All! (1857)
  • E. Hinton Rowan Helper's The Impending Crisis of the South (1857)
  • F. Frederick Law Olmsted's The Cotton Kingdom (1861)
  • 6 Panic of 1873
  • A. Veazie Bank v. Fenno (1869)
  • B. President Grant's Veto of the Inflation Bill of 1874 (April 22, 1874)
  • C. Dangers Presented by the Current Management of the Rail System: James Dabney McCabe's History of the Grange Movement (1874)
  • D. President Grant's Message Approving the Specie Payment Resumption Act (January 14, 1875)
  • E. Bland-Allison Act (February 28, 1878)
  • 7 Depression of the 1890s
  • A. Sherman Antitrust Act (July 2, 1890)
  • B. United States v. Debs et al. (December 14, 1894)
  • C. President Cleveland's Message to Congress Calling for Action to Restore the Financial Soundness of the Economy (January 28, 1895)
  • D. William Jennings Bryan's “Cross of Gold” Speech (July 9, 1896)
  • 8 Panic of 1907
  • A. Adair v. United States (January 27, 1908)
  • B. Loewe v. Lawlor (February 3, 1908)
  • 9 Economic Downturn of 1913–1914
  • A. Report of the Pujo Committee (1912–1913)
  • B. Sixteenth Amendment (February 3, 1913)
  • C. Federal Reserve Act (December 23, 1913)
  • 10 Recession of 1920–1921
  • A. United States v. United States Steel Corporation (March 1, 1920)
  • 11 Great Depression, 1929–1933
  • A. Wickersham Commission Report on Alcohol Prohibition (January 7, 1931)
  • B. Franklin D. Roosevelt's Commonwealth Club Address (September 23, 1932)
  • C. President Hoover's Madison Square Garden Address (October 31, 1932)
  • D. Twentieth Amendment (January 23, 1933)
  • 12 Great Depression, 1933–1939
  • A. President Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address (March 4, 1933)
  • B. Senator Long's “Share the Wealth” Program (February 5, 1934)
  • C. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (May 27, 1935)
  • D. National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) (July 5, 1935)
  • E. President Roosevelt's Statement upon Signing the Social Security Act (August 14, 1935)
  • F. President Roosevelt's Forbes Field Speech (October 1, 1936)
  • 13 Economic Downturns, 1974–1984
  • A. President Nixon's Message Transmitting the 1972 Economic Report of the President to Congress (January 27, 1972)
  • B. President Ford's Message Transmitting the 1976 Economic Report of the President to Congress (January 26, 1976)
  • C. President Carter Addresses the Nation on Energy (November 8, 1977)
  • D. President Carter's State of the Union Address (January 19, 1978)
  • E. California Proposition 13: The People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation (Approved June 6, 1978)
  • F. Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act (Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act) (October 27, 1978)
  • G. President Carter's “Crisis of Confidence” or “Malaise” Speech (July 15, 1979)
  • H. President Reagan's Program for Economic Recovery (February 18, 1981)
  • 14 Great Recession of 2008–2009
  • A. Barack Obama's Victory Speech (November 4, 2008)
  • B. President Obama's Message Transmitting the 2011 Economic Report of the President to Congress (February 23, 2011)
  • C. President Obama's Message Transmitting the 2012 Economic Report of the President to Congress (February 17, 2012)
  • Selected Bibliography
  • Editor and Contributors