World History Encyclopedia

Editor/Author Andrea, Alfred J.
Publication Year: 2011
Publisher: ABC-CLIO

Price: Core Collection Only
ISBN: 978-1-85-109929-0
Category: History - World history
Image Count: 1352
Book Status: Available
Table of Contents

An unprecedented undertaking by academics reflecting an extraordinary vision of world history, this landmark multivolume encyclopedia focuses on specific themes of human development across cultures era by era, providing the most in-depth, expansive presentation available of the development of humanity from a global perspective. Well-known and widely respected historians worked together to create and guide the project in order to offer the most up-to-date visions available.

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Table of Contents

  • World History Encyclopedia Staff
  • Contributors
  • Maps
  • An Introduction to World History
  • Section 1: Introduction and Preface
  • World History Encyclopedia
  • Preface: This World History Encyclopedia
  • Section 2: What Historians Do and Why They Do It
  • Introduction
  • How Does World History Differ from National and Regional Histories?
  • Ever-Changing Perspectives
  • Picturing World History
  • What Can We Learn from History? The Role of Social Scientists and Others
  • Writing World History
  • Teaching World History in Secondary Schools
  • Section 3: The Overarching Issues, Seeing the Big Picture
  • Introduction
  • Humans and the Natural World: The Long View
  • A Brief History of Human Society
  • Regional Geography and World History
  • Migration in Human History
  • Language Evolution and the History of Languages
  • Cosmology and Religion: The Human Quest for Meaning
  • Humans, the Tool Makers
  • Technology in World History
  • The Origins of Agriculture
  • Urbanization
  • The Evolution of Complex Political Organizations
  • Industrialization in World History
  • Globalization and World History
  • Glossary
  • ERA 1: Beginnings of Human Society to 4000 BCE
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • How We Study the Very Distant Past
  • Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation
  • Archaeology
  • Geology
  • Paleoanthropology and Anatomy
  • Dating Methods
  • The Reconstruction of Ancient Environments and Paleoclimates
  • Molecular Biology and Ancient DNA
  • The Contributions of Linguistics
  • What Causes Climate Change?
  • Geological Epochs and Climate
  • Global Climate of the Pliocene
  • Global Climate of the Pleistocene (Quaternary)
  • Global Climate of the Holocene
  • The Human Family Lineage—8 Million Years Ago to 20,000 Years Ago
  • Our Most Ancient Ancestors—Eight Million to Five Million Years Ago
  • The Late Miocene Climate and Environments of Central, Eastern, and Southern Africa
  • The Importance of Sahelanthropus tchadensis
  • Increasing Diversity—Our Ancestors of the Pliocene, 5–1.8 Million Years Ago
  • Ardipithecus ramidus
  • Australopithecus anamensis
  • The Footprints at Laetoli and the Significance of Walking Upright
  • Australopithecus afarensis
  • Australopithecus africanus
  • The Robust Australopithecines—aethiopicus, robustus, and boisei
  • The Appearance of the Genus Homo at Two Million Years Ago
  • African Climate at Two Million Years Ago
  • Homo habilis—One Species or Two?
  • Out of Africa — Homo ergaster and Homo erectus
  • Africa—Homo ergaster
  • Changing Climate after Two Million Years Ago
  • Homo erectus in Asia
  • The Appearance of Modern Humans
  • The Multiregional versus the Out of Africa Model
  • The Extreme Environments of Pleistocene
  • Africa—Homo heidelbergensis
  • Homo neanderthalensis
  • Homo sapiens in Africa
  • Homo sapiens in Asia
  • Homo sapiens in Europe and the Middle East
  • The Last Glacial Maximum
  • The Retreat of the Glaciers and the Beginnings of the Holocene
  • Homo sapiens in the New World
  • Homo floresiensis
  • Holocene Environments, 10,000–4000 BCE
  • Postglacial Animal Extinctions Worldwide
  • Postglacial Environments in Europe and the Middle East
  • Postglacial Africa
  • Postglacial Asia and Australia
  • Beringia and the Peopling of the New World
  • Postglacial North America
  • Postglacial South America
  • The Lifeways of Our Earliest Ancestors—The Miocene to Neanderthals
  • Diets of Our Miocene and Early Pliocene Ancestors
  • Olduwan Times Lifeways
  • The Lifeways of Homo erectus
  • Neanderthal Lifeways—Hunting, Gathering, and Scavenging
  • The Lifeways of Early Modern Humans to circa 10,000 BCE
  • Lifeways in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Lifeways in the Levant and Middle East
  • Lifeways in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Austronesia
  • Lifeways in Inner Asia
  • Lifeways in Western and Eastern Europe
  • Lifeways of the First Americans
  • Lifeways after the End of the Glacial Epoch, 10,000–4000 BCE
  • Foraging to Farming —The Neolithic Revolution
  • Defining Domestication
  • Plant and Animal Domestication in the Ancient Near East
  • Plant Cultivation and Animal Use in the Nile Valley
  • Plant and Animal Domestication in East Asia
  • Early Food Producers in the Indus Valley
  • Early Horticulture in Melanesia
  • The Spread of Agriculture into Europe
  • The Hunters and Gatherers of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The Jomon Foragers of Coastal Japan
  • The Persistence of Hunting and Gathering in Mesolithic Europe
  • The Archaic in the Americas
  • Population Growth through Time
  • The Causes of Population Growth
  • How Many Ancestors? (One Million Years Ago)
  • How Many People? (100,000 years ago)
  • How Many People? (10,000 BCE)
  • How Many People? (5000 BCE)
  • Society and Culture
  • The Origins of the Human Family
  • Primate Families and Their Relevance to Human Evolution
  • Primate Reproduction and the Origins of Families
  • The Social Organization of the Australopithecines
  • Early Human Social Organization —Homo ergaster and H. erectus
  • What Do We Know of Neanderthal Social Life?
  • The Social Organization of Modern Mobile Humans
  • Variation in Social Organization, 50,000–5000 BCE
  • Social Life and the Family in Early Village Communities, 15,000–5000 BCE
  • Variation in Early Village Communities in the Near East
  • Early Village Life in Ancient India
  • Early Village in Ancient China, 10,000–5000 BCE
  • Early Village Life in Europe
  • Migration and Travel
  • Out of Africa—The First Time
  • The Adaptive Radiation of Homo erectus
  • A Failed Migration into Europe by Homo antecessor
  • H. heidelbergensis Moves across Africa into the Middle East and Europe
  • Out of Africa—The Second Time
  • H. sapiens Moves across Africa and Beyond
  • Homo sapiens Enter East and Southeast Asia
  • What Happened to Homo erectus in Asia?
  • Into Europe and across Central and Northern Asia
  • The First Americans
  • Early Debates about the Peopling of the New World
  • The North Asian Origins of the First Americans
  • Into South America
  • Miscellaneous Movements
  • The Spread of Agriculture into Europe—Diffusing Ideas or Moving Peoples
  • How Many American Migrations?
  • Moving into the World's Extreme Environments
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Forms of Leadership and Dominance in Primate Societies
  • Chimpanzee and Gorilla Leadership
  • How Archaeologists See Early Social Complexity
  • Increasing Social Complexity to 4000 BCE
  • Implications of Increasing Population Density Following Agriculture
  • Social Complexity in the Ancient Near East to 4000 BCE
  • Social Complexity in Early Europe
  • Economics and Trade
  • How Our Primate Relatives Made a Living
  • Food Sharing in Primate Society
  • Food Sharing and Cooperation among Our Earliest Relatives
  • Australopithecine Food Sharing?
  • The Ancient Household as the Primary Economic Unit
  • Evidence for the Division of Labor in the Upper Paleolithic
  • The Social and Economic Meaning of Exchange
  • Upper Paleolithic Exchange Networks
  • The Importance of Agriculture for the Expansion of Trade
  • The Growth of the Obsidian Exchange Network in the Near East
  • Exchange Networks in Neolithic Europe
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Conflict and Cooperation in Primate Societies
  • Territory Formation and Defensive Behaviors among Our Closest Primate Relatives
  • Conflict and Aggression in Early Human Societies
  • Conflict and Cooperation among Our Earliest Ancestors
  • The Archaeology of Aggression and Violence in Early Human Societies
  • Conflict in Ancient Village Societies
  • Warfare and Conflict in Ancient Village Societies
  • The Archaeology of Leadership and Conflict in Village Societies to 4000 BCE
  • Thought and Religion
  • The Evolution of Human Language
  • What Biology Tells Us of the Structure of the Brain and Its Capacity for Speech
  • How Do Our Nearest Primate Relatives Communicate?
  • The Biology of Speaking—Australopithecines and Early Human Speech
  • The Advent of Speech in Human Evolution
  • The Origins and Evolution of Art
  • Why Is There So Little Very Ancient Art?
  • A Cognitive Revolution? Competing Theories about Art and Its Meaning
  • Art Objects and Early Ornamentation—Blombos Cave
  • Early South African Rock Art
  • The Rupestral Art of the European Upper Paleolithic
  • The Mobiliary Art of the European Upper Paleolithic Era
  • Decorative and Ornamental Art from the Near East and Anatolia
  • Rupestral Art in the Americas
  • The Nature of Ritual and Religion
  • Defining Ritual and Religion
  • Seeing Ritual and Religion in the Archaeological Record
  • Religious and Ritual Practice until 15,000 BCE
  • Primate Attitudes toward Death
  • Anthropological Thinking on Death and Burial in Simple Societies
  • Disposal of the Dead by Our Earliest Ancestors
  • Treatment of the Dead in Neanderthal Times
  • Death and Early Modern Humans to 15,000 BCE
  • Death and Burial in the Upper Paleolithic
  • Shamanic Religion in the European Upper Paleolithic
  • Ritual and Religious Beliefs, 15,000–4000 BCE
  • The Organization of Religion in Sedentary Societies
  • The Birth of the Gods? Natufian Religious Concepts
  • Communal and Ritual Structures as Expressions of Religious Belief in the Ancient Near East
  • The Skull Cults in the Ancient Near East
  • Goddess Cults in the Ancient Near East, Anatolia, and Southeastern Europe
  • Ancestor Worship in Ancient China
  • Religious Expression in Neolithic Europe
  • Chinchorro Mummies
  • Science and Technology
  • Tools and Technologies of the Early and Middle Paleolithic, 2.5 Million–100,000 Years Ago
  • Toolmaking by Our Closest Primate Relatives
  • Stone Tools
  • Olduwan Tools
  • Acheulean Tools
  • Asian Stone Tools
  • Perishable Tools from the Lower Paleolithic
  • Structures
  • Caves, Rockshelters, and Open-air Sites
  • Fire
  • Seeing Evidence of Fire in Deep Antiquity
  • The Tools and Technologies of Early Modern Humans, 100,000–10,000 Years Ago
  • Hands, Minds, and Tools
  • Mousterian Lithic Industry
  • The European and Southwestern Asian Upper Paleolithic
  • Grinding, Pounding, and Crushing Tools
  • Tools Made of Perishable Materials—Bone, Antler, and Wood
  • Projectile Technologies—Spears, the Atlatl, and Bow and Arrow
  • Fiber Technologies, 100,000–10,000 BCE
  • Structures
  • The Origins of Clothing
  • Clay and Ceramic Artifacts
  • The Technology of Cave Painting
  • Early Notational Systems
  • Tools and Technologies of Modern Humans, 10,000–4000 BCE
  • Increasing Diversity and Complexity of Human Technological Organization
  • Transformations in Stone Tool Technologies
  • Innovations in Ceramics, 10,000—000 BCE
  • Mining and Metallurgy, 10,000—4000 BCE
  • The Emergence of Watercraft and Its Social Implications, 10,000—4000 BCE
  • Early Farming and Agricultural Technologies
  • ERA 2: Early Civilizations, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Ancient Chronology
  • Egyptian Chronology
  • Mesopotamian Chronology
  • Syro-Palestinian Chronology
  • Chronology of Greece and the Greek Islands
  • Indus Valley Chronology
  • East Asian Chronology
  • European Chronology
  • Chronology of the Americas
  • The Environmental Framework
  • The Nile Valley
  • The Mesopotamian Floodplain
  • Elam and the Zagros
  • The Mediterranean
  • The Environment of Ancient India
  • China—An Ecology of Diversity
  • Jomon Culture
  • Europe—Natural Boundaries
  • Mesoamerican Geography
  • Climate Change and Natural Disasters
  • The Drying of the Sahara
  • The Eruption of Thera
  • Volcanic Eruption and the Collapse of Akkad
  • Changing Waterways in Ancient Mesopotamia
  • The Formation of Agroecosystems in Europe
  • Climate Change at the End of the Late Bronze Age—Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland and Other Indicators of Climate Change
  • Crops and Animal Products
  • Wheat and Barley
  • The Spread of Rice
  • Olive Oil
  • Dates
  • Maize
  • Chili Peppers
  • Millet and Sorghum
  • Palm Oil
  • Manioc
  • The Domestication and Spread of the Chicken
  • The First Wine and the Origins of Viticulture
  • Beer
  • Soma
  • Food Production
  • African Agriculture—On the Savannah and in the Forest
  • Egypt and Wheat
  • Mesopotamia and Barley
  • Irrigation in Mesopotamian Agriculture—Benefits and Problems
  • Mediterranean Agriculture
  • Agriculture in India after the Indus Valley Civilization
  • Changing Subsistence Practices in the Indian Subcontinent
  • Maize Crop in the Americas
  • Mesoamerican Domesticates— Pumpkins, Squash, Avocado, and Amaranth
  • Peruvian Fishing
  • Pastoralism
  • Pastoralist Society
  • Pastoralism in the Ancient Near East
  • Herding in Southwest Kenya
  • Saharan Pastoralism
  • Nomadic Groups in Egypt, 4000–1000 BCE
  • The Negev and the Sinai
  • The Andronovo Culture and the Timber Grave Cultures
  • The Americas—Many Ecozones, Many Ecostrategies
  • Bison in the Great Plains
  • Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump
  • Marine Mammal Hunting in the Arctic, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Following the Caribou, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Food Management on the Northwest Coast, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Exploiting Plant Life in the Great Basin
  • Smaller Game in the Southwest
  • Hunting in the Eastern Woodlands
  • Urbanization and Demographic Trends
  • The Explosion of Cities in the Near East
  • The Uruk Period — Shifting Settlements
  • Rise and Fall of Minoan Civilization
  • The Early Bronze Age—The Rise and Fall of Urbanism in the Levant
  • The Intermediate Bronze Age, circa 2300–2000 BCE-A Return to Nomadism
  • The Late Bronze Age
  • Urban Life in the Indus Valley
  • Mohenjo-Daro and the Cities of the Indus River Valley
  • Mohenjo-Daro's Sewers
  • The Bactria-Margian Archaeological Complex
  • Domestic Waste
  • The Rise of Civilized Disease Pools—William H. McNeil's Thesis
  • Demography in Ancient Societies
  • Religion and the Environment
  • Egyptian Solar Deities
  • Communicating the Environment in Egyptian Art
  • Baal, Ugarit, and Rainstorms
  • Mesopotamian Astral Deities
  • Environment and the Vedas
  • Yu, Tamer of the Waters, and Other Chinese Tales of Environmental Power
  • Mesoamerican Sacrifice and Earth Fertility
  • Society and Culture
  • The Family
  • Marriage and Divorce in Egypt
  • Marriage and Divorce in the Ancient Near East
  • Childbirth in the Near East
  • Children in Egypt
  • Children in Canaan
  • Children in Mesopotamia
  • Social Classes
  • Hammurabi's Law Code and the Tripartite Structure of Mesopotamian Civilization
  • Warrior Classes in Bronze Age Europe
  • Mesopotamian Slavery
  • Ethnic Identities
  • Conceptions of Ethnicity in Ancient Egypt
  • Akkadian Personal Names
  • Ancient Ethnicity in South Asia
  • The Appearance of Regional Differentiation in North America
  • Law
  • Egyptian Law
  • Homeric Legal Traditions
  • Hittite Law
  • Mesopotamian Law
  • The Relationship between Biblical and Cuneiform Law
  • Gender
  • Gender in Ancient Egypt
  • Egyptian Concepts of Beauty
  • The Authority of the Father and Gender Roles in Ancient Mesopotamia
  • Women in Mesopotamia
  • Gender in the Indus Valley
  • Gender Roles in Vedic Society
  • Nüwa and the Repair of the Broken Sky
  • Homosexuality and Transgender in the Ancient Near East
  • Education
  • Egyptian Scribal Academies
  • The Mesopotamian E-Dub-ba
  • Early Writing
  • Egyptian Hieroglyphs
  • Linear A and B and Earlier Aegean Scripts
  • The Alphabet
  • Harappan Writing
  • Chinese Writing
  • Cuneiform Scripts
  • The Origins of Cuneiform
  • The Birth of Royal Inscriptions and Sumerian Literature
  • Cuneiform in the Second Millennium
  • Leisure
  • Figurines
  • Egyptian Games
  • The Sporting Life in Mesopotamia
  • Greek Sport—Minoa and Mycenae
  • Music and Dancing in Ancient Egypt
  • Ancient Chinese Sport
  • Mesoamerican Ball Courts— Fusing Game and Religion
  • Architecture and Urban Planning
  • Temple, Pyramids, and Palaces
  • Egyptian Town Planning
  • Egyptian Domestic Architecture
  • Nubian Cities—Areika and Kerma
  • Palaces and Megarons in Greece
  • The Palace of Minos at Knossos
  • Troy
  • Ugarit and the Levant— Public Architecture
  • Near Eastern Tells
  • Levantine Houses
  • The Palace of Mari
  • Ziggurats and Gardens of Mesopotamia
  • Mesopotamian Houses
  • Monumental Architecture in the Indus Valley
  • Urban Planning in the Indus Valley
  • Shang Cities
  • Houses in Early China
  • Tsugaru, a Sociocultural Center in Ancient Japan
  • Stonehenge
  • European Houses in the Copper and Bronze Age
  • South American Urban Planning at Real Alto
  • Poverty Point in the Mississippi Valley
  • Domestic Structures in North America
  • Art
  • The Rock Art of the Tassili n' Ajjer
  • Ancient Egyptian Art
  • Syro-Palestinian Artwork
  • Greek Art—From the Neolithic to the Iron Age
  • The Art of the Indus Valley
  • Artistic Motifs from Egypt to India: Connections and Comparisons
  • Shang Art
  • The Art of Ancient Europe
  • Mesoamerican Arts and Andes Arts and Crafts
  • Fashion
  • The Origins of Cotton
  • Linen and Flax
  • The Origins of Silk
  • Peruvian Textiles
  • Ancient Clothing Styles
  • Death and Dying
  • The Egyptian Afterlife
  • Egypt—From the Pyramid Texts to the Book of the Dead
  • The Valley of the Kings
  • Egypt—The Dead among the Living
  • The Deified Dead in Ancient Egypt
  • The Kerma Cemetery
  • Babies under the Floor— Canaanite Burial Practices and the Issue of Child Sacrifice
  • The Greek Hearth
  • Minoan and Bronze Age Greek Tombs
  • Royal Cemetery of Ur
  • Burials in Neolithic China
  • The Shang Cemetery at Xibeigang
  • Thai Metallurgy—Burials at Non Nok Tha and Ban Chiang
  • The Varna Cemetery
  • European Warrior Graves
  • Passage Tombs in Ireland
  • Early North American Burial Customs
  • Migration and Travel
  • Strangers in a Strange Land—Ancient Travelers
  • Oetzi the Iceman
  • The Urumqi Mummies
  • The Medjay—Nubian Police in Egypt
  • Migration Mysteries
  • Bantu Expansions, Earliest Times to circa 1000 BCE
  • The Dorian Migration—The Mythical Migration of the Children of Heracles
  • Heinrich Schliemann's Theories of Ancient Greek Invasions
  • Theories of the Origins of the Indo-Europeans
  • The Settlement of the Gangetic Plain and the Indo-Aryan Invasion Theory
  • The Spread of Indo-European Languages
  • Where Did the Zhou Come from?
  • Movement and Material Culture
  • The Arrival of the Tarxien Cemetery and Borg In-Nadur Cultures in Malta
  • The Uruk Expansion
  • The Settlement of the Caribbean
  • Lapita Complex
  • The Kingdom of Punt
  • Egyptian Expeditions to Punt
  • Hatshepsut's Reliefs
  • The Resources of Punt
  • The Sea Peoples
  • Who Were the Sea Peoples?
  • Causes of the Movement of Sea Peoples
  • Travel Routes of the Sea Peoples
  • Medinet Habu
  • The Philistines and Hebrews
  • The Exodus
  • The Biblical Account of the Exodus
  • Archaeological Evidence for the Exodus
  • The Route of the Exodus
  • The Issue of the Conquest and Settlement of Canaan
  • Biblical Evidence—The Conquest Narratives (Joshua and Judges), 600 BCE
  • The Archaeological Evidence for the Settlement of Canaan
  • Current Theories on the Conquest of Canaan
  • Kassites
  • Kassite Babylonia
  • Kassite Origins
  • Kassite Appropriations of Babylonian Literature
  • The Movements of Cultures in Bronze Age Europe
  • The Corded Ware Phenomenon
  • Beaker People
  • Urnfield Culture
  • Unetice Culture
  • Avenues and Routes of Travel
  • The Via Maris
  • The Red Sea
  • Emergence of Coastal Cities in the Northern Levant
  • Sailing through the Gulf
  • Modes of Transportation
  • Seafaring and Navigation, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Ships, Boats, and Watercraft
  • Horses
  • Donkeys
  • Wheeled Transportation
  • Thinking about Foreign Lands
  • The Tale of Sinuhe
  • Patriarchal Travel Narratives
  • Mesopotamian Diplomacy
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • City-States and Chiefdoms
  • Authority in Stateless Societies
  • Chiefdoms in Mauritania
  • Canaan in the Middle Bronze Age
  • Late Bronze Age Canaan — Under Egyptian Suzerainty
  • Northern Levant Coastal City-State System
  • The Greek Palace—Using Homer to Reconstruct Early Greek Government
  • Who Ruled the Minoans?
  • The Question of Leadership in the Indus Valley
  • Jomon
  • Tribal Governance in the Americas
  • The Development of States
  • The Rise of the Egyptian State
  • The Development of the State in Mesopotamia
  • The Origins of the Chinese State
  • Secondary States
  • Complex Chiefdoms and States in Nubia
  • Early Iran
  • The Elamites
  • The Origins of Kingship
  • The Development of Kingship in Egypt
  • The Rise of Kingship in Mesopotamia
  • Divinity and Kingship-Mesopotamia and Egypt
  • China—The Sage Emperors
  • The Dynasties of Egypt
  • The Early Dynastic Period in Egypt
  • The Old Kingdom
  • The First Intermediate Period
  • The Middle Kingdom
  • Second Intermediate Period
  • The Early New Kingdom — Consolidation and the Beginnings of Empire
  • The Early New Kingdom — Hatshepsut, the Female King
  • The Early New Kingdom — The Height of Empire
  • The Early New Kingdom — The Heretic King and the End of the Eighteenth Dynasty
  • The Later New Kingdom — The Nineteenth Dynasty
  • The Later New Kingdom — The Twentieth Dynasty
  • The Mesopotamian States
  • The Uruk Period
  • The Political History of the Early Dynastic Period
  • Councils of Elders in Mesopotamian Towns
  • The Rise of Akkad
  • Akkadian and Ur III Administration
  • The Ur III Period
  • The Isin-Larsa Period
  • Hittite Political History in the Second Millennium
  • The Cultures of Anatolia, 4000–1000 BCE
  • Political Entities in Ancient China
  • China's Mythical Past
  • The Xia Dynasty and the City of Erlitou
  • Shang Governance
  • Western Zhou Governance
  • Wu and the Rise of the Zhou
  • The Arts and Ideologies of Governance
  • Debating Ancient Imperialism
  • Royal Inscriptions from Mesopotamia
  • Egyptian Kingship—Order Fighting Chaos
  • Imperialism and Ancient Art
  • The Stele—State Monuments and Visual Power
  • International Style in the Late Bronze Age
  • The Zhou and the Mandate of Heaven
  • Economics and Trade
  • From Hunting and Gathering to Farming—The Development of Social Complexity
  • What Do Historians and Archaeologists Mean by "Complexity"?
  • The Kintampo Complex of West Africa
  • The Egyptian Predynastic Period
  • The Neolithic in Nubia
  • The Beginnings of the Chalcolithic Period in the Levant
  • The Beginnings of Village Life in the Yemen (Southwest Arabia)
  • The Neolithic in China
  • Yangshao (5000/ 4500–3000/2500 BCE)
  • Majiayao (3500–1500 BCE)
  • Dawenkou (5000–3000 BCE)
  • Majiabang (5000–3500 BCE) and Hemudu (5000–3300 BCE)
  • Daxi (5000–3000 BCE)
  • Hongshan (3000–2500 BCE)
  • Dapenkeng (5000–2500 BCE)
  • Liangzhu (3300–2200 BCE)
  • Longshan (2500–1700 BCE)
  • From Fishing to Farming—The Introduction of Rice to Korea
  • Jomon — Hunters, Gatherers, and Potters
  • Settling Down —New Social Organization in Late Archaic North America
  • Horticulture and Complexity in North America
  • The Development of Sedentary Society in Mesoamerica
  • The Rise of Sedentism in North America
  • The Valdivia Culture of Ecuador
  • The Growth of Complexity in the Andes during the Late Archaic Period
  • Caral
  • Mining and Resource Acquisition
  • Stone Quarrying in Egypt and the Near East
  • Metals
  • Forestry (Silviculture)
  • Copper Mining in Southeast Asia
  • Jade and Precious Stones in Mesoamerica
  • Ancient Workshops and the Organization of Production
  • Ancient Workshops and Manufacturing—The Domestic Mode of Production
  • Craft Production at Mehrgarh
  • The Manufacture of Fine Stone Objects and Jewelry
  • The First Glass
  • Taxation and Tribute
  • Egyptian Taxation
  • Mesopotamian Taxes
  • Minoan Palace Economy
  • Mycenaean Palace Economy
  • Shang Taxation and Tribute
  • Lords and Peasants in the Classic of Songs
  • The Myth of the Temple Economy
  • The Economy of Mesopotamian Temples
  • The Reaction against the Temple Economy
  • Economic Temples, Not Temple Economies
  • Currencies, Trading Media, and the Problem of Money
  • Using Weights and Measurements in Trade
  • Obsidian Trade
  • Amber Trade in Europe
  • Cacao as "Money"
  • Hoards
  • Credit and Debt in the Ancient Near East
  • The Old Assyrian Trade Network
  • The Old Assyrian Trade Network—Tin and Textiles for Silver
  • The Karum System
  • Prices in Old Assyrian Times
  • Shamshi-Adad's Covetous Eye
  • Regional Exchange Networks
  • Eastern Mediterranean Trade
  • Iranian Caravans across the Zagros
  • Iran—Between the Persian Gulf and Bactria
  • Harappan Trade
  • Chavin de Huantar—Trade between the Andes and Amazon Basin
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Technologies of Warfare
  • Chariots
  • Tools of Warfare—Metal
  • Siege Weapons
  • Egyptian Execration Texts
  • Mercenaries
  • Bronze Age Fortifications in Syria-Palestine
  • Fortified Third-Millenium Settlements in China
  • Experiences of War around the World
  • Early Israelite Warfare
  • Mycenaean Warfare and the End of the Minoans
  • Early Warfare in Mesopotamia
  • Order versus Chaos— Egyptian and Near Eastern Justifications for War
  • Was There War in the Indus Civilization?
  • The Zhou Conquest of the Shang and the Consolidation of Empire
  • Antiwar Sentiments in Zhou Poetry
  • Egypt and Its Enemies
  • Egypt and Nubia— Cataract Fortresses
  • Middle Bronze Age in Syria-Palestine
  • Hyksos
  • Empire of the New Kingdom
  • Egypt and the Hittites
  • The Battle of Qadesh
  • The Peace Treaty between Egypt and the Hittites
  • End of the Late Bronze Age
  • Collapse of Mediterranean Trade
  • Urban Abandonment
  • The Sea Peoples and Their Destructions
  • Thought and Religion
  • Creation Myths and Cosmology
  • Egyptian Creation Myths
  • Near Eastern Myths of a Deluge
  • Mesopotamian Creation Myths
  • Vedic Creation Myths
  • Chinese Creation Myths and Cosmogony
  • Cosmological Themes in Chinese Art
  • Ancient Deities
  • African Deities
  • Egyptian Gods
  • Canaanite Gods and Goddesses
  • Minoan Deities
  • Mycenaean Deities
  • Mesopotamian Gods
  • Harappan Deities
  • Vedic Deities
  • The Gods of China
  • Atenism
  • Akhenaten
  • Aten Worship
  • Life and Worship at Amarna
  • Temple Architecture and Practices
  • Egyptian Temple Architecture and Practices
  • Places of Worship in the Bronze Age Levant
  • Early Mesopotamian Temples and Shrines
  • Mesopotamian Temple Practices
  • Mesopotamian Festivals— The New Year's Celebration
  • Where Did the Harappans Worship?
  • Changes in Chinese Ritual Practice during 4000–1000 BCE
  • Shang Religious Practices— Burial Pits, Human Sacrifice, and Ancestor Veneration
  • Diviners, Shamans, and Other Specialists of the Unseen World
  • Hepatoscopy
  • Mesopotamian Omen Science
  • Shang Oracle Bones
  • Early Evidence of the I Ching
  • Celestial Divination—Omens from the Sun, Moon, and Stars
  • Egyptian Magic
  • Magic and Witchcraft in Mesopotamia
  • The Wu (Shamanic) Tradition in China
  • Ancient Near Eastern and Mediterranean Literature
  • Egyptian Literature: Love Poetry
  • Hymns and Wisdom Literature
  • The World's First Author, Enheduanna
  • Narrative Literature
  • Historical Texts
  • Gilgamesh
  • Ugaritic Literature
  • Hittite Literature
  • Homer
  • Prophecy in the Ancient Near East
  • Early Works of the Hebrew Bible
  • Early Biblical Oral Tradition
  • The Song of the Sea
  • The Song of Deborah
  • Early Ancient Israelite Poetry before 900 BCE
  • Vedic Religion
  • Vedic Cult and Rituals
  • Vedic Priesthood
  • Vedic Worldview
  • Vedic Literature
  • The Samhitas
  • The Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads
  • The Sutras
  • Science and Technology
  • Metallurgical Production
  • Egyptian Goldsmithing
  • Syro-Palestinian Weapons
  • European Metallurgy
  • Subsistence Technologies
  • The Plow
  • Sub-Saharan African Technologies
  • Projectile Point Technology in North America
  • The Australian Small Tool Tradition
  • Regional Ceramic Traditions
  • The Container Revolution in North America
  • Seals, Stamps, and Gems
  • Mesopotamian Cylinder Seals
  • Egyptian Scarabs
  • Minoan and Greek Gems and Seals
  • Harappan Seals
  • Archaeoastronomy
  • The Earliest Egyptian Astronomical Records—Coffin Lids!
  • Astronomy in Egyptian Temples and Tombs
  • Ancient Egyptian Calendars
  • Babylonian Astronomy and Astrology
  • Megalithic "Observatories" in Prehistoric Britain and Ireland
  • Astronomical Alignments in Prehistoric Tombs and Temples in Europe
  • Chinese Astronomy
  • Astrology in the Vedas
  • Engineering and Construction
  • Construction of the Great Pyramid of Khufu—Giza, Egypt
  • Mesopotamian Construction
  • The Construction of Stonehenge
  • Ancient Mathematics
  • The Mesopotamian Sexagesimal System
  • Mesopotamian Word Problems
  • Mesopotamian Metrology
  • Mathematics in Pharaonic Egypt
  • The Natural World, the Human Body, and Medicine
  • The Natural World
  • Language and Lists
  • Mesopotamian Medicine
  • Egyptian Medicine
  • Conceptions of the Female Body in Ancient Egypt
  • The Mythical Origins of Chinese Medicine
  • ERA 3: Classical Traditions, 1000 BCE–300 CE
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Climate Change and Natural Disasters
  • The Destruction of Pompeii
  • The Destruction of Cuicuilco
  • Changes in Food Production and Water Management
  • The Beginning of Banana and Rice Cultivation in Africa
  • The Spread of Agricultural Development South of the Yellow River in China
  • Roman Aqueducts
  • The Introduction of Rice into Southeast Asia
  • Development of Peruvian Water Systems along the Coast and in the Mountains
  • Arctic Hunting Strategies
  • Urbanization
  • Meroitic Cities
  • Israelite Cities
  • Urban Fires in the Roman World
  • Mediterranean Deforestation
  • Ceremonial Cities of Iran
  • Urban Features and Foreign Influences in Gandhara
  • Central Asian Commercial Cities
  • Cultures in Central Asia, 1000 BCE-300 CE
  • Biskupin—Poland's Pompeii
  • Olmec Ceremonial Centers
  • Kaminaljuyu
  • Formation of Teotihuacan and the Building of the First Pyramids
  • Cultures in the Valley of Mexico—Cuicuilco and Teotihuacan
  • Oaxaca Valley and Early Monte Alban
  • The Early Civilizations of Peru
  • Chavín de Huántar in the Andes
  • The Nazca and Moche Cultures
  • Religion and Environment
  • Hebrew Bible and the Natural World
  • Ancient Near Eastern Flood Myths
  • Early Chinese Views of Nature
  • Nature in Greek Myth and Religion
  • The Cosmological Symbolism of Mesoamerican Pyramids
  • Envisioning the Landscape
  • Assyrian and Persian Gardens
  • Greek and Roman Gardens
  • Greek Landscape Painting
  • Roman Landscape Painting
  • Representations of the World and Cosmos in Chinese Tomb Decor
  • Nazca Art
  • Society and Culture
  • The Family
  • The Greek Family
  • The Roman Family
  • Early Christian Families
  • The Chinese Family from the Zhou to the Han Periods
  • Social Classes
  • Greek Social Classes and Social Organization
  • Etruscan Social Classes and Organization
  • Roman Social Classes and Organization
  • Slavery in Greek and Roman Society
  • Early Christian Society
  • Social Structure in Late Vedic India—The Caste System
  • Changing Social Concepts under Jainism and Buddhism
  • Social Structures of Warring States and Qin China
  • Social Structures of Han China
  • Evidence for Social Stratification in Hopewell Burials
  • Ethnic Identities
  • Jews in the Diaspora
  • Foreigners in the Greco-Roman World
  • Non-Chinese in China
  • The Tocharians
  • Han People of China
  • The End of the Jomon in Japan
  • The Celts
  • The Peoples of Mesoamerica
  • Law
  • Biblical Law
  • Greek Law
  • Roman Law
  • Ancient Chinese Law, 1000 BCE-220 CE
  • Gender
  • Concepts of Gender, Gender Distinctions, and Roles in the Ancient Near East
  • Concepts of Gender Encoded in the Development of Kouros and Kore Statues
  • Etruscan Women
  • Concepts of Gender, Gender Distinctions, and Roles in Rome
  • Hellenistic Queens and Roman Matrons
  • Women in Rome
  • Gender Distinction in Early Christianity
  • Changing Definitions of Gender and Gender Roles in Jainism and Buddhism
  • Gender Roles in China
  • Gender Roles as Revealed on Moche Pots
  • Education
  • Greek and Roman Education
  • Education in Early China
  • First Developments in Writing in Mesoamerica
  • Food and Cuisine
  • Development of Dietary Restrictions in the Ancient Near East
  • The Wine-Based Symposium in Greek Culture
  • Roman Banquet and the Use of Food and Setting for Status Displays
  • Social and Religious Uses of Food in Vedic India
  • Food and Its Uses in Chinese Religion and Social Life
  • Use of Wine, Beer, and Mead in Celtic Society
  • Leisure
  • Development of the Concept of Sport in the Greek World
  • Role of Leisure in the Hellenistic and Roman Worlds
  • Development of the Greek Novel
  • Entertainment in the Greek and Roman World
  • The Greek and Roman Theater
  • Gladiators
  • Entertainment in India
  • Early Popular Literature in India
  • Olmec Rubber Balls and Ball Games
  • Chinese Musical Theory and Instruments, 1000 BCE-300 CE
  • The Religious Music of Ancient Israel
  • Music in the Ancient Near East
  • Music in Ancient Greece
  • Domestic Architecture
  • Roman Houses
  • Four-Room Houses and Israelite Ethnicity
  • Classical Chinese Domestic Architecture, 1000 BCE-300 CE
  • Evidence for Elite Architecture in the Andes
  • Art
  • Meroitic Style
  • Nok Terra-cotta Sculpture
  • Hellenic Art
  • Roman Portraits and Historical Reliefs
  • Achaemenid Architecture, 550–330 BCE
  • Parthian Art and Architecture, 250 BCE-226 CE
  • Didactic Themes in Chinese Art
  • The Scythian Animal Style
  • Olmec Style Horizon
  • Chavín Style Horizon
  • Death and Dying
  • Burials of the Kings and Queens of Kush
  • Etruscan Funerary Monuments
  • Greek Funerary Customs
  • Roman Funerary Practices and Monuments
  • Early Christian Funerary Monuments
  • Jain and Early Buddhist Funerary Monuments
  • Construction of the Tomb of the First Emperor of Qin
  • Chinese Burials of the Han Periods
  • Hsuang-Nu and Scythian Kurgan Burials
  • Textiles as Marks of Status in Central Asian Burials
  • Paracas Burials and Their Textiles
  • Role of Human Sacrifice in Olmec Society
  • Role of Human Sacrifice in the New World Burials
  • Shaft Tombs from Western Mexico
  • Migration and Travel
  • Migration
  • Bantu Expansions, circa 1000 BCE-500 CE
  • The Arrival of New People in Japan and the Founding of the Yayoi
  • The Origins of the Gojoseon of Korea
  • Celtic Migrations and the Rise of Hallstatt and La Tene Cultures
  • Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Deportations
  • Phoenician Exploration and Colonization
  • Greek Exploration and Colonization
  • Roman Expansion into Northern Europe
  • Refugees from the Cuicuilco Eruption
  • The Settlement of the Caribbean
  • Nomadic and Seminomadic People
  • Rise of the Arab-Bedouin Populations
  • Formation of Indigenous Nomadic Peoples of the North American Plains
  • Eurasian Steppe Migrations
  • Armies and Associated Travelers
  • Alexander the Great's Military Forays into Asia
  • Spread of Hellenistic Culture
  • Roman Military Movement around the Mediterranean\and Europe
  • Han Chinese Military Movement to the West
  • Rise of Militarized Nomads
  • Pilgrims and Missionaries
  • Pilgrimages to Panhellenic Sanctuaries
  • Paul the Missionary
  • Pilgrimages to Jerusalem
  • Early Buddhist Missionary Activity
  • Early Buddhist Pilgrimages
  • Changes in Trade Networks
  • Formation of the Oasis Trade Network across Central Asia
  • Development of Phoenician and Greek Trade Networks in the Mediterranean
  • Monsoon Travel on the Indian Ocean
  • Ancient Aksum—An Ethiopian Trade Kingdom
  • The Promotion of Trade through Buddhist Sanghas
  • Merchants and Trade in Qin and Han China
  • Opening of the Arabian Sea
  • Spice-Trade Kingdoms of Yemen
  • The Nabataeans
  • North and South Routes of the Taklamakan
  • Development of River-Based Trade in Celtic and Roman Europe
  • Adena and Hopewell Exchange
  • Modes of Transportation
  • The Domestication of Camels and the Opening of the Deserts
  • Greek Periploi
  • Changing Shipbuilding Technology around the Mediterranean
  • Watercraft in North America
  • The Origins of the Pacific Peoples
  • Micronesia
  • Melanesia
  • Polynesia
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Political Life in Ancient Africa
  • The Meroitic Period
  • The Kushite Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt
  • The Waning of Egypt and Mesopotamia and the Rise and Fall of Persia
  • Neo-Assyrian Governance
  • Neo-Babylonian Politics
  • The Rise of Persia
  • Seleucid Governance
  • The Ptolemies in Egypt
  • Cleopatra and the End of Ptolemaic Egypt
  • The Kingdoms of Syria-Palestine
  • The United Monarchy of Saul, David, and Solomon
  • Kingdom of Israel
  • Kingdom of Judah
  • Judah under the Persians
  • Hellenistic Palestine
  • Jewish Movements in the Second Temple Period
  • Roman Rule over Palestine
  • Philistia and Phoenicia in the Iron II Period
  • Emergence of the Phoenician Cities
  • The Rise and Fall of Small States in Jordan—Ammon, Moab, and Edom
  • Adiabene
  • Greek Democracy
  • The Origins of Greek Democracy
  • Development, Administration, and Legal Structure of the Greek Polis
  • Greek Concepts of Citizenship
  • Politics in Athens
  • Greek Writing on Governance
  • Rome—from Monarchy to Republic to Emperor
  • Formation and Development of the Etruscan City-States
  • Regal Period in Rome
  • The Fall of the Monarchy and the Rise of the Republic in Rome
  • Governance in the Roman Republic
  • Politics in the Roman Republic
  • The Augustan Principate
  • Politics in the Roman Empire
  • The Emperors of Rome
  • The Decentralization of Rome under the Barracks Emperors and Reunification under Diocletian
  • Politics in India
  • Mauryan Kings
  • Kautilya's Arthashastra (Manual on Administration and Politics)
  • Governance after the Collapse of the Mauryan Empire
  • The Kushan Dynasty
  • The Satavahana Dynasty
  • The Rise and Fall of Chinese Dynasties
  • Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn Government
  • Empire and Elites in Zhou and Spring and Autumn China
  • Warring States Administration
  • Governance in the Qin Dynasty
  • Bureaucracy in the Qin and Han Dynasties
  • Politics and Governance of the Western Han Dynasty
  • Politics and Governance in the Eastern Han Dynasty
  • Governance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms
  • Chinese Unification under Jin
  • Agriculture, Trade, and Social Stratification in Asia
  • Early Korean History through the Three Kingdoms
  • Early Oasis Kingdoms of Central Asia
  • "Barbarian" Politics in Europe and Asia
  • Steppe Nomads
  • Celts
  • The Scythians
  • Political Life in the Americas
  • Development of Chiefdoms in the Olmec Region and Lower Central America
  • Late Pre-Classic and Early Classic Maya City States
  • Monte Alban and the Zapotec Civilization
  • Cultures of the Andes
  • Development of Chavfn
  • Debating Hopewell Social Structure—Chief doms or Egalitarian Communities?
  • Imperial Structures, Bureaucracies, and Administration
  • Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires—Imperial Structures, Bureaucracy, Administration
  • Achaemenid Empire—Imperial Structures, Bureaucracies, and Administration
  • The Parthian Empire
  • Alexander and the Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • Death of Alexander and Division of His Empire
  • Carthaginian Empire Structure
  • Formation and Administration of the Roman Empire
  • Asoka and the Formation of an Indian Empire
  • Politics and Art
  • Images of Kushite Kingship and Queenship
  • Hellenistic and Roman Ruler Portraits
  • Near Eastern State-Sponsored Art and Architecture
  • Polis-Based Public Art
  • The Development of an Imperial Art Associated with the Palaces of the Assyrians and Persians
  • Greek Art and Culture in Hellenistic Administration
  • Urban Planning in the Roman Empire
  • The Emergence of Buddhist Art in Association with Asoka's Reforms
  • Images of Filial Piety in China
  • Maya Images of Power
  • Olmec Heads
  • Possible Moche Ruler-Portraits
  • The Mounds of the American West
  • Economics and Trade
  • The Development of Industrial-Scale Agriculture
  • Industrial Olive Oil and Wine Production in Philistia
  • Slave Labor in Roman Agriculture
  • Large-Scale Cotton Production in India
  • Oasis Agriculture in Central Asia
  • Expansion and Development of Silkworm Cultivation in China
  • Development of Cacao Production in Central America
  • Herding and Breeding of the Alpaca
  • The Exploitation of Natural Resources
  • Development of the International Slave Trade
  • The Acquisition of Horses in Han China
  • Trade in Spices and Medicinal and Dye Plants in Central Asia
  • Salt and Salt Mines
  • Exploitation of Jade Resources in Central America
  • Exploitation of Natural Resources in the Caribbean
  • Industrial Developments and New Types of Manufacturing
  • Greek Building Projects of the Fifth and Fourth Centuries
  • Glass Manufacture
  • Development of Standardized Mud Brick in Moche Construction
  • New Features for Promotion of Commerce and Trade
  • The Greek Adoption of the Phoenician Alphabet
  • Coinage
  • Greek and Roman Port Facilities and Market Structures
  • Piracy in the Mediterranean
  • Roman Road System
  • Silk Trade in China and Central Asia
  • Development of Formal Market Centers in Mesoamerica—Pochteca
  • Types of Labor Forces
  • Development of Specialized Labor in the Greek Polis
  • Specialized Labor in the Roman City
  • Slave Labor in the Ancient Greek and Roman Societies
  • Art and Economy
  • Vase Painting in Athens and Corinth
  • Roman Sculpture Industry
  • Elite Craft Art in Mesoamerica
  • Development of Elite Craft Art among the People of the Andean Region
  • War and Diplomacy
  • The Rise and Fall of Empires
  • The Kingdom of Kush
  • The Carthaginian Empire
  • The Assyrian Empire
  • The Achaemenid Empire
  • The Hellenistic Kingdoms
  • The Emergence of the Roman Empire
  • Roman External Relations
  • The Punic Wars
  • Jewish Revolts against Roman Rule
  • Parthian Imperialism
  • The Origins of the Sassanids
  • The Mauryan Empire
  • The Qin and Han Chinese Empires
  • Qin and Han External Relations
  • Fall of the Eastern Han
  • Nomadic Confederations and Conflicts on the Steppes
  • Captains and Common Soldiers
  • Development of the Hoplite Structure
  • The Military Career of Alexander the Great
  • Cult of Alexander
  • Hannibal the Great
  • Roman Military Careers after the Reforms of Augustus
  • Development of the Warrior Caste—Kshatriyas, in India
  • The Celtic Cult of the Warrior
  • Sacrificed Captives among the Peoples of the Americas
  • Practicing Peace
  • Antiwar Thought in Classical Athens
  • Early Christian Antiwar Responses
  • Jains and Ahimsa
  • Buddhist Rejection of Violence
  • Confucian Contempt for War
  • Changes in Warfare
  • New Types of Defensive Architecture in Asia
  • Mediterranean Warships
  • Greek Warfare—Hoplite Fighting Forms
  • Greek Phalanx
  • The Roman Legion
  • Military Engineering in Greece and Rome
  • Greek and Roman Arms and Armor
  • Development of Iron Arms and Armor
  • The Invention of Crossbows
  • Roman Forts
  • Trophy Head Cult
  • Replacement of the Atlatl by Bow and Arrow in North America
  • The Arts and War
  • Sun Tzu and The Art of War
  • The Chinese Terra-Cotta Warriors
  • Assyrian Battle Reliefs
  • The Greek Celebration of Victory over the Persians
  • Roman Battle Reliefs and Arches
  • Ceramic Images of Moche Warriors
  • Thought and Religion
  • Development of Philosophy in Greece
  • The Questions of Ancient Greek Philosophy
  • Fifth- to Fourth-Century BCE Philosophical Developments
  • Pre-Socratic Philosophy
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy
  • Judaism and Zoroastrianism—Iron Age Traditions
  • Judaism and Ancient Israel
  • Rabbinical Judaism
  • Zoroastrianism (through the Parthian Period)
  • Dualistic Traditions in Persia: Manicheanism and Mandaeanism
  • Christianity
  • Life of Christ
  • Apostles and the Early Spread of Christianity
  • Pauline Christianity
  • The Gnostic Variations
  • The Early Church Commentators
  • The Concepts of Orthodoxy and Heresy
  • Nonmonotheistic Religious Traditions
  • Development of Greek and Olympian Religion
  • Greek and Roman City and State Cults
  • Greek and Roman Votive Art
  • The Role of Divination in the Classical World
  • Shamanism in Central Eurasia
  • Mystery Religions in Roman World
  • Celtic Religion
  • Olmec Shamanism and Religion
  • Chavín Shamanism
  • Religious Developments in India
  • Early Brahmanical Hinduism
  • The Bhakti Movement, Shaivism, and Devotion to Vishnu
  • Jainism
  • Life of the Buddha
  • Theravada Buddhism
  • Mahayana Buddhism—Religious Developments in India
  • Philosophical and Religious Developments in East Asia
  • Confucius
  • Confucian Thought
  • Daoist Philosophy
  • Mo Zi
  • Legalist Thought
  • One Hundred Schools of Thought
  • Dark Learning
  • Buddhism Comes to China
  • The Debate between Buddhists and Greek Philosophers at Meandner's Court
  • Religious Developments in Yayoi Japan
  • Religious Development in Early Three Kingdom Korea
  • New Religious Lifestyles
  • Jewish Essenes and Messianic Movements
  • Christian Life in a Pagan World
  • Women in Early Christian Communities
  • Development of a Christian Hierarchy
  • Development of Buddhist Monasteries
  • Religious Literature
  • Hebrew Bible and the Concept of Sacred History
  • Dead Sea Scrolls
  • The Canonization Process in Ancient Judaism
  • The Christian Bible—Deciding What Is Canon
  • Syriac Language and Literature
  • Sanskrit Plays
  • The Mahabharta, the Ramayana and the Bhagavad Gita
  • Early Greek Religious Literature
  • Stories of the Buddha
  • Sutra Literature and Early Indian Philosophy
  • The Christian Gospels and the Book of Acts
  • Early Christian Apologetics
  • Near Eastern Prophecy, 1000 BCE-300 CE
  • Art Inspired by Religion
  • Jewish Temple Images
  • The Development of Greek and Roman Religious Art and Architecture
  • Early Christian Art
  • Early Hindu Art and Architecture
  • Early Buddhist Art and Architecture
  • Pyramids of Mesoamerica and Transformation Images
  • Transformation in Chavi'n Iconography
  • Science and Technology
  • Understanding the Physical World
  • Ionian Physicists
  • Aristotle
  • Early Indian Astronomical Texts
  • Mesoamerican Calendar System
  • Early Astronomy in Mesoamerica
  • Treating the Abstract—Mathematics
  • Indian Discoveries in Mathematics
  • Greek and Roman Mathematics
  • Pythagoras
  • Archimedes
  • Understanding the Body
  • Greek and Roman Medicine
  • Vedic Medicine of Ancient India
  • Early Trepanation
  • Understanding Human Action
  • Development of Greek and Latin History Writing
  • Writing about Foreign Lands
  • The Development of Chinese Historical Writing
  • Technological Developments
  • Development of Iron Technology in Nok Nigeria
  • Celtic Metalwork
  • Development of Iron and Bronze Technology in Yayoi Japan
  • Chinese Innovations in Farming and the Geographic Sciences
  • The Camel Saddle
  • Roman Concrete
  • Roman Developments in Mining Technology
  • Roman Theories on Farming
  • Drawloom Technology in China
  • Development of the Karez System
  • Development of Felt Manufacturing in Central Asia
  • Olmec Stone Moving Technology
  • Andean Water Systems
  • Monumental Wonders of the Ancient World, 1000 BCE–300 CE
  • The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World
  • Palace at Nineveh
  • Parthenon in Athens
  • Second Temple in Jerusalem
  • The Roman Colosseum
  • Roman Pantheon
  • The Earlier "Great Wall" of China
  • The Maya Temple Pyramids of Nakbe
  • ERA 4: Expanding Regional Civilizations, 300–1000
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Environmental Events
  • El Niño Events
  • Problems in Early Medieval Environmental History
  • The Beginning of the Medieval Warm Period
  • First-Millennium Droughts
  • The Event of 536—Problems in Understanding Environmental Events during 300–1000 CE
  • The Early Medieval European Environment
  • Environmental Constraints and Human Adaptation
  • Environment, Population, and Trade in Early Java
  • Environmental Constraints in Mesoamerica and the Andes
  • Pacific Ocean Islands and Australia—Environment and Population
  • Environment and Cities in the Americas
  • Anthropogenic Environmental Change
  • Demographic Change
  • Population Fluctuation and Ethnic Changes in Early Medieval China
  • Fluctuating Populations in Inner Eurasia and Europe
  • Justinian Plague
  • Society and Culture
  • Early Medieval Families and Gender—A Global View
  • Gender and Matrilineal/Patrilineal Social Relations in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Families and Kinship in Tang China
  • Early Medieval European Family
  • Gender in Dar al-lslam
  • Gender in China
  • Western Concepts of Masculinity
  • Gender Distinction in Early Christian Centuries
  • Gender and Politics in Byzantium
  • Social Order of the Early Medieval World: Class, Caste, Slavery
  • Peasants in Sui and Tang China
  • Peasants in Early Medieval Islamic Lands
  • European Peasant Society
  • Aristocrats and Elites in Early Medieval Europe
  • Scholar Bureaucrats in Tang China
  • Court Society in Heian Japan
  • Structure of Korean Society
  • The Development of Caste in India
  • Free People of Early Medieval Islamic Cities
  • People of European Towns and Cities
  • Dhimmis and Dhimmitude—Non-Muslims in Muslim States, 632–1000 CE
  • Serfdom in Late Antiquity and the Early Medieval Age
  • Slave Soldiers in Early Medieval Dar al-lslam, 632–1000 CE
  • Early Medieval Slavery— A Global View
  • Zanj Slave Rebellion in Southern Iraq
  • Serfdom in European, Islamic, and Chinese Societies
  • High Culture and Popular Culture
  • An Age of Faith —Religion and Popular Culture in Christian Societies, 300–630 CE
  • Christianity and Western European Cultures
  • Religion and Popular Culture in South Asia
  • Religion and Popular Culture in Japan
  • Syria under Roman Occupation, circa 300–600 CE
  • Age Groups, Education, and Initiation in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Education in the Era of Expanding Regional Civilizations
  • Muslim Education before 1000 CE
  • Education in Early Medieval South Asia
  • Education in Europe
  • Education in China
  • Varieties of Material Culture
  • Mound Builders and Other Agriculturalists in Eastern North America
  • Farming Cultures in the North American Southwest
  • Foods in the Era of Expanding Regional Civilizations
  • Indonesian Contributions to East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Porcelain in East Asia before 1000 CE
  • Glass in Early Medieval Civilizations
  • Development of Moche Mold-Made Ceramics
  • Literature in the Age of Expanding Regional Civilizations
  • Chinese Literature
  • Early Japanese Women Writers
  • Literature of India
  • European Secular Literature
  • European Christian Literature
  • Arabic Literature
  • Persian Literature
  • Byzantine Literature
  • Art and Architecture
  • Persian Architecture and Hunting Gardens during the Sassanian Dynasty
  • Funerary Architecture in Iran, 651–1157 CE
  • Cathedrals and Mosques
  • Buddhist Monumental Sculpture and Architecture
  • Arts and Material Culture in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Early Medieval Chinese Painting
  • Early Medieval South Asian Art— The Pala School
  • Painting and Sculpture in Christian Europe
  • Early Medieval Hindu Religious Art
  • Early Buddhist Art
  • Buddhist Art on the Silk Roads
  • Early Christian Art and Architecture
  • The Iconoclast Controversy
  • Buddhist Monumental Art in Java—Borobudur
  • Migration and Travel
  • Ethnic Migrations and Diasporas
  • Turkish Dispersal from the Steppes
  • The Great Movement of Peoples in Europe
  • Slavs Move West and South
  • Traffic in Slavic Slaves
  • Migrations of the Anglo-Saxons and Scots
  • Magyar Migrations
  • The Settlement of Eastern Polynesia to 1000 CE
  • The Settlement of Madagascar
  • The Climax of the Bantu Expansion
  • Arab Muslim Garrison Towns–Agents of Arabization and Islamization
  • Arab Diaspora—The Special Case of Spain
  • Arabization and Islamic Conversion of the Middle East and North Africa
  • Migrations in the Americas
  • Controversy—Migration or Autochthonous Development?
  • Transpolar Movement of Inuit— The Thule Tradition
  • Movement of Teotihuacan into the Maya Highlands
  • Southward Migration of Athapascans
  • Arawak Dispersal in Amazonia
  • Trade Diasporas
  • Trade Diasporas on the Overland Silk Roads
  • Trade Diasporas on the Indian Ocean Littoral
  • Silk Roads Travelers
  • Pilgrimages
  • The World of Buddhist Pilgrimages
  • Hajj, or Pilgrimage, to Mecca
  • Santiago de Compostela and Other Christian Pilgrimages
  • Christian Pilgrimage to 1000 CE
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Sources of Political Power in the Early Medieval Age
  • Muslim Political Thought, 632–1000 CE
  • Chinese Examination System in the Tang Dynasty
  • Ideological Legitimation of Imperial Power in Byzantium to 1000 CE
  • Church, Army, and State in Byzantium
  • Sub-Saharan States
  • Africa's Role in Early Medieval World History
  • West Sudanese Empires
  • Ethiopian Political History
  • The Political and Social Formation of Swahili Civilization
  • Nubian Kingdoms, 350–1000 CE
  • West African Forest Polities
  • Political Change in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Eurasian States in Late Antiquity
  • The Roman Empire in the Fourth Century
  • The Fall of the West Roman Empire and the Emergence of Successor States
  • From East Rome to Byzantium, 395–641 CE
  • The Sassanian Empire
  • The Guptas in India
  • Christian Africa in Late Antiquity
  • Chinese States during the Period of Disunity, 184–589 CE
  • The Sui Dynasty, 581–617 CE
  • Islamic Political History
  • Islamic State from Its Inception through the Orthodox Caliphs
  • Umayyad Caliphate
  • Abbasid Caliphate to 1000 CE
  • Al-Andalus—Muslim Spain to 1000 CE
  • The Aghlabid Emirate
  • The Emergence of the Fatimids in the Maghreb
  • Baghdad, 762–1000 CE
  • Islamic Rule in Iran and Central Asia, 650–1000 CE
  • Kharijite and Other Heretical States in the Maghreb to 1000 CE
  • The Idrisids of Morocco— An Early Shia Kingdom
  • Political History of India
  • Harsha's Empire and Feudalism in North India, 600–1000 CE
  • Kingdoms of South India
  • The Pala Dynasty of North India
  • Indian Influences in Southeast Asia
  • Southeast Asian Mainland States
  • Island Southeast Asia— Srivijaya and Sailendra
  • The Philippines to 1000 CE
  • The Radiance of the Tang Dynasty in Southeast Asia
  • Political History of the Tang Dynasty before the An Lushan Rebellion
  • Late Tang and the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, 756–960 CE
  • Tibet, 600–1000 CE
  • Korea from the Three Kingdoms through the Silla to the Koryo Dynasties
  • Japan from the Yamato through Fujiwara Periods
  • Japanese Embassies to China
  • Culture and History of Indigenous People of Northern Japan
  • Early Medieval Inner Eurasian Empires
  • The Uighur Empire
  • The Empire of the Khazars
  • European States and Empire, 650–1000
  • The Byzantine Empire, 641–1025 CE
  • Rhomaioi—Who Were the Byzantines?
  • The Merovingians and Carolingians
  • Anglo-Saxon and Celtic Kingdoms
  • State Formation in Northern and Eastern Europe
  • Early Kievan Rus, 860–1000
  • Georgian Kingdoms
  • Political Change in the Americas
  • Stateless Villages in Most of the Americas
  • Chieftainships—Mound Builders and Pueblos, Amazonia and the Circum-Caribbean
  • Farming Cultures in North American Southwest
  • Early Mesoamerican States
  • The Teotihuacan Empire, 300–650 CE
  • Blood and Sacrifice— Mayan City-States
  • Andean Political History
  • Moche
  • Wari
  • Tiwanaku
  • Nazca
  • Economics and Trade
  • Agriculture in Early Medieval Economies
  • Agricultural Innovations in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Early Java Rice Culture
  • Agriculture and Rural Life in Japan
  • Diffusion of Asian Crops and Livestock to the Mediterranean Region and Africa
  • European Rural Economy
  • The Three Sisters and the Spread of Agriculture in North America
  • Mesoamerican Agriculture
  • The Agricultural Economy of the Andes
  • Early Medieval Industry
  • China, the Economic Powerhouse of the Early Medieval World
  • Economic Development in India
  • Early Medieval Commerce
  • India, China, and Buddhism in International Trade
  • Indian Ocean Trade and the Swahili Coast
  • Mediterranean and European Trade
  • The Radhanite Merchants
  • Trans-Saharan Trade
  • The Overland Silk Routes
  • Trade Diasporas on the Malabar Coast in the Age of Sinbad the Sailor, circa 800–1000 CE
  • Sogdians on the Silk Roads
  • Slave Trade from Northern/ Eastern Europe and Central Asia
  • The Trading System of the Mississippi Mound Builders
  • Mesoamerican Commerce
  • Andean Trading Patterns
  • Cities in Early Medieval Economies
  • Cities in Early Medieval India
  • Economic Role of Cities in Western Europe
  • City Dwellers in Dar al-lslam to 1000 CE
  • Markets in Byzantine Cities
  • War and Diplomacy
  • War and Diplomacy in Eurasia, 300–632
  • Barbarian Invasions of China, India, and the Roman Empire, 300–650 CE
  • Wars between Rome and Persia
  • Overview of Maritime History
  • Conflicts Relating to the Emergence of Islam
  • Nubia versus Muslim Egypt— A 600-Year Truce
  • How the Muslims Simultaneously Defeated the Byzantines and the Persians
  • Muslim Conquest of the Maghreb
  • Muslim Conquest of Spain
  • Muslim Conquest of Iran and Central Asia
  • Wars between Muslims and the Byzantine Empire to 1000 CE
  • The Caliph's Armies, 632–1000 CE
  • The Early Muslim Civil Wars
  • Frontiers of the Islamic World to 1000 CE
  • Muslim Frontier in Spain to 1000 CE
  • Islamic Frontiers in Anatolia to 1000 CE
  • Islamic Frontiers in Northwestern India to 1000 CE
  • Conflicts in China and East Asia
  • Conflict between States and Dynasties, Northern and Southern China, 220–589 CE
  • Silla and the Wars for Korean Unification
  • An Lushan Rebellion
  • Japan's Military and the Emishi Pacification Wars
  • Chinese Foreign Relations
  • Japan's Position in the China-Centered World System to 1000 CE
  • South and Southeast Asian Wars
  • Mainland Southeast Asian Wars
  • Island Southeast Asian Wars
  • Relations between Kingdoms in India
  • Inner Eurasian Wars
  • Kiev, the Pechenegs, and the Khazars
  • The Turks, Uighurs, and Tibetans and the Tang/Abassid Contest for Central Asia
  • Early Medieval West European Wars, 650–1000
  • Wars of Charlemagne
  • Viking Raids
  • Anglo-Saxon Wars, 700–1000 CE
  • Warfare in the Americas and Oceania
  • Weapons in the Americas
  • Warfare among Mayan Cities
  • The Polynesian Way of War
  • Fighting Forces—A Global Overview
  • The Byzantine Army
  • Merovingian and Carolingian Armies
  • Chinese Armies, 300–907 CE
  • Thought and Religion
  • Non-Eurasian Religions
  • Andean Religion
  • Religious Change in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Classic Maya Ideas of the Sacred
  • Eastern Eurasian Religions
  • Hinduism and the Heterodoxies, 300–600 CE
  • Forms of Early Buddhism — The Emergence of Mahayana
  • Forms of Early Buddhism — Theravada and Others
  • Tibet's Conversion to and Development of Buddhism
  • Bhakti in South India
  • Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism—Transformation of Chinese Religion
  • Early Japanese Buddhism
  • Korean Buddhism, 400–1000 CE
  • Shankara and the Reformation of Hinduism
  • Emergence of Tantric Movements
  • Indian Philosophies, 300–600 CE
  • Indian Philosophies, 600–1000 CE
  • Buddhism in Java— The Early Years
  • Chinese Intellectual History
  • Western Eurasian Non-Christian Religions of Late Antiquity
  • Zoroastrianism in the Sassanid Period
  • Mazdakit Movement
  • Changes in Early Medieval Judaism—The Emergence of Rabbinic Judaism
  • Manichaeism
  • Manichaeism among the Uighurs
  • Religious Syncretism in China and Christian Europe
  • Christianity
  • Constantine and the Christian Revolution of the Fourth Century
  • Christian Orthodoxy and Heresy in Late Antiquity, circa 300–451 CE
  • Copts in Egypt
  • The Catholic-Orthodox Divergence to 1000 CE
  • The Transition from Paganism to Christianity
  • Early Medieval Orthodox Christianity
  • The Orthodox Church — Clergy, Feasts, and Practices
  • The Role of the Catholic Church in Early Medieval West European Civilization
  • Religion in Georgia
  • Early Islam
  • The Founding of the Islamic Religion, circa 610–680 CE
  • Teaching and Practice of Early Islam
  • Muhammad and the Emergence of Islam in Arabia
  • Falsafah— Islamic Philosophy to 1000 CE
  • Kalam— Islamic Speculative Theology to circa 1000 CE
  • The Shia—Islam's Principal Minority, 632–1000 CE
  • The Development of Sunni Orthodoxy, 632–1000 CE
  • Religious Pluralism and Toleration in Muslim Spain, 711–1100 CE
  • Islamic Law—Sharia
  • The Mutazilites and the Evolution of Sunni Orthodoxy
  • A Historical Controversy—To What Extent Did Religious Pluralism and Toleration Prevail in Muslim Spain before 1000 CE?
  • Early Medieval Monasticism
  • Early Medieval Buddhist Monasteries
  • Christian Monasticism to 1000 CE
  • Nalanda—An International Buddhist Center of Learning, 500–1200 CE
  • Mysticism
  • Early Hindu Devotional Mysticism
  • Buddhist Mysticism
  • Mysticism in South Asia
  • Christian Mysticism
  • Islamic Mysticism
  • Science and Technology
  • Agricultural Technology
  • Agricultural Innovations in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Early Medieval Muslim Agricultural Innovations
  • Early Medieval Agricultural Technology in India and Southeast Asia
  • Agricultural Innovations in Europe
  • Early Medieval Chinese Agricultural Technology
  • Early Medieval Industrial Technology
  • Technological Innovations in East, Central, and Southern Africa
  • Chinese Technology
  • Early Medieval Islamic Industrial Technology
  • Early Medieval European Industrial Technology
  • Early Medieval Metallurgy
  • Industrial Technology in Early Medieval Africa South of the Sahara
  • The Invention and Production of Paper, 100–1000 CE—From China to West Asia
  • Chinese Printing to 1000 CE— Technological Innovations and Their Cultural Implications
  • Gunpowder
  • Porcelain and Ceramics
  • Silk
  • Travel Technology
  • China's Inland Waterway System of Transportation
  • Roads in the Chaco Canyon State
  • Boats and Ships of the Mediterranean
  • The Viking Longboat
  • Polynesian Navigation
  • Arab, Shirazi, and Indian Ocean Navigation
  • Early Medieval Medicine, Science, and Alchemy
  • Early Medieval Chinese Medicine
  • Indian Influence on Chinese Medicine through Buddhism
  • Early Medieval Arabic Medicine
  • Medicine in India
  • Byzantine Science and Medicine Translation to Islam
  • Arab Medieval Science
  • Early Medieval Chinese Alchemy
  • Early Medieval Arabic and European Alchemy
  • Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan — The Father of Chemistry
  • Early Medieval Military Technology
  • Early Medieval Defensive Walls
  • Forts and Castles
  • Battering Rams, Catapults, and Other Preexplosive Artillery
  • Greek Fire
  • Early Medieval Infantry and Cavalry Weapons
  • Early Medieval Body Armor
  • Diffusion of Stirrups in the Afro-Eurasian Ecumene
  • Mathematics and Astronomy in the Early Medieval Age
  • Mayan Astronomy
  • Chinese Astronomy and Astrology
  • Early Medieval Indian Astronomy and Astrology
  • Early Muslim Astrology
  • Islamic Astronomy to 1000 CE
  • India's Golden Age of Mathematics
  • Early Medieval Mesoamerican Mathematics
  • Mathematics in the Muslim World to the Year 1000 CE
  • Early Medieval History and Geography
  • Early Muslim Geography
  • Early Muslim History Writing
  • East Asian Historical and Geographical Writing
  • Legends and Myths of Chinese Exploration
  • Early Medieval Christian History
  • ERA 5: Intensified Hemispheric Interactions, 1000-1500
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • From the Great Warming to the Little Ice Age
  • The West African Great Warming
  • The East African Great Warming
  • It Was Not All Wine and Roses— Incidents of Famine in Europe
  • Environmental Stresses on the Nomads of the Central Asian Steppes
  • Fall of Tiwanaku
  • Drought in North America, Losers and Adapters—Anasazi, Hohokam, Mimbres, Mogollon, and Chumash
  • How Cold Was Cold? The Origins of the Little Ice Age
  • Fourteenth-Century Famine in Europe
  • The Inuit Move South in Greenland
  • Changes in Baltic and Atlantic Fishing Patterns
  • The Little Ice Age in the Americas
  • The Human Environmental Imprint—Cities around the World
  • Cities of the Swahili Coast
  • Great Zimbabwe—The Built Environment
  • Cities of the Western Sudan
  • Cities of the Almohad Empire
  • The Alhambra and Avignon
  • Cairo and Acre—Capitals of Two Cultures in Conflict
  • Byzantine Constantinople
  • Rebuilding Constantinople
  • Karakorum and Dadu—Two Mongol Capital Cities
  • Angkor and Angkor Wat
  • Europe's Urban Revolution, 1000-1300
  • Tenochtitlan
  • Cuzco—Inca Capital
  • Chaco Canyon
  • Cahokia
  • The Human Environmental Imprint—Natural Resources
  • Equatorial Agriculture in Africa
  • Salt Production in China and West Africa
  • The Settling of the Kerala Backwaters
  • Nomadic Life on the Central Eurasian Steppe
  • Europe's Agricultural Revolution
  • Scandinavia—Making a Living in Europe's Far North
  • Agricultural Technology in Mesoamerica
  • Harnessing Desert Rivers—The Hohokam
  • Andean Agriculture under the Incas
  • Agricultural Life on the Pacific Islands—Environment and Population
  • Harvesting the Seas in Oceania
  • Population Trends
  • What Do We Know about Sub-Saharan Africa's Population?
  • The Great Afro-Eurasian Pandemic—Did It Originate in Inner Asia?
  • The Plague Arrives in the Levant
  • The Populations of the Middle East and North Africa before and after the Great Pandemic
  • China's Population Shifts
  • Europe's Population, 1000-1347
  • Europe's Black Death — Origins and Spread
  • The Demographic Impact on Europe, 1347-1500
  • Artists and the Cult of Death in Western Europe
  • What Was the Population of the Caribbean and Mesoamerica before 1492?
  • The Population of South America
  • The Population North of the Rio Grande
  • The Peoples of the Pacific— Environment and Population
  • Envisioning the Environment
  • Sub-Saharan Art of Nature
  • Japanese Reverence for the Natural World
  • Animal Effigies in the Art of Inner Asia
  • The Taifa Gardens of Al-Andalus
  • Changing Perceptions of the Natural World—Europe, 1000-1400
  • Early Renaissance Visions of the Natural World
  • American Indian Views on the Environment
  • Mexica Sacred Geography
  • The Andean World in Miniature
  • Perspectives on Petrographs, Petroglyphs, and the Historian's Craft
  • Example 1: Petrographs and Petroglyphs—The Art of Sacred Landscape In North America
  • Example 2: Petroglyphs and Petrographs in North America
  • Society and Culture—The Longue Durée and Innovation
  • Families, Hierarchies, and Class Relationships—Cultures of Lordship
  • Varieties of Hierarchies and Class in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Hierarchy and Class in the Islamic World
  • Death and Burial in the Latin East—Evidence of Cross-Cultural Interchange?
  • Foot Binding of Chinese Women
  • The Christian God-Anointed Monarch—Byzantium, Ethiopia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Russia, Armenia, Georgia, and the Latin West
  • Marriage Law of the Latin Church
  • Mexica (Aztec) Marriage Customs
  • Family and Social Structure in Mississippian Cultures
  • Chiefs and Commoners in Oceania
  • Slavery in the World
  • Medieval Identities—Confronting the Other
  • Was There a Bilad al-Sudan?
  • The Copts
  • Ethnic-Cultural Diversity amid Religious Identity and Unity in Dar al-lslam
  • Hindu and Muslim Cross-Fertilization in India
  • The Armenians in Late Medieval Society
  • Ethnic Classification and Hierarchy during the Yuan Era
  • Europeans or Christians? The Medieval European Sense of Self
  • The Jew as Other in Catholic Europe
  • Gerald of Wales and the Irish—An Ethnic Stereotype in Medieval Europe
  • The Ethnic and Linguistic Divisions of the Americas on the Eve of the Columbian Exchange
  • Gender Relations around the World —Does One Model Serve All?
  • Muslim Women—Veiled and Hidden?
  • Womanhood in Early and Medieval Japan
  • The Parallel Cults of Mary and Guanyin
  • Gender and Politics in Byzantium
  • Eve and Mary—Western Christian Attitudes toward Women
  • Women in China and the Latin West
  • Gender Relations on the Eurasian Steppe
  • Western Concepts of Masculinity
  • Courtly Love, Romance, and Gender Stereotypes in Europe
  • Transvestism in Western Culture—Saints and Sinners
  • Gender and Sexuality—Two Spirit People in North American Indian Cultures
  • Female Spirituality in the Americas
  • Women and Men in Oceania
  • Centers of Religious and Secular Learning—Were the Great Academies Outside of Europe Universities?
  • The Madrasas of Islam
  • Islamic Book Production
  • Formal Education in Southeast Asia
  • Rhetoric and Education in Byzantium
  • Byzantine Scholars in Renaissance Italy
  • Intellectual Patronage by the Early Ottomans
  • The Origins and Nature of European Universities
  • The Study of Foreign Languages in European Universities
  • Literary Neoclassicism among Europe's Humanist Scholars
  • Humanist Academies and Traditional Universities—The Struggle for Intellects in Western Europe
  • The Mexica Telpochcalli and Calmecac—Secular and Religious Education for Boys
  • Mexica Convent Schools for Noble Girls
  • The Yacha Huaci, Schools for the Children of Inca Nobles
  • Art and Architecture—The Monumental Balanced by the Human-Sized
  • The Artists of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Artistic Interchange between China and Islam
  • The Visual Arts and Crafts of Dar al-Islam
  • Persian Architecture in the II-khanid and Timurid Eras, 1256-1507
  • Artistic Patronage under Mehmed II
  • Japan's Indigenous Aesthetic
  • The Buddhist Monuments of Pagan
  • The Glory of Byzantium
  • The Art of Latin Europe—Cathedrals and Ivories, Tapestries, and Reliquaries
  • A Revolution in Artistic Perspective—Early Renaissance Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture
  • Sacred Architecture in Mesoamerica
  • Literature and the Performing Arts—A Flourishing of Bards around the World
  • Persian Literature's Golden Age
  • South India's Performing Arts and Literature
  • Performing Arts in China through the Early Ming Period
  • Christian and Islamic Universal Histories
  • The Transit of Proverb Literature— From Islam to the West
  • Christian and Islamic Histories of the Crusades
  • From Epic to Romance to the Nitty-Gritty
  • Oral and Written Sources for the Mongol Empire
  • Literature in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
  • Theater among the Incas
  • A World on the Move—The Growing Interconnectedness of Peoples
  • The Road to Sanctification—Pilgrimage Routes
  • New Routes to Mecca
  • The Waning of Buddhism in China and along the Silk Road
  • Pilgrimage Literature—Islamic Rihlas and Western Christian Guidebooks
  • Old and New Christian Sites of Pilgrimage
  • Selling Sanctity—The Pilgrimage Trade Is Good Business
  • North American Indian Travelers to Pipestone Quarries
  • Peoples on the Move—The Passage of Willing and Unwilling Migrants
  • North African and Arab Migrants to Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The Turkic Invasions of India
  • Before the Mongols—The Continuing Movement of Border Peoples into China— Khitans (Qidan), Tanguts, and Jurchens (Ruzhen)
  • Ming Migration to Yunnan
  • The Continued Dispersal of Turkic Peoples to the West
  • The Continuing Drang nach dem Osten—Western European Colonists Move Eastward
  • Folk Migrations in Mesoamerica— Toltecs and Nahuas
  • Folk Migrations in South America and the Caribbean—Caribs, Arawaks, Chibchas, and Tupi
  • Folk Migrations in North America—Muskogees, Iroquois, Algonquians, Sioux, and Athabascans
  • The Peopling of Aotearoa (New Zealand)
  • Moving Sugar Plantation Laborers to the Atlantic Islands
  • Forced Migration under Inca Rule
  • The Vicissitudes of Avenues for Exchange—Caravan Routes and Sea Lanes
  • Caravans across the Sahara
  • From the Straits of Malacca to Madagascar—The Indian Ocean Ecumene
  • Jewish Travelers in the Early Middle Ages
  • The Silk Road during the Pax Mongolica, 1260–1368
  • The Silk Road after the Collapse of the Mongol Empire
  • Viking Expansion—To the Faroes, Iceland, Greenland, and North America
  • The Vinland Map
  • Chola Imperialism and the Sanskritization of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago
  • Chinese Oceanic Commerce in the Age of Southern Song
  • Prester John
  • The Western Missionary Presence in the East
  • European Missionaries, Diplomats, and Merchants in East Asia
  • The Franciscan Origin of the Image of Child-giving Guanyin
  • Artistic Exchange between East and West during the Mongol Era
  • Two Fourteenth-Century Friars' Accounts of the Wonders of Asia
  • Odorico da Pordenone
  • Jordanus de Severac
  • Zheng He's Voyages
  • European Voyages into the Atlantic
  • European Travelers to South Asia before 1498
  • Europe's Overseas Explorations and the Crusading Tradition
  • The Early Voyages of Columbus
  • The Inca Highway
  • Politics and Statecraft—Internal and External State Expansion
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Ethiopia
  • Ghana—A Trading Empire of the West African Savanna
  • Mali—A New Islamic State of the Western Sudan
  • Other Islamic States—Kanem-Bornu, and the Hausa City-States
  • Great Zimbabwe
  • Buganda—The Founding of a Kingdom and Its Constitution
  • Islam—Ideally a Single Community, in Reality Diversity
  • Abbasid Caliphs and Seljuk Sultans—A Shift of Power in Southwest Asia
  • The Great Seljuk Empire
  • The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
  • Baghdad, 1000–1258—Capital of a World Empire?
  • The Order of the Assassins— Terrorist States in Iran and Syria
  • Almoravids
  • The Fatimid Caliphate from Glory to Dissolution
  • The Ayyubids of Egypt and Syria
  • Mongols and Muslims—The Mongol Impact on Dar al-Islam
  • Rebuilding Baghdad, 1258-1335
  • The Mamluk Sultanate, 1250–1517
  • The Il-khanid Dynasty of Persia
  • Timur-i Leng's Empire
  • The Early Ottoman Sultanate, 1300–1500
  • Al-Andalus
  • India—The Heart of the Indian Ocean Community
  • The Late Chola State in Southern India, 1000-1250
  • The Arrival of islam and the Sultanate of Delhi
  • The Kingdom of Delhi—Picking Up the Pieces after Timur-i Leng (Tamerlane)
  • Vijayanagara, 1336-1565
  • Srivijaya
  • The Khmer Empire
  • The Kingdom of Laos
  • The Philippines
  • The Buddhist Kingdom of Pagan
  • China and Chinese-Influenced East Asia
  • China—The Northern and Southern Song Eras
  • XiXia
  • Liao and Jin States of Northern China
  • China–The Yuan Era, 1260–1368
  • Early Ming and its Frontiers— From Nanjing to Beijing
  • China—The Early Ming Era, 1368–circa 1500
  • Peasant Rebellions in China
  • The Chinese Educational and Examination System
  • Japan from the Late Fujiwara Era through the Kamakura Shogunate
  • Japan—The Ashikaga (or Muromachi) Period
  • Korea–influenced by China But Only Semi-Dominated
  • The Vietnamese Empire–influenced by China But Not Dominated
  • The Mongol Empire— A Trans-Eurasian Ecumene
  • Egalitarian Leadership on the Steppe
  • Power and Authority in the Mongol Ordu
  • Chinggis Khan
  • Chinggis Khan's Successors
  • Governing the Mongol Empire
  • Breakup of the Mongol Empire and Its Consequences
  • Russia and the Mongols, 1200–1400 CE
  • Christendom—The Ideal of a Single Community; The Reality of Diversity
  • Ethiopia—The Land of Seyon
  • Byzantium, 1025–1204
  • Byzantium, 1204–1453
  • The Byzantinized States of Eastern Europe
  • Sacred and Secular Authority in the Latin West
  • National Monarchies and Representative Assemblies in Europe
  • What a Difference Two Generations Make—Louis IX and Philip IV of France
  • Western Europe—City-States and Regional Principalities
  • Scandinavia—A Special European Experience?
  • The Crusader States—Europe's Levantine Colonies
  • Pre-Columbian Complex Societies—The Case of Amazonia
  • Post-Classical Mayan States of the Yucatán and Guatemala
  • The People of Chichén Itzá
  • The Toltecs
  • The Mexica and Their Neighbors
  • The Aztec/Mexica Empire
  • The Chimú State
  • The Incan Empire
  • Mississippian Peoples of North America
  • The Hohokam—A Civilization of the Sonoran Desert
  • The Pueblo and Cliff-Dweller Peoples of the Four Corners
  • Economics and Economic Activity
  • Sub-Saharan Africa—Not as Isolated as Many Suggest
  • Horses, Salt, Manufactured Goods, Islamic Books, Gold, and Slaves—What Was Traded across the Sahara and Why?
  • Great Zimbabwe as an Economic Entity
  • Trade on the East African Coast to 1500
  • The Mediterranean and the Black Sea—The West's Portals to the Riches of the Indies
  • The Mediterranean —Meeting Place of Three Civilizations
  • Overland Trade in Anatolia Under the Seljuks
  • Trade under the Ayyubids and Mamluks
  • Genoa, Pisa, and Venice—The Big Three of Italian Maritime Commerce
  • Economic Activity in the Early Ottoman Empire
  • Mediterranean Sugar Production
  • Mediterranean Silk Production
  • Shipbuilding
  • The Indian Ocean—Market Place of Afro-Eurasia
  • Everyone Meets in Malacca—The Pivotal Place of Malacca in the Indian Ocean
  • The Spice of Life—The Trade in Spices
  • Indian Industries
  • Muslim Trading Groups in the Indian Ocean
  • Hormuz and Aden–Cities Built on and for Commerce
  • On the Way to Egypt—Commerce on the Red Sea
  • China, Economic Powerhouse of Afro-Eurasia
  • Chinese Light Industry from Song through Early Ming
  • Commercial Crops
  • China's Inland Waterway System
  • Chinese Market Towns
  • China's Commercial Cities
  • China's Tea and Horse Trade
  • Markets beyond China
  • Chinese Merchants in the Song Era
  • Europe's Economic Revolution
  • The Fairs of Northern Europe
  • Italy and the European Commercial Revolution
  • Latin Europe's Textile Industry
  • The Inland Waterway System of Europe
  • Christendom's Relics—Trade, Thievery, and Counterfeiting
  • Overcoming the Challenges of Geography
  • The Staple Industries of Mesoamerica
  • Luxury Industries in Mesoamerica—Metalware and Feathered Garments
  • Trade throughout Mesoamerica and Beyond
  • Artisan Crafts in the Andes— Textiles and Metals
  • The Incan Economy
  • Chaco Canyon—Consuming Nexus of a Trading Network
  • Trade along the Waterways of North America
  • The Trade Network of the Thule Inuit
  • The Network of Exchange in Micronesia
  • Trade within the Polynesian Triangle
  • Trade in Melanesia—Trade in Essential and Symbolic Wares
  • New Guinea and the Solomon Islands—Trade between Peoples of the Coast and Peoples of the Interior
  • War and Diplomacy
  • The Ideology of War and Peace
  • Jihad
  • Rumi—Sufi Apostle of Love
  • Mongol Justification of War
  • Western Europe—The Peace and Truce of God
  • Christian Warrior Saints
  • Islam's Counter-Crusade Ideology
  • Malicide not Homicide—The Military Religious Orders of the West
  • American Indian War as Ritual
  • Curing the Ills of War—War Ceremonies in North America
  • The Many Ways to Conduct War
  • The Armies of the Islamic Middle East
  • The Armies of Byzantium
  • The Armies of India—Muslim and Hindu Asia
  • The Armies of China
  • Early Ming—Grand Strategy along the Steppe Frontier
  • East Asian Navies, 1000–1600 CE
  • Armies of Japan
  • The Mongol Army
  • The Armies of Europe
  • The Peoples' Crusade of 1096
  • Armies of the First Crusade, 1096–1099 (or 1102)
  • Thirteenth-Century Crusader Armies
  • The Inca Army
  • Evidence for Warfare in North America
  • Diplomacy around the World
  • China's Border Policies and Diplomatic Tactics
  • Ambassadors of the Venetian Republic
  • Papal Legates to Eastern Christians
  • Byzantine War and Diplomacy
  • Zhenghe and Early Ming Diplomacy
  • Zheng He and Early Ming Diplomacy—A Second View
  • Mexica Diplomacy
  • Incan Diplomacy
  • An Era of Large-Scale Conflicts
  • The Seljuk Turks and Byzantium — A Byzantine Perspective
  • The Jerusalem Crusades, 1096–1272
  • Counter Crusades and Jihads—From Zangi to the Reconquest of Acre, 1291
  • The Baltic Crusades, circa 1150–1500
  • The Reconquista in Spain
  • Crusades against Heretics—From Languedoc to Bohemia
  • Thirteenth-Century Mongol Campaigns, Conquests, and Setbacks
  • The Later Crusades
  • The Hundred Years' War
  • Wars in Japan
  • Timur-i Leng's Campaigns
  • Ottoman Conquests to 1500
  • Ming China's Conflicts—Civil Discord, Japanese Raids, and Campaigns along the Frontiers
  • The Age of Great Captains and Their Warriors
  • Sundiata, Malinke Hero
  • Alp Arslan—The Brave Lion of Manzikert
  • Godfrey of Bouillon—Defender of the Holy Sepulcher
  • Two Parallel and Divergent Jihadists—Nur al-Din and Baybars
  • Crusader and Jihadist Atrocities and Acts of Chivalry
  • Hulegu—Conqueror of Baghdad
  • Zhu Yuanzhang—From Impoverished Peasant to First Ming Emperor
  • Motecuhtzoma Ilhuicamina—The Heaven Shooter
  • Pachacuti Inca, Legendary Empire Builder
  • Warriors by Caste—The Rajputs
  • Knights and Samurai
  • Courage Cultures—Turks, Mongols, Warriors of Oceania, and American Indians
  • The Tools of Warfare
  • Transit of Arms and Armaments across Eurasia
  • Gunpowder Weapons before 1500
  • Mongols and Gunpowder Weapons
  • Cavalry vis-á-vis Infantry
  • Castle Design in Southwest Asia and Europe
  • Siege Warfare across Eurasia
  • War and Transport Ships around the World
  • Mesoamerican War Strategy, Battle Tactics, and Armaments
  • Thought and Religion
  • The Search for the Divine Other
  • Major Indigenous Religious Traditions of Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The Continued Spread of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The Continued Advance of Islam and the Retreat of Buddhism in Central Asia and North India
  • The Turkic Christians of Inner Asia
  • Fatimid Shia and the Origin of the Druze
  • Saivism in Tamil India
  • Diaspora Jewish Theologians and Philosophers
  • Buddhism—From Court to Commoner
  • Eisai and the Triumph of Zen Buddhism in Japan
  • Nat Worship and the Ari Religion of Burma
  • Buddhism and the Cult of Shiva— Side by Side in Java
  • The Spread of Islam into Southeast Asia to 1500
  • The Cumans
  • Christendom beyond the West
  • The Widening Divide—Orthodox Constantinople and Catholic Rome, 1000–1453
  • Popular Piety and Heresy in Latin Christendom
  • Orthodoxy and Heresy in the Latin West
  • Conversions in Iberia
  • Mozarabs
  • Western European Visions of World Conversion
  • The Major Pantheons of Mesoamerica
  • Cosmological Duality in the Andean World
  • Andean and Mesoamerican Sacred Caves
  • Ball Games North of the Rio Grande
  • Major Religious Traditions in Oceania
  • Aristotelianism – Acceptance, Rejection, Accommodation
  • Arab and Jewish Aristotelians
  • The Early Application of Logic to the Christian Faith
  • The Rebirth of Aristotelian Philosophy in the Latin West
  • The Rejection of Aristotle and the Condemnations of 1277
  • William of Ockham and the Nominalist Challenge
  • The Place of the Human in the Cosmos
  • The Application of Sharia in India
  • Ibn Khaldun and the Humane Sciences
  • Zhu Xi and the Neo-Confucian Reshaping of Chinese Thought
  • Neo-Confucianism in Japan and Korea
  • Western Ethical Philosophy from Abelard to the Early Humanists
  • The West's Rediscovery of Plato—The Early Years
  • Science and Technology
  • The Advances and Limits of Medieval Science
  • Astronomy and Astrology around the World
  • Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi's Treatise on the Constellations (Kitab suwar al-kawakib al-thabita)
  • Science and Medicine in Byzantium—A Case of Cultural Interchange
  • The Oxford and Paris Physicists
  • Arabic Medicine
  • Development of Indian Medicine—Ayurveda
  • Development of Indian Medicine—Unani
  • Chinese Medicine
  • Western Medicine
  • Guy de Chauliac—The "Father of Modern Western Surgery"
  • The Medical Response to the Black Death
  • Magic in Europe
  • Leonardo of Pisa
  • Ritual and Shamanism in North America
  • Health and Medicine in North America
  • Expanding Knowledge of the World
  • Arab and Chinese Cartography
  • Al-Jazari's Compendium of Science and Useful Practices in the Making of Mechanical Devices
  • The World of John Mandeville
  • The World of Ibn Majid
  • Diffusion vis-à-vis Independent Invention
  • The Spread of Paper to Europe after 1000 CE
  • Adapting the Technology of Warfare
  • The Compass
  • Chinese Printing—Technological Innovations and Their Cultural Implications
  • Korean Printing to 1500 CE
  • European Printing
  • Technologies of the Ocean and the Sea
  • Technological Changes in Western Indian Ocean Shipping
  • Chinese Naval Technology
  • Innovations in Mediterranean Shipping
  • Innovations in Atlantic Ships— Caravels, Naus, and Carracks in the Age of Discovery
  • ERA 6: The First Global Age, 1450–1770
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • The Little Ice Age and Climate Change
  • Food Production and Population Change in Central Africa
  • Climate Changes in Early Modern Southeast Asia
  • Cold Times—The Little Ice Age in Western Europe
  • Creeping Cold—From New England to Coastal Alaska
  • Natural Disasters and Population
  • Natural Disasters in Early Modern South Asia
  • Earthquakes in the Early Modern World
  • Sixteenth-Century Demographic Catastrophes in Peru
  • Spread of Invasive Species
  • Ecological and Biological Exchanges in Oceania
  • Human Environmental Impact
  • Cities and Gardens in the Muslim World
  • China's Fifteenth-Century Agricultural Plateau
  • Shaping the Land in Teahouse Japan
  • Driven to Extinction — The Siberian Fur Trade
  • Canal Building in Europe
  • Advance of the Three Sisters — Agricultural Revolution in the Americas
  • Driven to Extinction—The North American Fur Trade
  • The Columbian Exchange and Human Adaptation
  • The Columbian Exchange in Africa
  • The Columbian Exchange in Africa and the Muslim World
  • The Columbian Exchange in West Asia
  • Irrigation Systems in Early Modern South India
  • Digging Salt Earth — The Subtropical Environment and Saltpeter Production in Early Modern India
  • The Columbian Exchange in East Asia
  • The Columbian Exchange in Europe
  • The Age of Buckwheat—Climate, Food, and Famine in Early Modern Europe
  • Changes in the Land—Human Alterations in the Environment of British North America
  • Horse Cultures—European Influences on America's Pampas
  • Effects of European Agriculture on the American Environment
  • Emergence of Horse Culture on America's Great Plains
  • The Chamorro and the Columbian Exchange in the Marianas
  • Demographic Changes
  • West Africa's Tears—Population Movement and Loss
  • Christian and Muslim Responses to Epidemics and Diseases in West Asia
  • Population Growth in Early Modern India
  • China's Population Boom
  • The Great Epidemics in China, 1586-1589 and 1639-1644
  • Population Fluctuations in Europe
  • European Emigration— World and the Americas
  • "The Indians … Are Its Riches" — Depopulation of the Caribbean and Mesoamerica after 1492
  • Mississippian Mystery–Where Did the Moundbuilders Go?
  • Virgin Soil Epidemics in North America
  • Smallpox and Slavery–Demographic Catastrophe within the Americas
  • Spanish Contact and Population Loss in the Marianas
  • Envisioning the Environment
  • Early European Studies of the Indian Environment
  • The Tokugawa Garden
  • Nature in the Ming Imagination
  • Western Ideas of Nature
  • Constructing Catastrophe—Western Ideas of Natural Disasters
  • Representing Europe's Crisis of the Seventeenth Century
  • Society and Culture
  • Village and Town Life — Traditions and Innovations
  • Life in the Village and the State under the Great African Empires— Songhai and Kanem-Bornu
  • Ottoman Expansionism in North Africa during the First Global Age
  • Muslimization under Idris Alawma
  • Hindu Village Life in Early Modern Northern India— Zamindars, Caste, Varna, and Jajmani
  • Yin Yu Tang—Life in the Qing Village
  • The Double Structure of Japanese Life
  • Village and Town Life in Europe
  • Village and Town Life in Spanish America
  • Village and Town Life in Colonial Brazil
  • Carib Slavery—Spanish Colonial Control over Caribbean Labor
  • Town Meeting and General Court—New England's Representative Institutions
  • City Life around the World
  • For Gold and Slaves—Africa's Coastal Cities
  • Trade and Culture Flourish in Africa's Desert Cities
  • Constantinople under the Ottomans
  • Urbanization in Early Modern India
  • Macao and Nagasaki—Containing the Outer Barbarians in East Asia
  • Ayutthaya as a Cosmopolitan Center
  • Portugal's Colonial Cities
  • Islamic Centers in Southeast Asia
  • Cross-cultural Contact and Trade Networks in Islamic Central Asia
  • Nobles and Commoners in Early Modern Europe
  • Urban Growth in Europe
  • New Cities—St. Petersburg
  • From Tenochtitlan to Mexico City
  • British Colonial Cities in America
  • Hierarchies and Colonial Relationships
  • The Ruling Institution in the Ottoman Empire
  • White Town and Black Town—Madras and the Coromandel in South India
  • The Chinese Examination System—Progress and Abolition
  • Subjugating Japanese Peasants–The Tokugawa Period
  • Mardijker—Creoles in Batavia
  • Crossing Over—Cultural Transformation in Portuguese India
  • Serfdom in Eastern Europe and Russia
  • Race and Class in Colonial Latin America
  • African Communities in Belize
  • Gender and Social Hierarchies
  • Women in China
  • Concepts of Masculinity in China, 1450–1750
  • Women and Family in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Ottoman Wives and Concubines
  • Private Sphere, Public Sphere in China
  • Ladies of Quality—Ideals of Womanhood in the Early Modern West
  • Western Concepts of Masculinity
  • Eunuchs in the Political Sphere
  • Homosexuality in the Early Modern World
  • A Pirate's Life for Me—Sixteenth-Century Shipboard Conditions
  • Gender and Morality–Eastern Europe
  • Family and Gender in Early Modern Russia
  • Print Culture in the Early Modern West, 1400-1800
  • Mohawk Womanhood
  • Society and Culture in the Age of Accelerating Contact
  • Literature in East Asia
  • Literature in Europe and West Asia
  • The Arts in Early Modern India
  • In a Persian Garden
  • The Three Perfections (Sanjue)
  • Haikai and Kabuki
  • Mughal Aesthetics
  • Ottoman Religious Architecture
  • European Architecture—Palace and Cathedral
  • European Religious Art from Renaissance to Baroque
  • European Drama—Shakespeare, Marlowe, Lope de Vega, Calderon, Moliere, and Gil Vicente
  • The Baroque and Classical Revolutions in Western Music
  • The Highest Form of Flattery— The Influence of European Art on Mughal India
  • Global Cultural Exchange
  • Columbian Exchange and Disease
  • Cultural Exchange between Europe and the Islamic Middle East
  • Early European Cultural Influences in India
  • Early Modern European Cultural Understandings of Hindu India
  • The Making of an Islamic Peasant Culture in Bengal
  • The Columbian Exchange in Southeast Asia
  • The Columbian Exchange and the Mediterranean
  • The Columbian Exchange and Northern Europe
  • The Columbian Exchange and North America
  • Captivity Narratives—German Settlers among American Indians
  • Migration and Travel
  • First Encounters
  • Christopher Columbus after 1493
  • Spanish Exploration of North America
  • Spanish Exploration of Central and South America
  • Spanish Enter the Philippines
  • Portuguese Exploration of the West African Coastline
  • Portuguese Exploration of Amazonia
  • Portuguese Expansion in the Indian Ocean
  • Vasco da Gama, Renaissance Crusader
  • The First Englishmen in India
  • English Exploration of North America
  • French Exploration of North America
  • Dutch Exploration of the New World and Oceania
  • Muslim Explorations
  • Russian Exploration of Siberia and Asia
  • New Channels for Cultural Contact and Exchange
  • Dhimmis, "People of the Book" — Christian and Jewish Traders in the Ottoman Empire
  • Island Migration—Southwestern Indian Ocean Patterns
  • Population Movements in Dar-es-Salaam—Islamic Migrations
  • Island Migration— Caribbean Ocean Patterns
  • Jewish Expulsions and Migrations
  • Overland Trade Continues and Increases
  • The East Indiamen Ships and Their Voyages to and from India
  • Russian Expansion and Indigenous Population Decline
  • Safavid Shia as Isolationist Force in Central Asia (Shia as the Majority in the Empire)
  • From the Manor to the City-Continued Urbanization in Europe
  • European Immigration to North America
  • German Immigration to North America
  • The Portuguese Discovery of Australia?
  • A Great Wave—Chinese Migration to Manchuria, Szechuan (Sichuan), Taiwan, and the Southwest
  • Agents of Contact
  • Piano da India
  • Michele Ruggieri—The First Jesuit in China
  • Traditions and Adaptation in Slavery
  • Ten Million Africans— The Demographics of Slavery
  • The Experience of Enslavement-African Views
  • The Indian Ocean Slave Trade
  • Maroon Societies— Colonial Mauritius
  • Maroon Communities in the Americas and Caribbean
  • Forced Resettlement in Gunpowder Empires
  • Forced Migrations—The British Transatlantic Slave Trade
  • African Muslims in the Americas
  • Indian Ocean and Trans-Sahara Slave Trade
  • Enslavement and Forced Migration in the Inca Empire
  • Enslavement in the Aztec Empire
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Control, Coercion, and Crime in State and Empire
  • Slave Power Empires
  • African Political Organization
  • The Ottomans as a Gunpowder Empire
  • Crime, Policing, Legal Systems, and Punishment in Early Modern India
  • Exerting Imperial Control under the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911) Dynasties
  • Sengoku Jidai — The Warring States Era in Japan, 1467-1600
  • The Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Vietnam—The Nguyen Lords
  • From the Prince to the Sun King—The Absolutist State in Early Modern Europe
  • Absolutism in Eastern Europe
  • Pirates and Privateers
  • Runaway Slaves in Colonial Virginia
  • Centralizing Forces in Polynesia before Contact
  • Early Modern Political Systems
  • African Politics
  • East Africa—Omani Rule and Portuguese Retreat
  • Songhai—Last of the Savanna Empires
  • The White Man's Grave—How Extensive Was Early Contact?
  • The Ottoman Empire as a Superpower
  • The Mughals in India
  • The Safavids in Persia
  • The Estado da India, Portugal's Seaborne Empire
  • China's Turn Inward—Did the Middle Kingdom Isolate Itself?
  • Muslim Sultanates Replace Hindu States in Sumatra and Java, 1500s
  • Lan Xang (The Land of a Million Elephants)—The Lao State in Southeast Asia
  • Early British Empire Building in Asia
  • Absolutism in Practice
  • Composite Kingdoms in Early Modern Europe
  • Russian Autocracy—Rise of the Tsars
  • Council of the Indies, Viceroys, and Audiencias
  • Corregidor Rule and Native Response
  • Innovations in Political Thought
  • Niccolò Machiavelli
  • Thomas Hobbes and Political Thought
  • John Locke and Enlightenment Political Thought
  • The Enlightenment and Political Philosophy
  • The Reign of Absolutism in Western Thought
  • From Divine Right to Rational Foundations in Political Thought
  • Anglo-Portuguese Relations
  • Development of Habsburg Policy
  • Politics and Religion
  • Reformation Germany
  • Reformation in Switzerland
  • The English Reformation
  • Catholic Reformation
  • Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions
  • Ottoman Millet System and Religious Tolerance
  • Religious Fringe and Politics
  • Shia Islam under the Safavids
  • Mughal Religious Policy— Akbar and Jahangir
  • Mughal Religious PolicyShah Jahan and Aurangzeb
  • Trading Guns for Religion — Anti-Christian Policies in Tokugawa Japan
  • Toleration, the Career of a Concept
  • Sacred and Secular Authority in the West, 1500-1789
  • Politics and Gender
  • African Matriarchy?
  • Queen Regents in Early Modern India
  • Female Rulers of Early Modern Europe
  • Queen Regents in Early Modern Europe
  • Female Rulers in Early Modern Eastern Europe
  • Patterns of Conquest and Rebellion
  • Akbar’s Subjugation of Rajasthan
  • The Mughal Invasion of the Deccan and the Maratha Response
  • Constructing Empire—Portuguese Ideas of Expansion, Particularly toward the East
  • Spanish Settlement of the Antilles
  • Portuguese Settlement of Brazil
  • Revolutionary Currents—Development of Representation
  • Arena for Conquest—Early Modern Italy
  • The Language of Conquest in Early Modern Europe
  • The Invasion of Mesoamerica
  • The Portuguese Revolt of 1640
  • Native American Resistance Movements
  • European and Native American Alliances
  • European Crusades against the Turks
  • The Changing Face of the European Crusade–Protestants and Pagans
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
  • The Fronde in France
  • "Time of Troubles" in Russia, 1598–1613
  • Civil War in the Inca Empire
  • Japanese Invasion of Korea
  • German Peasants’ War
  • Economics and Trade
  • Innovations in Domestic Economy and Trade
  • High Finance and Taxation—The Flourishing Economy of Early Modern India
  • India’s Textiles—Peasant Weaving and the Rise of Capitalism
  • Economic Growth in Tokugawa Japan
  • Venetian Shipyards
  • The European Commercial Revolution
  • Mercantilism and Colbertism—Ideas and Practice
  • The Latin American Price Revolution
  • Customs Collection in Revolutionary America
  • Indentured Servitude in the Atlantic Economy
  • The Consumer Revolution in British North America
  • Fashioning Global Organizations
  • Slave Factories—The Economics of the African Slave Trade
  • Middlemen—Arab Merchants in Two Worlds
  • Hong Merchants
  • Dutch East India Company
  • The Dutch East India Company in Japan
  • English East India Company
  • Slave Plantations in the British Caribbean and North America
  • Innovations in the Plantation Complex—The Encomienda and Hacienda in Hispanic America
  • Slave Plantations in Portuguese Brazil
  • Commercial Expeditions in Early Colonial North America
  • Sea Lanes and Marketplaces—Early Global Trade Centers and Networks
  • The Columbian Exchange and African Economics and Trade
  • Economic Effects of Portuguese Expansion into East Africa and the Omani Conquest of Zanzibar
  • Songhai Commerce
  • Gujarat—Indian Imperialism on the Coast
  • Linchpins of the East Asian Economy—Ryukyu and Malacca
  • "Life So Affluent"—Asia’s Great Age of Commerce
  • Macao as a Trading Center
  • The Achean Pepper Trade— Taking the Trade from India
  • The Spice Islands in Southeast Asian Trade
  • Centralizing the Siberian Fur Trade
  • Western Economic Expansion in Central Eurasia
  • The Worst of Enemies and the Best of Friends—Anglo-Portuguese Treaties, 1642–1703
  • Early Modern Silver Trade
  • Couriers du Bois—The Canadian Fur Trade
  • Trade Goods for a World Market
  • Mughal Decorative Arts for Western Styles
  • The Chinese Porcelain Trade— "To Please the Eyes of the Europeans"
  • Pepper Country—Sixteenth-Century Malabar, India, in the Global Marketplace
  • Ruling the Tea Lanes—Shipping Tea to America
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Ideologies of Domination
  • The Ain-i Akbari—Akbar’s Empire in a Book
  • The Mandate of Heaven
  • Kejawen—Religious Resistance on Java
  • Reconquista and Inquisition— Ethnic Cleansing in Early Modern Europe
  • Naval Strategy—Guerre d’escadre and Guerre de course
  • Portuguese and Spanish Justifications for Conquest
  • Christian Missions—Catholic and Protestant Approaches to Conversion
  • The Pueblo Revolts in New Mexico, 1680
  • Slave Revolts in British North America—Virginia, New York, and South Carolina
  • Diplomacy and Diplomats
  • Political Embassies in Early Modern India
  • Laihua Diplomacy under Ming-Qing Rule
  • The Puzzle House of the East— Jesuit Diplomacy under Matteo Ricci
  • Japanese Diplomacy under Tokugawa
  • The Aesthetics of Diplomacy— Representations of Diplomatic Encounters
  • The Diplomacy of Commerce— European Merchants as Ambassadors
  • Innovations in European Diplomacy
  • Peace of Westphalia and the Creation of a New Order
  • Religious Truces in Europe
  • Peace of Karlowitz and the End of Ottoman Expansion
  • The Salé Rovers
  • The Barbary Problem— Diplomatic Accommodation in the Contested Mediterranean
  • Commodore Anson’s Embassy, 1743
  • Pocahontas Stories— Mythologies of Friendship and Affiliation
  • Smallpox Diplomacy—Sir Jeffrey Amherst and Pontiac’s Rebellion
  • A Military Revolution or Evolution?
  • European Military Transformations
  • The Rise of European Naval Power
  • Military Transformation in Eurasia
  • European Mercenaries and Renegades
  • The Incan Military Response to the Conquistadores
  • Wars of Empire
  • Wars of Nation and Empire— The Second Hundred Years’ War
  • Establishment of Ottomans as Empire
  • Ottoman Expansion into Eastern Europe
  • Austro-Ottoman Rivalry
  • Russo-Ottoman Wars
  • Ottoman-Safavid Wars
  • Mughal-Safavid Wars
  • Islamic Wars Of Empire In West Africa
  • Valois-Habsburg Rivalry
  • War of the Austrian Succession, 1740–1748
  • War of the Spanish Succession, 1702–1713
  • Sixteenth-Century Wars in Italy
  • A History of the British Raj
  • The Rise of Prussia
  • Wars of Colonial Expansion
  • Pepper Wars—The Struggle for the Spice Islands
  • The Campaigns of Afonso de Albuquerque
  • The Spanish Regime in the Philippines
  • English Seafaring during the Sixteenth Century
  • The Dutch Regime in Indonesia
  • Russian Expansion into Siberia and Central Asia—Yermak the Conquerer
  • Contesting the Sugar Islands—The Franco-British Wars in the Caribbean
  • Early Modern Maritime Empires and Expansion
  • Habsburg Spain as a World Empire
  • Bourbon France as a World Empire
  • The Colonial Wars in North America
  • Cycle of Conquest—Iberian Expansion into the Pacific
  • Vitus Bring and Russia's Pacific Exploration, 1725–1742
  • British Exploration in the Pacific
  • Europe’s Wars of Religion
  • French Wars of Religion, the Prelude
  • French Wars of Religion, 1562–1598
  • English Civil War to the Interregnum
  • English Restoration to the Glorious Revolution
  • Thirty Years’ War
  • Wars of Religion—The Eastern European Experience
  • Habsburg-Dutch War (Eighty Years’ War)
  • Alliances of Convenience
  • Hormuz Hustle—The English-Persian Alliance Ousts the Portuguese, 1622
  • Changing Sides—Authority and Loyalty in Early Modern Europe
  • Dutch Policy in the East Indies
  • Dona Marina and the Conquest of the Aztecs
  • European Traders and the Tupi in Brazil
  • Thought and Religion
  • Invention and Innovation in Ways of Thinking
  • China’s and Japan’s Christian Centuries
  • Resolution and Composition— The Beginnings of the Scientific Method
  • The Dignity of Man— Renaissance Humanism, Secularism, Individualism
  • The Evolution of Renaissance Classicism
  • Europe’s Age of Reason
  • Peace of Prague
  • The Age of Discovery
  • Jewish Mysticism
  • The Rise of the Dalai Lamas in Tibet
  • The Rise of Sikh Belief and Community
  • Christian Humanism in Europe
  • Baldassare Castiglione and His Idea of the "Renaissance Man"
  • Skepticism
  • Bible Translations and Historical Criticism
  • Envisioning Each Other
  • An Amazingly Curious People— Dutch Maritime Accounts
  • Ethiopia Oriental—Europeans Imagine Africa
  • South Asia Imagines Europe
  • China and the Western Barbarians
  • Rangaku—Japan Imagines Europe
  • Native Filipino Reactions to the Spanish at the Time of Contact
  • Noble Savages and Howling Wildernesses—Europe Imagines America
  • Early Modern English Accounts of the Irish
  • Vespucci’s World—Europe Imagines America
  • Mesomerican Responses to the Spanish Encounter
  • Alexander von Humboldt, Political Essay on the Kingdom of New Spain
  • Black African Visions of Colonial American Society
  • Global Religious Movement—New Wine in Old Bottles
  • Thought and Religion during the Expansion of Islam in West Africa
  • The Coming of Christianity to the Kongo
  • Ethiopian Resistance to Muslim Encroachment
  • Neo-Confucianism in Ming/Qing Thought
  • Neo-Confucian Ideology in Japan
  • Cycles of Decline and Renewal of Buddhism
  • Christianity in East Asia
  • The Spread of Christianity in Southeast Asia
  • Catholic Mysticism and Utopians
  • Protest and Reform
  • The Catholic Response and the Rise of New Orders
  • Global Cult of Mary
  • The Global Cult of Jesus
  • Jewish Messianic Movements
  • Catholic Crusaders in Imperial Service
  • Quetzalcoatl and the Virgin— The Patois of Indigenous Religion and Imposed Catholicism
  • The Jesuit Relations
  • The Praying Indians
  • Conjure
  • The Quaker Experience in Early America
  • The Adoption of Crusade Ideology in Mesoamerica
  • New Sites of intellectual Inquiry
  • The White Deer Cave Academy— Confucianism in Japan
  • The Madrasas of Ottoman Istanbul
  • Universities as Centers of European Learning
  • Academies of Science in Europe
  • The Jesuits and Intellectual Inquiry
  • Salons, Women, and the Spread of the Enlightenment
  • William King, Archbishop of Dublin
  • Universities and Intellectua Centers in Colonial North America
  • Cycles of Tolerance and Persecution
  • Sunni-Shia Conflict in West Asia
  • Syncretic Monotheism under Akbar the Great
  • Cycles of Tolerance an Persecution under Aurangzeb
  • The Development of Sik Syncretic Monotheism
  • The Spread of the (Hindu Maratha State
  • Neo-Confucianism as Ming/Qing Ideology
  • Kannon and Mary— Two Merciful Mothers
  • Catholic Inquisition
  • Witch-hunting in Western Europe
  • Women in the European Reformation
  • Defining the Limits of Toleration in Post-Reformation Europe
  • The Limits of Enlightenment
  • Superstition and Witch-hunting in Eastern Europe
  • Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions in the Americas
  • Witches, Quakers, and Dissidents in British North America
  • Ecclesia and Doctrine
  • The Eucharistic Theology of John Calvin
  • Luther and Zwingli
  • John Knox
  • Nikon’s Reforms
  • Creating the Anglican Church
  • The Church of Ireland, 1688–1729
  • Congregatio de Propaganda Fide
  • Congregationalism in Colonial New England
  • Puritans and Protestantism
  • Science and Technology
  • Renaissance to the Scientific Revolution
  • Man Apart—The Renaissance
  • Creating a New World— Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, and Bruno
  • Galileo’s World—Europe’s Scientific Revolution
  • A New World Order— Newton’s Principia and Bowditch’s Navigator
  • Mechanistic Philosophy
  • The Beginnings of the Scientific Method—Francis Bacon and René Descartes
  • Kaozheng
  • Innovations in Navigation
  • Expanding Knowledge of the World—Knowledge Transfers
  • On European Time in Asia— Jesuit Reform of the Chinese Calendar, 1640s
  • Propagatio Fidei per Scientia—Matteo Ricci and Chinese Astronomy
  • Self-Sounding Bells in Chinese Culture
  • Chinese Astronomical Clocks and European Mechanical Clocks
  • The Fifth Dalai Lama and Advances in Tibetan Medicine
  • Early Modern European Archaeology
  • Rice Culture from Angola to South Carolina
  • The Pocahontas Exchange— Tobacco Culture in Virginia, 1610s
  • New Technologies of Learning
  • Technologies of the Word— Movable Type and the Printing Press
  • Chinese Printing—Technological Innovations and Their Cultural Implications, 1500–1800
  • Technologies of Vision—The Telescope and Microscope
  • Navigational Technologies
  • The Order of New Worlds— European Cartography after Columbus
  • "Guns and Steel"—Military Technology and Conquest
  • Europe’s New Warfare in West Asia
  • Tools for Gunpowder Empires
  • In the Wake of the Caravel— Innovations in the Brig, Schooner, and Sloop
  • The New Warfare—Gunpowder, Artillery, and Muskets
  • Fortresses Design in Europe and Asia
  • Western Maritime Technologies as Tools of Empire
  • Military Technologies on the Habsburg-Ottoman Frontier during the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
  • Innovations in Medicine
  • Medicine—Physiology and Anatomy
  • Medicine—Pharmacology
  • Medicine in Islam
  • Medicine in Mesoamerica
  • Smallpox Inoculation
  • Carrying Inoculation from Africa to Boston
  • Science and Gender
  • Women and Learning
  • Women Scientists
  • ERA 7: The Age of Revolutions, 1750–1914
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Weather and Climate
  • Environmental Change and Disease Transmission
  • Theories of Climate Change
  • El Niño-Southern Oscillation, 1870–1900
  • Climate, Weather, and the French Revolution
  • Environmental Consequences of Human Activities
  • Changing Patterns of African Land Use
  • Deforestation as Global Phenomenon
  • Chinese Agriculture—Land Issues and Population Growth
  • Population Growth and Environmental Degradation in China
  • Air Pollution and the Industrial Revolution in Europe
  • Human Impact on the Water Cycle
  • The Columbian Exchange
  • Extinctions and Near-Extinctions
  • The Rise and Fall of the Worldwide Whaling Industry
  • Polluted Waterways—The Thames River and London's Big Stink of 1858
  • The Opening of the Great Plains in the Americas
  • The Emergence of the Ranch in the American West
  • Disease Epidemics and Human Response
  • The Bubonic and Pneumonic Plague
  • Understanding the Plague
  • Smallpox
  • The Campaigns for Inoculation against Smallpox
  • Yellow Fever
  • Malaria
  • Cholera
  • Venereal Diseases
  • Hansen's Disease—Incidence and Treatment
  • Clean Water and Sanitation in Africa and Asia
  • The Sanitation Revolution and Public Health Movements in Europe and the Americas
  • Tuberculosis
  • Foreign Diseases in Oceania
  • World Population Patterns
  • Population Patterns in Asia
  • Population Patterns in Africa
  • Population Patterns in North America
  • Population Patterns in Latin America
  • Population Patterns in Oceania
  • Thinking about Population—Malthus
  • Race Suicide
  • Birthrate Reduction through Family Planning
  • Urbanization in India under Colonial Rule
  • City Growth in East Asia
  • Urbanization in Europe
  • City Planning—Haussmann's Paris
  • Housing Reform
  • The Growth of Cities in the United States, 1820–1914
  • American Urban Landscape Architecture—Frederick Law Olmsted
  • Mass Transportation
  • Thinking about Nature
  • The Enlightenment Tradition—Thinking about Nature
  • Natural History and the Roots of the Modern Environmental Movement
  • Early Environmental Groups
  • American Transcendentalism and Nature
  • The National Parks Movement in the United States
  • Painted Nature—Nineteenth-Century Landscape
  • Society and culture
  • Families
  • African Families in the Early Colonial Era
  • Family Law in Meiji Japan—The Civil Code of 1898
  • Hindu Critics of Traditional Indian Marriage—Rammohan Roy and Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar
  • Family Law in Revolutionary and Napoleonic France
  • Family Law in Nineteenth-Century Europe—Marriage, Women's Status, and Child Custody
  • Divorce Law in Europe and the United States
  • Childhood
  • Birth Control
  • Social Change
  • The Chinese Gentry in the Late Qing Era
  • Chinese Merchants
  • Chinese Peasants
  • Japanese Society during the Late Tokugawa Period
  • Social Change in the Meiji Period
  • Social Change in India during British Rule
  • European Society during the Old Regime
  • The Middle Class in Industrial Societies
  • Middle-Class Values and Self-Help Books
  • The Working Class and Political Tensions in Early Industrial Britain
  • Social Change in Latin America
  • The End of Slavery and Serfdom
  • Eighteenth-Century Critics of Slavery
  • Antislavery Movements in the United States
  • Abolition of the European Slave Trade
  • The End of Serfdom in Prussia, Austria-Hungary, and Poland
  • The Abolition of Serfdom In Russia
  • Abolitionist Movements in Great Britain and Europe
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Women in Meiji Japan
  • Feminism in Late Qing China
  • The Ending of Sati in India
  • Ottoman Women
  • Eighteenth-Century Feminist Writers
  • Women Workers in the Industrial Revolution
  • Women and the French Revolution
  • The Cult of Domesticity in the United States and Britain
  • Domestic Violence in Europe in the United States
  • New Professional Opportunities for Women—Nursing, Teaching, Clerical
  • Housework
  • Feminist Movements in the United States
  • Feminist Movements in Europe
  • European Women and Imperialism
  • Feminism in Latin American Societies
  • Sex in Enlightenment Thought
  • Homosexuality
  • Lesbianism
  • Prostitution
  • Abortion
  • The Scientific Study of Sexual Relations in Europe
  • Education and Literacy
  • British Educational Policies in India
  • Missionary Schools in Colonial Africa
  • Missionary Schools in China
  • Missionary Schools in Oceania
  • Education in Meiji Japan
  • Education in Colonial Southeast Asia
  • Education in Latin America after Independence
  • Public Education in Europe and the Americas
  • The Evolution of Newspapers in Europe and the Americas
  • Books and Reading
  • Public Libraries
  • Public Museums
  • Public Art Galleries, 1750–1900
  • Kindergarten Movement
  • Food and Drink
  • New World Foods in Nineteenth-Century India and Southeast Asia
  • Food Policy in Meiji Japan
  • Preserving Food—Bottling and Canning
  • Food and the Industrial Revolution—Production and Marketing
  • The Invention of the Restaurant in France
  • Working-Class Diet in Nineteenth-Century Europe
  • The Cooking Revolution in the West—Cooking Ranges and Cookbooks
  • Wine and World Commerce
  • Food and Health—Regulating Adulterated Food
  • Taverns and Saloons
  • The Temperance Movement in the United States
  • Temperance Movement in Great Britain
  • Leisure in the Industrial Era
  • Board Games and Puzzles in Europe and the United States
  • Music Halls in Britain and France
  • World's Fairs
  • Circus
  • Amusement Parks
  • Cycling
  • Golf
  • Tennis
  • Cricket
  • The Organization of Horse Racing in Eighteenth-Century England
  • Association Football
  • Rugby Football
  • Baseball
  • Baseball in Meiji Japan and Latin America
  • Ice Hockey
  • American Football
  • Athletics—Track and Field
  • Sports and Nationalism— The Gaelic Athletic Association
  • The Professionalization of Sports in Europe and the United States
  • Sports and Imperialism— British Sports in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies
  • Cross-Cultural Encounters
  • African Influences on European Culture, circa 1900
  • Chinoiserie
  • Japonisme
  • European Influence on Indian Painting, 1700–1900
  • British Scholars and the Indian Renaissance
  • The Japanese Cult of the West in the Meiji Period
  • The Beginnings of Jazz in America
  • The French School of the Far East
  • The Birth of Modernism in Europe, 1880–1914
  • Literary Symbolism
  • Impressionist Art and Music
  • Postimpressionism
  • Cubism
  • Futurism
  • Migration and Travel
  • Involuntary Migration
  • The Transatlantic Slave Trade, 1750–1900
  • The Slave Trade on Africa's East Coast
  • The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade
  • Migrant Labor in South Africa
  • Transportation of Convicts to Australia
  • Indigenous Australians in the Nineteenth Century
  • Maori Migration in New Zealand
  • Native American Migrations in the United States
  • Native Peoples of Canada
  • Indigenous Peoples and European Expansion in South America
  • Voluntary Migration
  • Indian Emigration to Africa, Trinidad, Guyana, and the Pacific
  • Indian Diaspora in Central Asia
  • Chinese Emigration to Southeast Asia and the Americas
  • Immigration to the United States, 1750–1820
  • Immigration to the United States, 1820–1880
  • Immigration to the United States, 1880–1914
  • Canadian Immigration
  • Migration to Latin America, 1800–1914
  • European Migration to Australia, New Zealand, and Africa
  • Migrant Workers and Worldwide Railroad Construction— The Navvies
  • Jewish Migration to Palestine
  • Nineteenth-Century Gold Rushes
  • The Great Trek
  • Russian Migration to Siberia
  • Westward Migration in the United States
  • Immigration Restrictions in the United States and White Settler Colonies
  • Exploration
  • Explorations of Africa
  • Explorations in Central and Southwestern Asia
  • Western Travelers and Explorers in Southeast Asia
  • European Explorers in the Pacific
  • The Mapping of Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand
  • Polar Expeditions
  • Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804–1806
  • Travel and Tourism
  • The Era of the Grand Tour
  • Religious Pilgrimage and the Railroad in India
  • The Hajj in an Era of Steam Travel
  • European and American Tourism in the Railway Age
  • Seaside Resorts
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Government and Politics, 1750–1800
  • The Ottoman Empire—Government Practices and Institutions, 1750–1800
  • Chinese Government during the Reign of Qianlong, 1736–1795
  • Japanese Government and Politics in the Eighteenth Century
  • Enlightened Despotism in Prussia, the Habsburg Empire, Sweden, and Spain
  • Russia under Catherine the Great
  • Revolts and Revolutions, 1770–1820
  • Late-Eighteenth-Century Rebellions in Latin America
  • Pugachev's Rebellion
  • The White Lotus Rebellion
  • The American Revolution
  • The Founding of the United States of America
  • The Origins and Early Stages of the French Revolution
  • The Reign of Terror
  • The Era of the Directory
  • Nationalism in the Era of the French Revolution
  • France under Napoleon
  • Haitian Revolution
  • Spanish American Wars of Independence—Causes
  • The Independence of Brazil
  • African Politics before the Scramble
  • The Formation of the Sokoto Caliphate
  • Political Developments in East Africa, 1750–1880
  • Political Developments in Central Africa, 1750–1880
  • Political Developments in Europe, 1815–1914
  • The Decembrist Revolt, 1825
  • The Revolutions of 1830
  • The Revolutions of 1848
  • The Paris Commune of 1871
  • Politics of the French Third Republic
  • The Fight for Women's Suffrage in Great Britain and the United States
  • The Unification of Italy
  • The Unification of Germany
  • Nationalist Revolts in the Balkans
  • Political Developments in Britain, 1815–1914
  • Political Transformations in Austria-Hungary, 1815–1914
  • Poland under Russian Rule, 1772–1918
  • Russia to 1905
  • Liberalism
  • Conservatism—French Revolution to WWI
  • Republicanism
  • Utopian Socialism
  • Marxism
  • Socialist Revisionism
  • Anarchism
  • The Changing Face of Nationalism, 1870–1914
  • Political Developments in the Americas to 1914
  • U.S. Territorial Expansion
  • Sectional Conflict and the Origins of the Civil War
  • Political Ramifications of the American Civil War
  • Canadian Westward Expansion
  • Self-Government in Pre-Dominion Canada — The Durham Report
  • Politics in Postconfederation Canada, 1867–1914
  • Conservatism and Liberalism in Nineteenth-Century Latin America
  • Nineteenth-Century Latin American Politics–Centralists versus Federalists
  • Church-State Relations in Latin America after Independence
  • Caudillos
  • La Reforma in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Mexico
  • Mexico Under Porfirio Díaz
  • The Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and Persia in the Nineteenth Century
  • Persia under the Zand and Qajar Dynasties to 1900
  • The Tanzimat Era in the Ottoman Empire
  • The Young Ottomans
  • The Era of Abdulhamid II
  • Napoleon in Egypt
  • Modernization in Egypt—Muhammad Ali and Ismail
  • British Colonialism in Egypt
  • Arab Nationalism before 1914
  • Armenians in the Ottoman Empire
  • East Asia
  • The Nian Rebellion
  • Taiping Revolt
  • The Self-Strengthening Movement
  • The Hundred Days' Reform
  • Boxer Rebellion
  • Sun Yatsen and the Beginnings of China's Revolutionary Tradition
  • Commodore Perry and the Opening of Japan
  • Political Tensions in Pre-Meiji Japan
  • The Meiji Restoration
  • Government and Politics in Meiji Japan
  • The Formation of New Empires
  • Eighteenth-Century Chinese Imperialism in Mongolia, Nepal, Burma, and Tibet
  • The Causes of Europe's New Imperialism
  • France in Algeria
  • Berlin Conference
  • Scramble for Africa
  • Japanese Imperialism in the Meiji Era
  • The United States as an Imperial Power
  • New Russian Territories in Central Asia
  • The "Great Game"
  • The Beginnings of British Rule in India
  • Colonial Rule in Africa to 1914
  • Italian Empire—Building in Africa
  • The British and Indirect Rule in Africa
  • French Colonial Policy in Africa, 1750–1900
  • The Congo under Leopold II and Belgium
  • British Policy in South Africa
  • The Founding of the Union of South Africa
  • German Colonial Policy
  • African Resistance to Colonial Rule
  • South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania in the Nineteenth Century
  • British Administration in India, 1756–1858
  • The Indian Mutiny
  • British Administration in India, 1858–1914
  • The Beginnings of Indian Nationalism
  • The Founding of the Indian National Congress
  • European Colonialism in Oceania
  • French Imperialism in Southeast Asia
  • Resistance to French Imperialism
  • Reform and Innovation in Siam (Thailand)
  • The Dutch East Indies
  • The End of Spanish Rule in the Philippines
  • Philippine Revolution, 1896–1898
  • Philippine War of Independence,1899–1902
  • European Imperialism in the Pacific
  • Economics and Trade
  • Agriculture
  • African Agriculture
  • Indian Agriculture under British Rule
  • The Cultivation System in the Dutch East Indies
  • White Settler Farming in Africa
  • Farming in Meiji Japan
  • The Opening of the American Great Plains
  • Changes in Agricultural Technology
  • Agriculture and Science
  • The Energy Revolution
  • Advances in Waterpower
  • James Watt and the Steam Engine
  • Coal Production and Its Uses
  • Harnessing Electricity in the United States
  • Petroleum and the Petroleum Industry
  • The Industrial Revolution in the West
  • Industrial Organization before the Industrial Revolution
  • Great Britain and Its Continental Competitors in the Early Industrial Revolution
  • Technology and the Early Industrial Revolution
  • Textile Manufacturing in Eighteenth-Century England
  • Early Industrial Revolution in Continental Europe
  • The Second Industrial Revolution in Europe and the United States,1850–1914
  • Industrialization in Russia
  • Industrialization in the United States
  • The Organization of Industry—Division of Labor, the Factory, and Interchangeable Parts
  • Scientific Management
  • Fordism
  • Industrialization in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
  • Cotton Textile Production in Colonial India
  • Indian Industrialization under British Rule—Tata and Tagore
  • Egyptian Economic Development under Muhammad Ali
  • Early Industrialization in China
  • Japan—Industrialization during the Meiji Period
  • Industrialization in Latin America before 1914
  • Mines and Mining in Africa
  • International Trade
  • World Trade—A Statistical Overview
  • The First Great Depression, 1873–1896
  • Suppression of the African Slave Trade
  • Trade and Commerce in Southeast Asia
  • The Macartney Mission/Embassy to China
  • Opium War and Trade with China
  • Western Traders and the Opening of China
  • Thinking about Trade—Free Trade and Protectionism
  • Latin America's Export Boom in the Late Nineteenth Century
  • The Global Diamond Trade
  • Money and Banking
  • English Banks in the Era of the Industrial Revolution
  • Investment Banks
  • Joint Stock Banks
  • Gold Standard
  • Money Supply
  • Bimetallic Monetary System
  • Banks and Banking in the Middle East
  • Labor in Industrial Societies
  • Luddites
  • Conditions of Labor in England's Early Industrial Revolution
  • Child Labor and Child Labor Laws in Early Industrial Great Britain
  • Factory Acts
  • Trade Unions
  • Industrial Unions in the United States
  • The Labor Movement in Australia and New Zealand
  • Labor Management Clashes from 1870 to 1914
  • Cooperatives
  • Systems of Forced Labor—Slavery and Indentured Servitude
  • Slavery in the Thirteen Colonies
  • Slavery in the Caribbean
  • Slavery in Brazil
  • Slavery in the United States
  • Slavery in Pre-Colonial African Societies
  • Slavery in the Middle East
  • The Decline in the West African Slave Trade
  • Indian Indentured Servitude— India, Africa, Caribbean, Southeast Asia
  • Labor Recruitment in Nineteenth-Century Oceania
  • Consumerism
  • Consumerism in Africa
  • Consumerism in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan
  • Consumerism in North America and Europe
  • Development of the Department Store
  • Mail Order Merchandising— The Sears Catalog
  • The Advertising Industry
  • Kleptomania
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Planning and Organizing for War in Western Societies
  • European Armies in the Old Regime
  • European Navies in the Old Regime
  • The "Nation in Arms"— The French Army and the French Revolution
  • Recruitment and Conscription
  • Europe's Arms Race before World War I
  • Naval Strategy in Europe, 1750–1800
  • Theories of Land Warfare, 1750–1789
  • Napoleon as a Military Strategist
  • Admiral Nelson and the New Naval Warfare
  • Nineteenth-Century Military Theory—Clausewitz and de Jomini
  • Mahan and the Role of Sea Power
  • Military Academies and Military Professionalism in Europe and the United States
  • Triple Alliance
  • Triple Entente
  • War and Warfare in Europe
  • Seven Years' War, 1756–1763
  • French Revolutionary Wars, 1792–1802
  • Napoleonic Wars, 1803–1815
  • The Crimean War
  • Franco-Prussian War
  • War Memorials in Nineteenth-Century Europe
  • War and Warfare in Africa
  • African Armies, 1750–1900
  • Military Changes in South Africa during the Early Nineteenth Century
  • Colonial Armies in Africa
  • Ethiopia's Army under Menelik
  • Cape Frontier Wars
  • The Wars of Shaka
  • Ashanti Wars
  • French Conquest of Algeria, 1830–1857
  • French Wars of Conquest in West Africa
  • Italian-Ethiopian War
  • British Conquest of the Sudan
  • The Boer War
  • Barbary Wars
  • War and Warfare in South, Central and Southwest Asia
  • Indian Armies under Colonial Rule
  • Ottoman Military Reforms in the Reigns of Selim III and Mahmud II
  • Anglo-French Wars in South Asia
  • Anglo-Mysore Wars
  • Maratha Wars
  • Sikh Wars (1845–1846, 1848–1849)
  • Anglo-Burmese Wars in the Nineteenth Century
  • Russian-Ottoman Wars of the Late Eighteenth Century, 1768–1792
  • Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878
  • Afghan Wars (1838–1842, 1878–1880)
  • War and Warfare in East and Southeast Asia
  • Chinese Military in the Late Qing Era, circa 1750–1820s
  • Military Modernization in the Late Qing Era
  • Meiji Japan's New Army and Navy
  • Chinese Wars in Mongolia, Tibet, Nepal, and Burma
  • The Opium War (1839–1842)
  • Guangzhon Arrow War
  • The French Conquest of Vietnam
  • Sino-French War, 1884–1885
  • Sino-Japanese War, 1894–1895
  • Java War
  • Aceh Wars
  • War and Warfare in the Americas
  • American-Indian Wars, 1750–1914
  • French and Indian War
  • American Revolution—Military Campaigns
  • War of 1812
  • American Civil War
  • Photography in the American Civil War
  • The Spanish-American War
  • The Mexican War
  • The War of the Triple Alliance
  • War of the Pacific
  • International Cooperation, Pacifism, and Peace Movements
  • Congress of Vienna
  • Holy Alliance and the Concert of Europe
  • The Hague Peace Conferences of 1899 and 1907
  • Pacifism and Pacifist Movements
  • The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
  • The Nobel Peace Prize—Establishment and Early Winners
  • Gandhi and the Philosophy of Non-Violence
  • Thought and Religion
  • Islam
  • Origins and Early History of Wahhabism
  • The Baha'i Faith
  • Islamic Modernism
  • Jihads in the Western Sudan
  • The Mahdiyya Movement in Sudan
  • The Aligarh Movement
  • The Faraizi Movement
  • Native Religions in Africa, the Americas, and Oceania
  • Xhosa Cattle-Killing Episode
  • The Maji Maji Movement
  • The Religious Vision of Tenskwatawa, the Shawnee Prophet
  • Wovoka and the Ghost Dance Movement
  • Prophetic Leaders among the Maori
  • Judaism in the Age of Emancipation
  • Origins and Spread of Hasidism
  • Reform Judaism in the Nineteenth Century
  • Orthodox Judaism
  • Anti-Semitism
  • Motives of Jewish Migration
  • Zionism
  • Jews under Ottoman Rule
  • Judaism in the United States
  • Christianity
  • The Enlightenment's Critique of Religion
  • Methodism
  • The Religion of Reason in Revolutionary France
  • The Established Churches in Nineteenth-Century Europe
  • Catholic Cults of Miracles in France, Italy, and Spain
  • Catholic Responses to Modernity—Pius IX, the Syllabus of Errors and the Vatican Council of 1870
  • Catholic Responses to Science and Industrialization—Leo XIII and Rerum Novarum
  • Dutch Reformed Christianity and Afrikaner Identity in South Africa
  • Mormonism—Founding and Early History
  • Muscular Christianity
  • Young Men's Christian Association
  • The Second Great Awakening
  • Social Gospel
  • Christian Missionary Endeavors in Africa and Asia
  • Protestant Missions in Africa
  • Theological Debates in Ethiopian Christianity
  • Christian Missionary Efforts in India under Company Rule—Late 1700s to Mid-1800s
  • Christian Missions in Nineteenth-Century China
  • Christian Missions in New Zealand and Australia
  • Christian Missions in the Pacific Islands
  • Thought and Religion in South and East Asia
  • The Brahmo Samaj Movement
  • Nineteenth-Century Hindu Reformers
  • Kang Yuwei and the New Text Movement in China
  • Confucian Scholars Confront the West—Kang Yuwei and Liang Qichao
  • The End of Official Confucianism
  • Japanese Influence on China, 1890s–1914
  • Dutch Learning in Japan
  • The National Learning Movement
  • Late Tokugawa Confucianism
  • Late Tokugawa Shintoism
  • Shintoism during the Meiji Period
  • Trends in European Thought
  • Romanticism
  • Positivism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Darwinism and Religion
  • Theories of Race
  • Racism—Theory and Practice in the United States
  • Late-Nineteenth-Century Irrationalism
  • Freud and Freudianism
  • Beginnings of Anthropology
  • Origins of Sociology
  • The Study of History
  • Science and Technology
  • Technology and Industry
  • Innovations in Textile Manufacturing—Eighteenth Century
  • Steel
  • Industrial Chemistry
  • Paper
  • Printing and Publishing
  • Internal Combustion Engine, 1798–1897
  • Electricity and Its Uses
  • Hydroelectric Power
  • Rubber
  • Technologies to Communicate and Record
  • Invention of the Telegraph
  • World Telegraphy, 1850–1914
  • The Phonograph
  • The Telephone and Its Usage before World War I
  • The Wireless
  • Photography
  • Cinema
  • Technology and Transportation
  • The Development of the Railroad
  • Europe's Railway Network by World War I
  • Early Railways in India
  • Railways in Africa
  • Railways in Russia
  • Railways in North America
  • Railways in Latin America
  • New Ships for Ocean Travel
  • Canal Building in Asia
  • Canal Building in Europe
  • North American Canals of the 1800s
  • Canal Building—The Suez Canal
  • Canal Building—Panama Canal
  • Human Flight—From Hot Air Balloons to Kitty Hawk
  • Technology and Weapons
  • Semaphore System (Télegraphique) during the French Revolution
  • The Development of the Submarine
  • European Navies in an Age of Steam and Steel
  • Firearms
  • Artillery in the Nineteenth Century
  • The Machine Gun
  • Land Mines
  • Barbed Wire
  • The Armament Makers—Krupp, Skoda, and Schneider-Creusot
  • Dreadnoughts
  • Science and Scientific Activity, 1750–1820
  • Science in China in the Eighteenth Century
  • Scientific Academies in Europe
  • European Advances in Chemistry
  • Biology in the Age of Reason
  • Scientific and Technical Education under Napoleon
  • Europe's "Second Scientific Revolution"
  • The New Physics—The Curies, Rutherford, Maxwell, Planck, and Einstein1
  • Biology
  • Theories of Evolution before Darwin
  • Darwinism
  • Mathematics
  • Scientific and Technological Education
  • Technical Schools
  • Engineers as a New Professional Group
  • Scientific and Technological Education in Meiji Japan
  • Medicine
  • Colonialism and Public Health
  • Modern Surgery
  • The Rise of Pathological Anatomy
  • The Germ Theory of Disease
  • Cell Theory and Cellular Pathology
  • ERA 8: Crisis and Achievement, 1900-1945
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Environmental Events
  • Agriculture and Environment
  • Forced Collectivization of Agriculture
  • Agricultural Technology and the Environment
  • Dust Bowl and the Americas
  • Industrialization and Natural Resources
  • Industrial and Water Pollution
  • Industrial Landscapes—Rapid Industrialization in the Soviet Union and Its Impact on the Environment
  • Deforestation
  • Impact of Fossil Fuel Extraction and Use
  • Societal Responses to Environmental Pressures
  • Conservation and Preservation
  • Development of Ecology as Discipline and Impact on Political Thought
  • Water Management in the Americas
  • Urbanization and Suburbanization
  • Health and Sanitation
  • Brazilian Environmentalism
  • Warfare, Population, and Environment
  • Impact of War on the Environment
  • Interwar Global Depopulation
  • Total War and Population—Civilian Deaths in World War II
  • Restoring the Landscape— Clearing Up Battlefield Damage
  • National Socialism and Environmentalism
  • Society and Culture
  • Class and Gender
  • The Middle Class
  • Women in Central Asia
  • Women's Rights
  • Chinese Women—The End of the Qing Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century
  • Women's Roles in Developing Nations
  • Women's Roles in Developed Nations
  • Feminism in the Middle East
  • Masculinities
  • Femininity
  • Homosexuality
  • Birth Control and the Birth Control Movement
  • Cosmetics and Shifting Beauty Ideals
  • Cultural Shapers
  • Alcohol and Other Drugs
  • The Phonograph as Cultural Shaper
  • Creation of Mass Culture
  • Mass Culture, Advertising, and Propaganda
  • Radio, Shaper of Culture
  • Disease and Society— The Influenza Pandemics
  • Impact of Modernization on the Family
  • Colonialism in Shaping Society and Culture
  • Colonialism in Africa
  • African Cities in the Age of Colonialism
  • Colonialism in Africa South of the Sahara
  • Literacy in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Colonialism in Africa North of the Sahara
  • Colonialism in the Middle East
  • Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia— Cultural Aspects
  • Imperialism
  • Japanese Imperialism
  • Belgian Imperialism
  • British Imperialism
  • French Imperialism
  • German Imperialism
  • Nationalism in Shaping Society and Culture
  • Pan-Africanism
  • Arab Nationalism
  • Indian Nationalism
  • Chinese Nationalism
  • Japanese Nationalism
  • Vietnamese Nationalism
  • Latin American Nationalism
  • Pan-Slavism
  • Indonesian Nationalism
  • Workforce and Workplace
  • PostWorld War I Growth in White-Collar Labor
  • Unionism
  • Industrialization and the Working Class
  • Domestic Work Forces during Wartime
  • Workplace Safety in the United States
  • Changing Societal and Cultural Roles for Women in the Workforce
  • Forced Labor
  • Social Upheavls and Social Change
  • Nonviolent Resistance
  • May Fourth Movement
  • Quit India Movement
  • Literature
  • Negritude
  • Japanese Literature as a Reflection of Conflict
  • Latin American Literature
  • Stream of Consciousness
  • Imagism
  • Literature as a Voice of Protest in the United States
  • Literature as a Voice of Protest in Europe
  • Literature as a Vehicle for Nationalist Movements
  • Visual Arts
  • African Visual Arts
  • Asian Visual Art
  • Dada
  • Surrealism
  • Abstract Art
  • Muralism
  • Social Realism in Visual Arts
  • The Bauhaus School
  • Modernism in the Visual Arts
  • Art Nouveau
  • American Domestic Architecture
  • Toward Functionalism
  • Performing Arts
  • Atonal Musical Theory
  • Music and Nationalism
  • Expressionism in the Performing Arts
  • The Jazz Age
  • Blues
  • Radio Entertainment
  • Hollywood
  • Early Non-European Film Industries
  • Film Industry in Europe
  • Migration and Travel
  • Urbanization
  • Trends toward Urbanization in Africa
  • Trends toward Urbanization: Asia and Oceania
  • Trends toward Urbanization: Europe
  • Trends toward Urbanization in the Americas
  • International Migration
  • Migration from Africa to Europe and the United States
  • Migrations from Asia
  • Migration from Europe
  • Migration to Europe
  • Migration to Latin America
  • Migration to North America
  • Migration to Oceania
  • Jewish Diaspora
  • Domestic Migrations
  • Migration in Africa
  • Migrations within Asia
  • Migrations within Europe
  • Domestic Migrations within the Americas
  • The Great Migration—African American Migration within the United States
  • Ethnic and Forced Migrations
  • Bonded Labor
  • Forced Migrations in the Soviet Union
  • Ethnic and Forced Migrations: Jews
  • Refugees as a Phenomenon
  • Travel and Technology
  • Flight
  • The Automobile to 1945
  • The Panama Canal
  • Needs of Urbanization
  • Railroads
  • Petroleum
  • The Economics of European Travel
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • Imperialism
  • Imperialism in East Asia
  • Imperialism in Western Europe
  • Imperialism in the Soviet Union
  • Imperialism in South Asia
  • Direct Rule
  • Indirect Rule
  • Socialism
  • Socialism in Africa
  • Socialism in South Asia (British India)
  • Socialism in East Asia
  • Socialist Movements in Southeast Asia
  • Socialism in Western Europe
  • Socialism in Latin America
  • Socialism in the United States and Canada
  • Fascism
  • The Ideology of Fascism
  • Fascism in Germany
  • Fascism in Italy
  • Fascism in Japan
  • Fascism Movements in Eastern Europe
  • Fascism in Portugal
  • Fascism in Spain
  • Fascism in Latin America
  • Revolution and Rebellion
  • The Arab Revolt (1916)
  • The Ashanti Rebellion (1900-1901)
  • The Chinese Revolution (1911-1912)
  • The German Revolution (1918-1919)
  • The Guatemalan Revolution (1944)
  • Herero-Nama Uprising (1904-1907)
  • The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
  • The Palestine Revolt (1936-1939)
  • The Russian Revolution (1905)
  • The Russian Revolution (1917)
  • Collapse of Empires
  • Collapse of the Ottoman Empire
  • Collapse of the Chinese Empire
  • Collapse of the Japanese Empire
  • The Collapse of the Tsarist Russian Empire
  • The Collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Collapse of the German Empire
  • The Mandate System
  • Role of the League of Nations in the Mandate System
  • British Mandates
  • French Mandates: Syria and Lebanon
  • British Mandate: Palestine
  • Political Transformation in Africa, Asia, and Oceania
  • Political Transformation in Southern Africa
  • Political Transformation in West Africa
  • Political Transformation in East Africa
  • Political Transformation in North Africa
  • Political Transformation in China
  • Political Transformation in Japan
  • Political Transformation in South Asia
  • Political Transformation in Southeast Asia
  • Political Transformation in Oceania
  • Political Transformation in Europe and the Americas
  • The Weimar Republic (1918-1933)
  • Big Government and Big Business in the United States
  • Populism in Latin America
  • Authoritarianism in Latin America
  • Progressivism
  • Proactive National Government in the United States
  • The New Deal
  • Women and Politics
  • National Policy
  • U.S. Interventionism
  • Isolationism
  • Appeasement
  • Expansionism
  • Women's Suffrage
  • Creation of the Welfare State
  • Official and Nationalistic Art
  • Official and Nationalistic Art in Africa
  • Official and Nationalistic Art in Asia
  • Official and Nationalistic Art in Europe
  • Economics and Trade
  • A Global Economy
  • Keynesianism
  • Economic Colonialism
  • Monopolies and Oligopolies
  • War Reparations
  • The Great Depression
  • Causes of the Great Depression
  • The Great Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa
  • The Great Depression in Southeast Asia
  • The Great Depression in the Soviet Union
  • The Great Depression in Western Europe
  • The Great Depression in Latin America
  • The Great Depression in the United States
  • Half Century of Global Economic Change
  • Economic Change in the Developing World
  • Economic Change in the Industrialized World
  • The Role of Gender in Sub-Sahara n Economic Activity
  • Japanese Militarism and Industrialization
  • The Importance of Colonial Raw Materials
  • The Great War and Industrial Production in Europe
  • German Precision Production versus U.S. Mass Production
  • Soviet Production and World War II
  • Socialism
  • New Economic Policy
  • Soviet Five-Year Plans
  • War Communism
  • Building Socialism
  • Stakhanovite Movement
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Revolutions
  • The Young Turks
  • The Bolshevik Revolution
  • Eire—The Republic of Ireland
  • The Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
  • International Conflict
  • Balkan Wars (1912-1913)
  • The Chaco War (1932-1935)
  • Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945)
  • The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
  • The First World War
  • The Outbreak of World War I
  • Leadership of the Great Powers in 1914
  • Men, Munitions, and Supply
  • American Neutrality
  • World War I—In the Trenches
  • Major Battles of World War I
  • World War I —Propaganda and Espionage
  • Armistice
  • World War I—Paris Peace Conference
  • Consequences of World War I
  • The Second World War
  • Causes of World War II
  • Pacific Theater/Fronts
  • Mediterranean Theater and Fronts
  • European Theater and Fronts— World War II
  • Domestic Fronts—Nazi Germany
  • Domestic Fronts—Nazi-Occupied Europe and Satellites
  • Domestic Fronts—Japan and the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
  • Domestic Fronts—China
  • Domestic Fronts—Allies: Soviet Union
  • Domestic Fronts—Allies: The United States and the United Kingdom
  • Consequences of World War II
  • Formation of the United Nations
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • The Holocaust and World War II
  • Nationalist Movements and Conflict
  • Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire
  • Palestine
  • Nationalist Movements in India
  • Nationalism in Burma
  • Nationalism in French Indochina
  • Nationalism in China
  • Nationalism in German East Africa
  • The Khaksar Movement
  • Sports and Statecraft in the Early Twentieth Century
  • Export of English Football
  • Introduction of American Baseball to Foreign Countries
  • The Olympic Movement
  • Exports of Sports to Colonial Possessions
  • Ethnic Conflict and Genocide
  • Ideology of Genocide
  • Armenian Genocide
  • Persecution and Genocide of Jews in Europe
  • Political Famines
  • Pogroms in Russia
  • Peace and Stability
  • Locarno Pact
  • Naval Conferences
  • League of Nations
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact
  • Global Economic Motivations for Peace
  • World Disarmament Conference
  • Peace Movement
  • Atrocities of Modern Warfare
  • Soviet War Crimes
  • Confinement of Enemy Aliens during Times of Domestic Crisis
  • Chemical and Biological Warfare
  • The Holocaust
  • Nazi War Crimes
  • Targeting Civilian Populations in World War II
  • Thought and Religion
  • Nationalism as an Intellectual Current
  • Nationalism in Africa
  • Nationalism in Southern and Eastern Asia
  • Nationalism in Latin America
  • Nationalism in Europe
  • Socialism
  • Socialism in China
  • Socialism in Indochina
  • Socialism in Russia and the Soviet Union
  • Socialism in Western Europe
  • Traditionalism versus Modernism
  • Traditionalism and Modernism in Africa
  • Traditionalism versus Modernism in East Asia
  • Traditionalism versus Modernism in Europe
  • Traditionalism versus Modernism in the Americas
  • Religion
  • Diasporic African Religions
  • Christianity in Africa
  • The Global Reach of Islam
  • Spread of Asian Religions
  • Soviet Atheism
  • Christianity in Oceania
  • Indigenization of Christianity
  • Global Spread of Protestantism
  • Christian Ecumenical Movement
  • Political and Sociopolitical Ideologies and Systems
  • Imperialism and Ideology
  • Liberalism
  • Marxism
  • Conservatism
  • Monarchism
  • Republicanism
  • Xenophobia
  • Social Democracy
  • Zionism
  • The Welfare State
  • Social and Behavioral Sciences
  • Anthropology
  • Sociology
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Behaviorism
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Industrial Psychology
  • Pragmatism
  • Existentialism
  • Science and Technology
  • Manufacturing, Industrialization, and Urbanization
  • The Assembly Line
  • Efficiency Studies—The Hawthorne Plant Experiments
  • Skyscrapers
  • Electrification
  • Biomedical Advances
  • Radiology
  • Antibiotics
  • Chemotherapy
  • Blood Transfusion and Blood Banking
  • Insulin
  • Yellow Fever
  • Anesthesia
  • Advances in Neurosurgery
  • Surgical Advances
  • Age of Invention
  • Nylon
  • The Computer
  • Intelligence Testing
  • Mechanical Refrigeration
  • Television
  • Warfare and Technology
  • Machine Gun
  • The Submarine
  • Aircraft in War
  • Poison Gas
  • Tanks
  • Radio Direction and Ranging (RADAR)
  • Aircraft Carriers
  • Electronic Intelligence
  • Electronic Communications
  • Missile
  • Atomic Bomb
  • Communication
  • Radio
  • Commercial Radio Broadcasts
  • Film Technology
  • Television Broadcasting
  • Agricultural and Animal Sciences
  • Advances in Agriculture— Staple Crops
  • Advances in Agriculture—Cotton
  • Advances in Agriculture— Sugarcane
  • Advances in Veterinary Medicine
  • Animal Rights Movement
  • Scientific Theories
  • Quantum Theory
  • Relativity
  • Atomic Structure
  • Uncertainty Principle
  • Continental Drift
  • Eugenics
  • The Big Bang
  • ERA 9: Promises and Paradoxes, 1945–Present
  • Introduction
  • Environment and Population
  • Environmental Challenges
  • Global Warming—Scientific Consensus and Debates
  • The Debate over Tropical Cyclones and Global Warming
  • Desertification since 1945
  • Global Deforestation since 1945
  • Industrial Pollution since 1945
  • Toxic Waste
  • Dams—Aswan in Egypt and Three Gorges in China
  • Salinization of Water Supplies and Land
  • Ocean Pollution since 1945
  • Invasive Species, 1945-Present
  • Endangered Species, 1945 to Present
  • Environmentalism in Thought and Practice
  • Environmentalism and Green Movements
  • Philosophy of Nature
  • Rachel Carson's Silent Spring
  • Animal Rights
  • Environmentalism in Literature and the Arts
  • International Environmental Law and Agencies
  • Sustainable Development
  • Alternative Energy—Water, Wind, Solar, and Bio
  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Industrial Ecology
  • Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Automobiles
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Feeding the World – Agriculture, Livestock, and Fishing
  • Agribusiness and Factory Farms
  • Soil and Agricultural Sustainability
  • The Green Revolution
  • Genetic Modification of Seed
  • Cattle
  • Growth of Fishing Fleets and Destruction of Fishing Stock
  • Whaling Industry and Opposition
  • Resource Industries
  • Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas
  • Strip Mining
  • Global Nuclear Power Industry
  • Global Water Crisis
  • Land Use and Population
  • Geography of Population
  • Population Pressure Problems
  • Population and Famines since 1945
  • Global Responses to Population Explosion
  • Suburbanization since 1945
  • Urbanization since 1945
  • Urban Renewal, Post-1945
  • Megacities
  • Garbage
  • Society and Culture
  • Social Class Dynamics since 1945
  • Rise of Mass Education, Literacy, and the University
  • Class and Society in the Postwar United States
  • The War on Poverty
  • Class Structure in Post-Soviet Russia, Eastern Europe, and Central Asia
  • Changing Class Structure in Post-Maoist China
  • Class and Caste in India since 1945
  • Class Structure in Latin America, 1945-Present
  • Class Structure in Western Europe, Post-1945
  • Gender and Sexuality
  • Feminism in Global Perspective
  • Second Wave Feminism in Europe and the United States
  • Men's Movement
  • "Makeover" Men — Bodybuilding and Masculinity
  • Comic Books and Masculinity
  • Women in Islamic Societies, Post-1945
  • Transgender
  • Postwar Changes in Sexual Mores in the United States
  • History of Gay/Lesbian Rights Movement
  • Families and Family Planning
  • Structural Shifts in U.S. Families since 1945
  • Family Planning in India since 1945
  • Family Planning in China since 1945
  • The Abortion Issue
  • Birth Control, 1945 to Present
  • Gay Marriage Controversy
  • Cold War Culture
  • Consumerism and Mass Culture (and Critiques), 1945-Present
  • Anticommunism in the West
  • Anti-Americanism
  • Cold War Nuclear Anxieties
  • Consumerism
  • Advertising
  • Big Box Stores
  • Shopping Malls
  • The Cosmetics Industry and Shifting Beauty Ideals, 1945-Present
  • Youth Culture and Global "Cool"
  • Body Modification
  • Electronic Developments and Entertainment
  • Disneyland and Global Theme Parks
  • Music and Social Change
  • Electronic Instruments and Recording Media
  • Cold War Jazz
  • A History of Rock and Roll, 1945-Present
  • Latin American-Caribbean Music and Dance, 1945-Present
  • Sub-Saharan Music, Post-1945
  • The Growth of Sports around the World, 1945-Present
  • Sports and Politics, 1945-Present
  • Olympics and Politics since 1945
  • Sports, Drugs, and Money
  • Global Soccer, 1945-Present
  • Globalization of Basketball
  • NASCAR
  • Film and Television since 1945
  • World Film, Post-1945
  • Cold War Ideology in U.S. Films—Westerns, Thrillers, and Containment Culture
  • Popular Indian Cinema
  • Television and Its Impact on International Culture
  • Sports and Television
  • The Latin American Soap Opera
  • Visual Arts and Architecture
  • Global Art since 1945
  • Postcolonialism and African Art
  • Soviet and Post-Soviet Art
  • Art in China, Post-Mao
  • Modernist Architecture after 1945
  • Postmodernism in Architecture
  • Literature and Theater
  • Theater of the Absurd
  • Postcolonial Literary Criticism
  • Science Fiction and the Apocalyptic Imagination
  • Magic Realism
  • Feminist Literature
  • Literature in the Soviet Bloc, 1945–1990
  • Modern Islamic Utopian Literature
  • Political Theater since 1945
  • Food
  • The Spread of Frozen Foods
  • Globalization of Fast Food
  • Global Spread of Ethnic Restaurants
  • Supermarkets
  • Organic Foods Movement and Vegetarianism
  • Migration and Travel
  • Transportation and Trade
  • Cargo Container Shipping
  • Supertankers
  • Airline Industry
  • The Global Automobile Industry, Post-1945
  • Global Trucking—The Sources of Differing Industry Characteristics
  • The Modern Silk Roads
  • Global Tourism
  • Tourism and Postcolonialism
  • Automobile Culture
  • Heritage Tourism
  • Sex Tourism
  • Cruise Ship Industry from 1945
  • Global Migrations, Transnational Diasporas, and Responses
  • Latin America and Migration, 1945-Present
  • U.S. Immigration Policy, 1945-Present
  • Migrations to Oceania since 1945
  • Political Refugees—Africa and Asia, Post-1945
  • Political Refugees—Europe, Post-1945
  • Political Refugees—Americas, Post-1945
  • Refugees from Ecological Disasters
  • Guest Worker Programs and Migration—Western Europe and the Middle East
  • Guest Worker Programs and Migration—Asia
  • Guest Worker Programs and Authorized Migrations—Americas
  • International Exchange of Students in Higher Education
  • Chinese Diaspora since 1945
  • Immigration to Israel, 1948–2008
  • Illegal Immigration, 1945-Present
  • Global Anti-Immigration Movements
  • Immigration Laws
  • Border Controls
  • Immigrants' Rights Advocacy, 1945-Present
  • Politics and Statecraft
  • International Institutions and Laws
  • United Nations
  • NATO, SEATO, and CENTO
  • Warsaw Pact
  • The African Union
  • Arab League
  • Group of Eight (G8)
  • Introduction to International Law
  • Nuremberg Trials
  • World Courts—The International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court
  • Decolonization
  • British Decolonization
  • French Decolonization
  • Decolonization—Portugal
  • Dutch Decolonization
  • The Collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Neocolonialism
  • World-Systems Theory
  • Neocolonialism in Africa
  • Neocolonialism in the Middle East
  • Neocolonialism in East Asia
  • Neocolonialism in Central Asia
  • Neocolonialism in Latin America
  • Creation of New States
  • Tito's Yugoslavia
  • Post-Soviet Eastern Europe
  • Post-Soviet Central Asia
  • Post-Cold War East Asia
  • The Creation of Israel and the Reconfigured Middle East, 1945–1949
  • The Caribbean and Postcolonialism
  • The European Union as a Supranational State
  • Human Rights Mobilization
  • Human Rights Treaties and Covenants since 1945
  • The Growth of International Aid Groups
  • The U.S. Civil Rights Movement
  • Student Protest Movements, 1945–1960
  • Civil Disobedience Movements in Eastern Europe against Communism
  • Apartheid
  • Antiapartheid Movements
  • Affirmative Action in Global Comparative Perspective
  • The World Health Organization
  • Disabled Rights
  • Torture in Contemporary History
  • Indigenous Groups and Sovereignty
  • Indigenous Peoples of North America, Post-1945
  • Indigenous Peoples in Latin America, since 1945
  • Indigenous Groups of Oceania since 1945
  • Nomadic Peoples and Modern States
  • Indigenous People of the Caribbean since 1945
  • Indigenous Peoples of Arctic Regions since 1945
  • The United States in the World
  • United States Foreign Policy, 1945–1962
  • United States Foreign Policy, 1962–1989
  • United States Foreign Policy, 1989-Present
  • Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics
  • The Stalin Era
  • Khrushchev Era, 1953–1964
  • Leonid Brezhnev and His Era
  • Octogenarian Era
  • Mikhail Gorbachev Era
  • Post-Gorbachev Era
  • Russo-Georgian War of 2008
  • China in the World, 1945-Present
  • China in the World, 1945–1949
  • China in the World, 1949–1971
  • China in the World, 1972-Present
  • Economics and Trade
  • Globalization
  • Antiglobalization Movements
  • Post-World War II European Economic Revival
  • European Union
  • The Rise of the Multinational Corporation
  • Japanese Economic Miracle
  • World Bank
  • Postindustrial Society in the West
  • Development Gap—The North and the South
  • Economic Policy since 1945
  • Bretton Woods Agreement
  • Gold Standard
  • Keynesianism
  • Command Economies
  • The Emergence of the Welfare State in Europe
  • Neoliberalism
  • Trade
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • Mercosur (Mercado Común del Sur)
  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  • World Trade Organization
  • Tariffs and Dumping
  • Electronic Banking
  • Online Trading
  • Labor
  • Gender Integration and Global Labor since 1945
  • Labor Unions since 1945
  • U.S. Labor Unions, Postindustrial Era
  • Modern Slavery
  • Sweatshops
  • Industrial Safety and Labor, 1945-Present
  • Age of Outsourcing
  • Oil Economics
  • Oil Demand since 1945
  • Oil Fields Globally
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
  • Oil Fuels in Latin America
  • Shadow Economies
  • Crime Organizations since 1945
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Intellectual Property, 1945-Present
  • Maritime Piracy since 1945
  • Black Markets and Contraband Trade
  • War and Diplomacy
  • Cold War Conflicts
  • Communist Insurgencies
  • Cold War in the Middle East
  • Cold War in South Asia
  • The Cold War in East Asia
  • Cold War in Latin America
  • The Korean War, 1950–1953
  • South Vietnam and the Cold War
  • Afghan Wars
  • The Berlin Wall, 1961–1989
  • Regional Conflicts
  • Nationalist Movements since 1945
  • Regional Conflict in Africa, 1945-Present
  • African Colonial Wars
  • Middle Eastern and Gulf Wars
  • Algerian War for Independence (1954–1962)
  • North Yemen's Civil War (1962–1970)
  • Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990)
  • Iraq-Iran War (1980–1988)
  • Gulf Wars (1991, 2003-)
  • Algerian Wars of Liberation
  • Arab-Israeli Conflict
  • Middle East Peace Process
  • India and Pakistan since Partition
  • Sino-Soviet Conflict, 1956–1989
  • China-India Conflict
  • China-Taiwan Conflict
  • Falkland Islands War (1982)
  • Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide
  • Indonesian Ethnic Conflicts
  • Rwanda
  • Sudanese and Congolese Civil Wars
  • Ethnic and Genocidal Wars in Africa
  • Ethnic Cleansing in Europe—Yugoslavia
  • Nativist Revivals
  • Terrorism
  • State Terrorism
  • Islamic Radical Terrorism
  • Hizbullah
  • The Muslim Brotherhood
  • The Palestine Liberation Organization
  • U.S. Domestic Terrorism
  • Basque Terrorists
  • European Terrorists—Red Brigades, Red Army Faction, and the Irish Republican Army
  • Militarization and Peace Movements
  • Military-Industrial Complex
  • The Globalization of the Defense Industry
  • The National Security State
  • Military and Corporate Patronage at Universities
  • Pacifist Movements—Japan and Costa Rica
  • Pacifism and Anti-Vietnam Protests
  • Antinuclear Weaponry Movement
  • Antiwar in Art, Literature, and Film
  • War Memorials since 1945
  • Thought and Religion
  • Major World Religions
  • Hinduism since 1945
  • Buddhism since 1945
  • Islam since 1945
  • Catholicism since 1945
  • Eastern Orthodoxy since 1945
  • Protestantism, 1945-Present
  • Judaism since 1945
  • Modern Religious Trends
  • Globalization of World Religions
  • Secularism
  • Atheism
  • Religion, Secularism, and Postcolonial Politics
  • Christianity Moves to the Developing World
  • Acceleration of Fundamentalism
  • Christian Fundamentalism
  • Wahabism
  • Hindu Fundamentalism
  • Religious Broadcasting
  • Mormonism since 1945
  • Jehovah's Witnesses
  • Consumerism and Christianity in the United States
  • Counterculture Christianity
  • New Religions and Archaic Revivals
  • New Religious Movements
  • New Age Religions
  • Kejawen—Religious Resistance on Java
  • Global Ashrams
  • Religion and the Arts since 1945
  • The Black Muslims
  • Age of Ideology
  • Cold War Ideology
  • Modern Liberalism
  • Neoconservativism
  • Communist Ideology—Third World Revolution
  • Zionism, Post-1945
  • Anti-Zionism
  • Public Memory of Postdictatorial Societies
  • Conspiracy Theories in the United States
  • Theology and Thought
  • Developments in Philosophy since 1945
  • Existentialism
  • Epistemology
  • Neo-Orthodoxy Theology
  • Apocalyptic Expectations—Roots and Legacy
  • Liberation Theology
  • Structuralism and Post-Structuralism
  • Postmodernism and Deconstruction
  • Feminism, 1945-Present
  • Queer Theory
  • Modern Psychology—The Post-Freudian Landscape
  • Public Intellectuals on Democracy
  • Science and Technology
  • Scientific Developments
  • Particle Physics
  • Grand Unified Theory in Physics
  • Cosmology—The Big Bang, Inflation, and the Dark Universe
  • Chaos Theory
  • Information as a New Paradigm
  • Plate Tectonics
  • Discovery of DNA
  • Human Genome Project
  • Cold War, Science, and Space
  • International Geophysical Year, 1957–1958
  • The Hydrogen Bomb and the Politics of Fallout
  • Nuclear Weapons Strategy
  • Atomic Power and the World's Navies
  • Big Science through the Cold War
  • Biology in China since 1945
  • The Age of Space and the Rise of Rocketry
  • Manned Spaceflight
  • Space Probes
  • The Hubble Space Telescope and Science in Space
  • Cyclotrons
  • Nuclear Reactors
  • Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Nuclear Plant Disasters
  • The Pursuit of Fusion Power
  • Medicine and Health Care
  • Globalization of Medical Science
  • Globalization of Disease
  • The World Health Organization and Epidemics
  • Pharmaceutical Advances since 1945
  • Genetic Engineering and Its Applications, Post-1945
  • Surgical Advances, 1945-Present
  • Folk Medicine since 1945
  • AIDS and Poverty
  • National Health Care Systems since 1945
  • Technology, Post-1945
  • Integrated Circuits
  • Computers
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Internet
  • Advances in Biotechnology
  • Nanotechnology
  • Industrial Robots
  • Science, Technology, and Culture
  • Critiques of the Idea of Progress
  • Science Wars
  • Imperialist Anthropology Examined
  • Gender, Science, and Technology
  • Bioethic Debates
  • Computer's Social Impact
  • Brave New World — Transhumanism, Prosthesis, and Enhancement Debates
  • Technology and Religion, 1945-Present
  • Science and Religion, 1945-Present
  • Science in the Arts since 1945