Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science: Ecological Settings and Processes

Editors: Lerner, Richard M., Bornstein, Marc H. and Leventhal, Tama
Publication Year: 2015
Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 978-1-118-13680-5
Category: Psychology
Image Count: 41
Book Status: Pending
Predicted Release Month: June 2017
Table of Contents

The Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, a four-volume reference, is the field-defining work to which all others are compared. First published in 1946, and now in its Seventh Edition, the Handbook has long been considered the definitive guide to the field of developmental science.

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Table of Contents

  • List of Illustrations
  • List of Tables
  • Foreword to the Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Seventh Edition
  • The Handbook's Developing Tradition
  • References
  • Preface
  • References
  • Volume 4 Preface
  • Contributors
  • Chapter 1: Children in Bioecological Landscapes of Development
  • Bioecology and Development
  • A Brief Tour of Volume 4
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Human Development in Time and Place
  • Introduction
  • The Development of Life Course Theory
  • Bringing Contexts and Temporality to Lives and Development
  • Life-Span Concepts of Human Development
  • Social Relations: Roles and Sequences
  • Age and the Life Course
  • Converging Research Traditions in Life Course Theory
  • Elementary Life Course Concepts and Perspectives
  • Social Pathways, Cumulative Processes, and Durations
  • Trajectories, Transitions, and Turning Points
  • Social Change and Life Transitions
  • Linking Mechanisms
  • Paradigmatic Principles
  • Lives and Context: Human Agency and Social Options
  • Context and the Life Course
  • Conceptualization and Measurement
  • Selection and the Life Course: A Social Process
  • The Impact of Historical Time and Place
  • Studying Lives in Context: Some Considerations
  • Social Change in Life Course Health: The Case of China
  • Societal Dissolution and Unification: Their Impact on Young Lives
  • Human Development in Context
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Children's Parents
  • Introduction
  • Parenting for Parents and for Children
  • Parenting Theory and Research in Brief Overview
  • Parents
  • Mothers
  • Fathers
  • Coparenting and the Division of Parenting Labor
  • Children's Other Caregivers
  • Summary
  • Parenting Cognitions and Practices
  • Parenting Cognitions
  • Parenting Practices
  • Some Principles of Parenting Cognitions and Practices
  • Summary
  • Parenting Effects
  • Correlational Designs
  • Experimental Designs
  • Challenges to Parenting Effects From Behavior Genetics and Group Socialization Theory
  • Summary
  • The Multicausal Origins of Parenting
  • Characteristics of Parents Affect Parenting
  • Characteristics of Children Affect Parenting
  • Contextual Characteristics Affect Parenting
  • A Methodological Consideration
  • Summary
  • Practical Parenting
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Children in Diverse Families
  • Overview
  • Defining Diverse Families
  • Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives
  • Epistemic Values
  • Nonepistemic Values
  • Relational Developmental Systems Perspectives
  • Children Living With Unmarried Parents
  • Characteristics of Unmarried Mother and Unmarried Cohabitation Households
  • Child Outcomes: Children With Unmarried Mothers
  • Child Outcomes: Children With Cohabiting Biological Parents
  • Explanatory Models
  • Bereaved Children
  • Theories of Child Bereavement
  • Children in Single-Parent Families After Divorce
  • The Effects of Divorce on Children
  • Theories Used to Explain Divorce Effects
  • Effects of Stepfamily Living on Children
  • Stepchildren's Outcomes
  • Theoretical Explanations for Stepparent Effects on Stepchildren
  • Children Reared by Gay and Lesbian Parents
  • Diversity Among Gay and Lesbian Families
  • Children's Developmental Outcomes in Gay and Lesbian Families
  • Research Methods on Children Reared by Gay and Lesbian Parents
  • Politics and Values in the Study of Children of Gay and Lesbian Parents
  • Family Diversity and Assisted Reproductive Technologies
  • ART Effects on Children
  • Children Reared by Grandparents
  • Effects on Custodial Grandchildren
  • Children in Diverse Families: A Summary
  • The Developmental Trajectory of Research on Children in Diverse Families
  • Challenges and Concerns in the Study of Children in Diverse Families
  • A Final Word
  • References
  • Chapter 5: Children in Peer Groups
  • Introduction
  • Chapter Goals
  • Definitions, History, and Theory
  • Why Study Peer Relations?
  • A Brief Note Regarding Classical Theories
  • Individuals, Interactions, Relationships, Groups, and Culture: A Model of Levels of Complexity in Children's Peer Experiences
  • The Individual
  • Interactions
  • Culture
  • Interdependencies Between Levels of the Multilevel Model
  • Summary
  • Studying Peer Interactions, Relationships, and Groups
  • Assessing Children's Peer Interactions
  • Assessing Peer Relationships
  • Assessing Peer Groups
  • Understanding Peer Relationships: Friendship
  • Some General Observations
  • The Meanings and Understandings of Friendship
  • Friendship Formation
  • Friendship Maintenance and Termination
  • The Effects of Friendship
  • Other-Sex Friendships
  • Understanding Peer Relationships: Peer Acceptance, Rejection, Exclusion, Victimization, and Popularity
  • Peer Acceptance and Rejection
  • Victimization
  • Exclusion
  • Perceived Popularity
  • Intrapersonal Thoughts and Feelings About Peer Processes
  • Social Information Processing (SIP)
  • Rejection Sensitivity (RS)
  • Self-System Correlates of Peer Acceptance and Rejection
  • The Peer Group as a Social Context
  • Peer Group Functions
  • A Developmental Perspective
  • Groups and Adaptation
  • Summary
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Culture
  • Context
  • Studying Different Populations of Children and Their Peer Experiences
  • The Need for Clearer Articulation of Relevant Concepts and Increased Specificity of Variables and Processes
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Early Childcare and Education
  • Overview
  • Theories of Nonparental Care
  • General Systems Models
  • Attachment Theory
  • Cognitive and Social Stimulation Theories
  • Sociobiological Theory
  • Summary
  • Dimensions of Childcare
  • Use of Nonparental Care
  • Type of Childcare
  • Childcare Quality
  • ECE Quantity
  • Summary
  • Early Care and Education and Child Outcomes
  • Selection Issues and Inferring Childcare Effects
  • ECE and Child Outcomes
  • Childcare Type and Child Outcomes
  • ECE Quality and Child Outcomes
  • Childcare Quantity and Child Outcomes
  • Peers and Child Outcomes
  • Childcare and Gender, Family Income, and Ethnic Diversity
  • Summary
  • Strategies to Ensure Quality and Access
  • The Role of ECE Curricula and Professional Development to Improve ECE Quality
  • U.S. Public Policy and Early Childcare and Education
  • Summary
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7: Children at School
  • Introduction
  • Key Theories and Research Themes
  • Role of Schools in Developmental Theory
  • Significance of Schooling in the Short and Long Term
  • The Link Between Education and Inequality
  • Connecting School Effects and Disparities
  • Schools as Educational Institutions
  • Academic Outcomes
  • School Structure
  • School Composition
  • Curriculum and Instruction
  • Schools as Developmental Contexts
  • Relationships in School
  • Relationships Outside School
  • School Statuses
  • School Culture
  • Social and Emotional Outcomes of Schooling
  • Holistic Depictions of Schooling
  • Desegregation
  • School Transitions
  • Public Health in Schools
  • High-Stakes Testing
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 8: Children's Organized Activities
  • Overview
  • Children's Organized Activities in Context
  • Defining Organized Activities
  • A Bioecological Approach
  • Sociocultural Perspectives
  • Activities in a Historical Context
  • Activities in a Global Context
  • Methodologies for Studying Organized Activities
  • Qualitative Interviews and Ethnography
  • Time Diaries and Experience Sampling Reports
  • Survey Measures, Archival Data, and Questionnaires
  • Observational Assessments
  • Conceptualizing Key Parameters and Processes
  • Participation
  • Specific Types of Activities
  • Breadth of Activities
  • Dosage
  • Proximal Processes and Quality
  • Selection In (and Out) of Youth Activities
  • Child Characteristics That Predict Participation
  • Family Characteristics That Predict Participation
  • Peers and Friendship Networks
  • School and Community Factors
  • Program Characteristics as Predictors of Participation
  • Linking Organized Activities to Child Developmental Outcomes
  • Afterschool Programs
  • Extracurricular Activities
  • Combining Type, Quantity, and Quality of Organized Activities
  • Moderators of Organized Activities
  • Unsupervised Out-of-School Time
  • Self-Care
  • Unsupervised Time With Peers
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Linking Activities to Youth Outcomes
  • Moderators of Organized Activities
  • Factors That Predict Program Participation
  • Directions for Future Research
  • Final Thoughts
  • References
  • Chapter 9: Children at Work
  • Introduction
  • Children at Work in the United States
  • Entering the Labor Force
  • Demographic Precursors of Child and Adolescent Employment
  • Where Do Children and Adolescents in the United States Work?
  • Perspectives on Youth Work
  • Perspective 1. Children and Adolescents Should Not Work
  • Perspective 2. Working During Adolescence Isn't All That Bad, and a Little Bit of Work Can Actually Be Good
  • Perspective 3. Paid Work Has Little Effect on Adolescent Achievement and Adjustment
  • Perspective 4. The Good and Bad Effects of Work Depend on the Worker
  • Child and Adolescent Employment Outside of the United States
  • Worldwide Scope of Child Labor
  • Entering the Labor Force
  • Types of Jobs
  • Perspectives on Youth Work in an International Context
  • Future Research
  • Future Direction 1. The Disappearance of Teenage Work in the United States
  • Future Direction 2. The Influence of the Global Economic Recession on Worldwide Trends in Child and Adolescent Labor
  • Future Direction 3. A Better Understanding of What Types of Work Are Beneficial or Detrimental for Which Types of Youth
  • Future Direction 4. Thinking About Work and School in Tandem Rather Than School and Work in a Causal Sequence
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 10: Children and Digital Media
  • Overview
  • Theoretical Perspectives on Media Use and Effects
  • Social Cognitive Theory
  • Parasocial Relationships and Parasocial Interactions
  • Cognitive Approaches
  • The Cultivation Hypothesis
  • Uses and Gratification Theory
  • Arousal Theory
  • Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Behaviorism and Classical Conditioning
  • Summary
  • The History and Evolution of Media Platforms
  • The Ecology of the Digital World
  • Media Access
  • Defining Media Exposure
  • Measuring Media Use and Exposure
  • The Disappearance of Quiet Environments
  • Media, Imaginative Play, Creativity, and Daydreaming
  • Media and Sleep Patterns
  • Media and Concentration
  • The Social Nature of Media Environments: Electronic Friends and Communications
  • Prosocial Media: “It's a Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood”
  • Parasocial Relationships With Media Characters
  • Social Media: Being and Staying Connected
  • The Mean and Scary World: Media Violence and Scary Content
  • Media Violence
  • Children's Fright Reactions to Scary Media Content
  • Media, Gender, and Sexuality
  • Gender-Stereotyped Content
  • Influences of Media on Gender-Related Processing and Outcomes
  • Sexual Content
  • Influences of Sexual Content on Children
  • From Outdoor to Indoor Environments: The Obesity Epidemic
  • The Content of Food and Beverage Advertisements
  • Energy Intake: Media Influences on Children's Diets and Health Outcomes
  • Media-Related Caloric Expenditure
  • Summary
  • Risky Media Environments: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illegal Drugs
  • The Content: Exposure to Risky Behaviors
  • Influences of Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illegal Drugs on Children
  • Media Policy
  • Early Media Exposure
  • The V-Chip
  • Media Violence
  • Regulating Sexual Content
  • The Commercialization of Childhood
  • Driving Hazards
  • The Children's Television Act
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11: Children in Diverse Social Contexts
  • Introduction
  • Linking Contextual Theories and Developmental Models to Study of Child Development
  • Organization and Scope of Chapter
  • Implication of Race and Ethnicity in Studies of Child Development
  • Diversity Explosion: Demographic Shifts in the United States
  • Projected Population Shifts
  • Social Stratification
  • Protective Nature of Childrearing Practices of Parents of Diverse Children
  • Balancing Universal and Cultural-Specific Parenting
  • Summary
  • Parenting Multiracial-Ethnic Children
  • Racial Identity
  • Summary
  • Third Culture Kids
  • Cultural Identity
  • Repatriation
  • Summary
  • Transracial Adoption and Parenting
  • Brief Overview of Historical Patterns of Transracial Adoption
  • Developmental Outcomes and Adjustment of Transracial Adoptees
  • Transracial Parental Socialization and Cultural Competencies
  • Summary
  • Social Position, Social Stratification, School Context, and Academic Outcomes
  • Social Interaction Patterns in School Settings
  • Predictors of Academic Success
  • The Immigrant Paradox
  • Teachers as Influencers of School Contextual Effects
  • Summary
  • Racial-Ethnic Heterogeneity in Friendships
  • Cross-Ethnic Friendships Among Diverse Children
  • Demographic, Contextual, and Sociocultural Correlates of Cross-Ethnic Friendships
  • Cross-Ethnic Friendships and Youth Adjustment
  • Summary
  • Emerging Issues in Studies of Children in Diverse Contexts
  • Sexual Minorities
  • Spatial Residence Patterns of Children
  • Reflections, Conclusions, and Suggestions for Future Research
  • References
  • Chapter 12: Children's Housing and Physical Environments
  • Overview
  • Conceptual Frameworks
  • Historical Ideas About the Affordances of Settings
  • Engagement and the Construction of Life Niches
  • Dynamic and General Systems Theory
  • Coping and Adaptation
  • Life History and Lifestyle Analysis
  • Summary
  • Housing Quality
  • The Accoutrements of Place
  • Construction Materials
  • Disrepair
  • Provisions for Water and Sanitation
  • Food Storage/Refrigeration
  • Dampness and Mold
  • Electricity
  • Ventilation and Cooking Facilities
  • Color, Lighting, Temperature, and Overall Esthetics
  • Plants: Indoors and in the Nearby Environment
  • Indoor and Outdoor Contaminants
  • Noise
  • Crowding
  • Summary
  • Materials at Hand
  • Play
  • Use of Toys and Equipment
  • Homemade Toys and the Use of Natural Materials
  • Equipment, Devices, Spaces, and Physical Activity
  • Books and the Home Literacy and Numeracy Environment
  • Support for Development in Targeted Areas of Competence
  • The Multimedia Universe
  • Summary
  • Household Chaos
  • Epilogue: The Evolution of Habitat
  • References
  • Chapter 13: Children in Neighborhoods
  • Introduction
  • Progressive Era to Promise Neighborhoods
  • Defining the Neighborhood Context for Children
  • Neighborhood Boundaries
  • Neighborhood Structure
  • Neighborhood Processes
  • Approaches to Studying Neighborhood Influences on Children's Development
  • Nonexperimental Approaches
  • Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Approaches
  • A Review of Neighborhood Influences on Children's Development
  • Neighborhood Structure and Children's Development
  • Neighborhood Processes Linking Neighborhood Structure and Children's Development
  • Cross-Context Interactions
  • Person-Context Interactions
  • Neighborhood as a Unit of Intervention for Improving Children's Development
  • People-Based Interventions
  • Place-Based Interventions
  • Building the Framework
  • Promising Conceptual Directions
  • Promising Methodological Directions
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 14: Children and Socioeconomic Status
  • Introduction
  • Definitions of SES-Based Resources
  • Income
  • Poverty
  • Wealth
  • Parental Schooling
  • Parental Occupation
  • Macro Trends in Family SES
  • Theory
  • Family and Environmental Stress Perspective
  • Resource and Investment Perspective
  • Cultural Perspectives
  • Correlation and Causation in Studies of Family SES and Child Well-Being
  • Simultaneity Bias
  • Omitted Variable Bias
  • Random Assignment Experiments
  • Change Models
  • Within-Family Variation
  • Natural Experiments
  • Instrumental Variables
  • Empirical Research on the Effect of Family SES on Children
  • Income, Poverty, and Wealth
  • Parental Schooling
  • Parental Occupation
  • Policy Implications
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 15: Children in Medical Settings
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspective of Medical Care for Children
  • The First Era of Medical Care for Children
  • The Second Era of Medical Care for Children
  • Groundwork for the Future Transition to the Third Era of Medical Care for Children
  • Selective Impacts of Changing Epidemiology of Childhood Disease
  • The Changing Hospital Environment
  • New Morbidity
  • Disparities in Health Care and Health
  • Emerging Information to Inform the Third Era of Health Care: Life Course Health Development
  • Prenatal Environment
  • Poverty: Material Environment and Stress
  • Health Behaviors
  • Maternal Health
  • Healthy Children: Newborn Nursery and Primary Care
  • Newborn Nursery
  • Primary Care and Prevention
  • Additional Health Care Environments
  • The Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU)
  • Acute Illness and Urgent/Emergency Care
  • Children With Chronic Illness
  • Health Care Framework for Children With Chronic Conditions
  • Technology-Dependent Children
  • Impact of Chronic Illness on Children
  • Medication Adherence
  • Chronic Illness and Pain
  • Siblings of Children With Chronic Disease/Illness
  • Parents of Children With Chronic Disease/Illness
  • Adolescence and Health Care Transition
  • Specialized Care for Children With Chronic Illness
  • The Future of Children's Health Care: Ushering in the Third Era
  • Medical Problems With Increasing Prevalence
  • The Future of Prevention and Wellness
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 16: Children and the Law
  • Introduction
  • Legal Treatment of Children and the Family
  • The Treatment of Children in Custody Decisions
  • Adoption, Foster Care, and the Termination of Parental Rights
  • Children as Plaintiffs, and Parent-Child Immunity
  • Emancipated Minors
  • Summary of Legal Regulation of Children in Family Contexts
  • Children's Rights at School
  • First Amendment Rights in Public Schools (Free Speech and Expression)
  • Fourteenth Amendment Rights in Public Schools (Due Process)
  • Fourth Amendment Rights in Public Schools (Search and Seizure)
  • Eighth Amendment Rights in Public Schools (Corporal Punishment)
  • Zero-Tolerance Policies and the School-to-Prison Pipeline
  • Summary of Legal Regulation of Children at School
  • Children and Adolescents in the Justice System
  • A Brief History of American Juvenile Justice
  • Developmental Concerns: Culpability and Competence
  • Summary of Treatment of Children and Adolescents in the Justice System
  • The Legal Regulation of Minors' Medical Decision Making
  • Two Pillars of Parental Authority
  • Exceptions to Parental Authority—When Minors' Rights Prevail
  • Judging Maturity in Medical Contexts
  • Developmental Science and Medical Decision Making
  • Summary of Legal Regulation of Minors' Medical Decision Making
  • Legal Regulation of Adolescence in Societal Contexts
  • Contracts
  • Media Exposure
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Sexting
  • Summary of Legal Regulation of Children in Societal Contexts
  • Discussion
  • References
  • Chapter 17: Children and Government
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Government in Children's Lives
  • Optimizing Outcomes for Children
  • Protecting Society, Families, and Children
  • International Policies to Protect Children, Families, and Society
  • The Problem of Poverty and Inequality
  • Trends in Poverty
  • Increasing Disparity in Income and Wealth
  • History of Government Programs for Children1
  • Social Policies Before 1935
  • Social Security Act
  • The War on Poverty
  • Current Major Government Programs for Children
  • Spending on Means-Tested Programs
  • Spending on Children
  • Specific Programs for Children
  • The Scholarly Study of Government Policies for Children
  • Data Sources
  • Methods of Data Analysis
  • The Current Dilemma of Economic and Budget Constraints
  • Toward Evidence-Based Policy Making
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18: Children in War and Disaster
  • Introduction
  • Historical Perspectives
  • The Challenges of Research on War and Disaster
  • Theoretical Perspectives
  • Pathways
  • Multiple Interdependent Systems and Levels of Analysis
  • Risk and Resilience Models
  • Cascading Consequences and the Intergenerational Transmission of Trauma
  • Children in War, Terrorism, and Violent Political Conflict
  • Variation in Exposure
  • Determinants of Exposure
  • Variations in Response: Mediating and Moderating Processes
  • Refugees and Resettlement
  • Intervention and Prevention Research
  • Children in Natural and Technological Disasters
  • Variations in Exposure and Response
  • Individual Differences
  • Intervention in the Aftermath of Disaster
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • State of the Evidence
  • Future Directions
  • State of Translational Applications
  • A Call to Action for Developmental Scientists
  • References
  • Chapter 19: Children and Cultural Context
  • Overview
  • Conceptual Frames: Separations and Connections
  • The Meanings of Culture and Cultural
  • Splits, Dichotomies, and Fundamentalist Steps
  • Levels of Influence: Low for Cultural Contexts?
  • Directionality: From Contexts to Children and the Reverse
  • Lines of Analysis
  • Line 1: From Universals to Situational Bases of Similarity and Difference
  • Line 2: Toward Common Units of Analysis: Place, Activities, People
  • Line 3: From Continuity to Change, From Uniformity to Diversity
  • Line 4: From Single to Multiple Cultural Contexts: Analyses of Acculturation
  • Line 5: From Theory and Research to Policies and Policy-Making
  • Implications and Further Directions
  • Contexts and Development: Change in Either Has Flow-On Effects for the Other
  • Development: Culturally Valued Knowledge and a Sense of Belonging
  • Measures, Methods, Interpretations: Reconsidered for Cultural Meanings
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 20: Children in History
  • Overview
  • Emergence of the History of Childhood
  • Redefining the Scholarship
  • From Evidence to Geography: Constraints in the Field of Childhood History
  • Geography
  • Periodization
  • Agricultural Societies
  • The Role of Religion
  • The Early Modern Centuries
  • Modern, Industrial Childhoods: The 19th Century
  • Changes in Non-Western Societies
  • Globalization and Childhood
  • Future Opportunities in the History of Childhood
  • References
  • Chapter 21: Assessing Bioecological Influences
  • Introduction
  • Structure of the Child's Environment
  • The Microsystem
  • The Mesosystem
  • The Exosystem
  • The Macrosystem
  • The Chronosystem
  • Going Beyond Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Structure
  • Ecosystem Structure: Summary and Conclusions
  • Methodological Implications of a PPCT-Based Ecological Framework
  • Studying Children in Real-World Situations
  • Issues in the Use of “Social Address” Assessments
  • Considering Both Environment and Experience
  • The PPCT Model: Bringing Higher Order Context Into the Study of Proximal Processes
  • Top-Down Structuring
  • Higher-Order Moderation
  • Moderation by Lower-Order Proximal Processes
  • Summary Conclusions: Context and Proximal Processes
  • The PPCT Model: Integrating Persons Into the Study of Proximal Processes
  • Person Structuring of Ecosystem Characteristics
  • Person Ecosystem Selection
  • Person Characteristics Moderate Ecosystem Influences
  • Summary Conclusions: Person and Proximal Processes
  • The PPCT Model: Integrating Time Into the Study of Proximal Processes
  • Age as a Moderator
  • Time as a Cumulative Phenomenon
  • Chronosystem Structuring
  • Summary Conclusions: Time and Proximal Processes
  • Issues in Integrating Across Person, Process, Context, and Time
  • Increasing Measurement Preciseness
  • Utilization of Cost-Efficient Ecological Measures
  • Interpretability
  • Utility
  • Summary and Conclusions: Issues in PPCT Research
  • Applications of a PPCT Framework to Intervention Strategies
  • Applications of the Person Dimension
  • Applications of the Process Dimension
  • Applications Based on Contextual Characteristics
  • Applications Involving the Chronosystem
  • Summary Conclusions: Application of the PPCT Bioecological Framework
  • References
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index